Develop Charisma and Become More Likable
The shuttle has three liquid-fueled SSMEs, and the description of the attributes of just one of these fills me with admiration for the engineers who have transformed the concept into reality The combustion chamber operates routinely at a temperature of around 3300 C, which is approximately twice the melting point of steel. To get the high exhaust velocity, the combustion chamber pressure is equivalent to about 200 times atmospheric pressure. With this magnitude of pressure, the propellant feed system has to be substantial to be able to push the fuel and oxidizer into the chamber against that pressure. The turbopumps that perform this function rotate at about 37,000 rpm to provide chamber inlet pressures of 305 atmospheres for the liquid oxygen and 420 atmospheres for the liquid hydrogen, with a total fuel flow rate of 470 kg sec nearly half a metric tonne a second The resulting thrust level is around 2 MN, with a nozzle exhaust velocity of roughly 4500 m sec (14,800 feet sec).
There can be no doubt about it in their own way, ants are geniuses. They take advantage of whatever they can use to colonize their habitat and increase their empire if need be, they even demonstrate an astonishing sense of innovation. Just as the attines invented agriculture, Formica lugubris or some species of Lasius were into the raising of livestock long before our own era. However, despite the admiration we may feel for their behaviours and ingenuity, ants are not unmitigated paragons of virtue. They can also become nuisances, cause harm, or turn into actual pests, for instance when they invade new territories.
''Well, I'll tell you, this thing is beautiful,'' said Young in admiration for what the little module was capable of doing. The computer reckoned they were going to land 11 kilometres short, and had rolled the CM around to a feet-up, lift-up attitude to gain them more distance.
Sagan studied the long history of scientific speculation about extraterrestrial life and civilization. His reading in the early scientific literature on the subject led him to Huygens's Kosmotheoros of 1698. Sagan admired the Dutch astronomer's description of a universe teeming with life So many Suns, so many Earths, and every one of them stock'd with so many Herbs, Trees and Animals. 18 Despite his admiration for Huygens, Sagan criticized him for naively transplanting the physical environment and inhabitants of Earth in the seventeenth century to the planets. He tempered his criticism with the observation that Huygens was, of course, a citizen of his time. Then he added, Who of us is not 19
Another individual for whom I have a particular admiration in this context is Leslie Orgel, not only because he is a key individual in the study of the origin of life, but as importantly because, in contrast with the sunny optimism displayed in so much of the literature, his papers reveal a traveller who knows he might be on the high road to success, but will not be totally surprised if the path leads to a fetid bog. This stance is neatly encapsulated in one his review articles,6 where he writes
Living forms this ranges across many scales of complexity, from bacteria that build colonies like miniature trees1 to immense societies of ants whose populations run into the millions and, independent of us, have stumbled across the advantages of agriculture (Chapter 8). And it is a history that is by no means confined to the complexity of colonies or the limpidity of a geometric shell. It is as much in the range, scope, and acuity of living organisms. They may be mere machines, but consider those owls whose hearing can pinpoint within a two-degree arc the rustling made by a mouse,2 the navigational abilities of albatrosses across the seemingly trackless Southern Ocean3 (Fig. 1.1), or even Nellie the cat that smelled Madagascar across more than two hundred miles of ocean.4 But despite our admiration, wonder, and - if we are candid - even awe, surely we can still offer the following paraphrase evolution happens, this bone evolved from that one, this molecule from that one. To be sure,...
The reason is that the genetic markers used to identify race are not part of the genes or their control regions, so far as is known, and therefore play no part in the physical appearance or behavior of an individual. Presumably they are indirectly correlated with genes that do control the body's physical makeup, but the connection is indirect and at present unknown.
The effect is quite noticeable today, both in the physical appearance of the Portuguese (who are, on average, substantially darker than English or Germans)8 and, more importantly, in their intelligence. IQs are, on average, somewhat lower in Portugal than they are in England, Germany, Poland, or Scandinavia, although still much higher than in most tropical countries.9
Large animals are much more charismatic than small ones. It is no coincidence that the majority of the animals listed as endangered and in need of help by the World Wildlife Fund are large mammals. Lately it has become fashionable to sneer at their popularity. Yet it is unfair to single out this hard-working group for criticism, for the hard fact remains that the large mammals the last of the megamammals are indeed endangered. Assuming that this group will show some of the highest extinction rates of the modern fauna, we might expect that future evolution will produce many new species of large-bodied animals.
In a way, the giant panda (and the cheetah for that matter) was 'low-hanging fruit' - it was reasonably easy to find interest and funding to elicit the actions described in this and subsequent chapters. The challenge for the future is creating strategies and evoking passion for less charismatic species. Certainly, the giant panda and the cheetah are not the only recalcitrant species maintained in the world's zoos. The main lesson from this chapter is that there are now positive examples of people working together, setting aside personal agendas and dedicating their expertise, time and resources to formulate action plans by consensus, including across cultures. The following chapters will illustrate how the actual science was conducted and how it has contributed to enhanced knowledge and improved giant panda health, reproduction and management.
Karl Ernst von Baer, a pupil of Ignatius Dollinger, a professor at Wiirzburg, is known as the founder of embryology as a scientific endeavor. Although representatives of German transcendentalism had provided some insights into the field of embryology, it was only in 1828 that von Baer's Uber die Entwickelungs-geschichte der Thiere Beobachtung und Reflexion appeared in print and made even contemporaries recognize him as the founder of embryology. In the first volume of his masterpiece, von Baer concentrated on the development of the chicken (Gallus domesticus), but he also bore general laws of development in mind. He worked with dissecting needles and a simple microscope the Scholia describe the deductions he made. The accuracy and minuteness of his fundamental observations is absolutely astonishing. Russell (1982 p 114) was unable to hide his admiration His account of the development of the chicken is a model of what a scientific memoir ought to be ''
In solemn, awed tones, he commented, They take with them, this morning, the good wishes and the admiration of a world of people, as Man, a species born and who has lived all his life on Earth, moves, with this journey, out into the Solar System. And so, presumably begins, with this journey, his dispersal in other places out in the Universe. In some ways, the Apollo programme was the ultimate adventure for the American people because it fed into the frontier spirit that imbues much of their society, and gave the astronauts of that era an almost god-like status. In his book, The Right Stuff, author Tom Wolfe described the early American space programme and its crews in terms of single combat whereby, in some ancient civilisations, battles would be pre-empted by one-on-one combat between the best warrior from each side. In the Cold War, tribal heroics between the two superpowers on Earth were being enacted, not by knights on horseback, but by men from the...
The loss of Davidson Black, the charismatic leader of the Zhoukoudian research effort, could have spelled the end of the excavations. But such was the loyalty of those with whom he had worked and such was the productivity of the Zhoukoudian site that work was continued. The Rockefeller Foundation, for which hominid evolution has never been a major focus, continued to fund the excavations, probably out of loyalty to Black and his integration of the research with the medical school. And just as importantly, the foundation funded the position of anatomist to study and describe the fossil hominids that were still being discovered. But the search for a scientist who could fill the shoes of Davidson Black would be difficult. His was indeed a hard act to follow.
The Peking Union Medical College administration was not pleased with Black's newly evinced interest in physical anthropology. Dr. Henry Houghton, president of the college, told him in no uncertain terms to limit his research to medical subjects, not mythological caves. Houghton, an M.D. trained at Johns Hopkins University, knew little about physical anthropology and its close relationship to anatomy. Unlike at most European universities and medical schools, where physical anthropology had been an established part of the curriculum for two generations, in the United States formation of the American Association of Physical Anthropologists was still in the future. (It was founded in 1930.) If Black had not been so competent in all other realms and so universally well liked, the medical school administrators would probably have found a way to rid themselves of this budding paleoanthropologist. After the skeletal remains from Shaguotun had arrived in Black's lab, he was able to strike a...
Biologists also have, in the true Darwinian spirit, immense admiration for the jury-rigging of biological design, whereby co-option and modification lead to the functioning whole. And, if they are One clue is surely our admiration for moral greatness. Rather, however, than argue or defend any particular individual, although there are many such men and women, let us recall the cosmic view of G. K. Chesterton. So does this matter The world ticks along, and someone, somewhere is presumably busy trying to manufacture that cellulose-digesting gene. As a day-to-day activity science is highly pragmatic, but it also makes much wider claims to describe the world as it is. But to assume that science itself can produce or verify the truths upon which it depends is, as many have pointed out, simply circular. On this basis and as a human activity science is ultimately imperilled. The discoveries of science, as is also widely acknowledged, are not short of ethical and moral implications. Nowhere is...
Reverses this scale as both the legs and feet become longer. The human head grows at a slower rate than the rest of the body, so its relative size actually decreases. Human babies elicit or release a strong maternal response, a response stimulated in part by their head-to-body proportions, and some researchers, including Roger Martin and Kathrine Handasyde, consider the body proportions of a sitting child aged 12 to 18 months to be similar to the relatively large head and forward-facing eyes of a koala.5 Ronald Strahan and Roger Martin argue that the koala's physical appearance acts as an 'innate releasing mechanism for the human care response', and suggest that the extraordinarily high degree of protection granted to the koala by state and federal legislation is based on an emotional attitude rather than a rational assessment of the species' status.6 We will see the importance of this in the forthcoming chapters.
Rossi proved to be optimistic and indomitable. When she returned home for surgery, her continuing good humor earned her the admiration of local television and print reporters who followed the story. In subsequent newspaper interviews she showed only enthusiasm for her new state-of-the-art prosthesis. Perhaps she realized just how lucky she was. Of 43 investigated crocodile attacks on humans in northern Zululand and southern Mozambique, 23 were fatal. The crocodiles were aggressive and ferocious after grabbing their victim, not sticks or knives or stones or spears could make them give up their prey. (An unknown factor is how victims fare after a crocodile attack is aborted. Death may frequently follow because of infection. Often subsequent to an attack and rescue, septicemia is likely the sharp, pointed teeth of the crocodile can introduce pathogenic bacteria deep within the victim's muscles.)49
Bonobos are so similar to chimpanzees in physical appearance that it took biologists many years to recognize that they are a separate species. Their behavior, however, is very different. Unlike in chimp societies, where males may violently coerce females to respect them, in bonobo land the females run the show. They manage this feat by forming close alliances with each other and facing down any male who tries to interfere in their affairs. Because of their dominance, they have managed to banish infanticide, the worst fear of female chimpanzees. Bonobos have captured the attention of their human observers because they use sex not just for reproduction but also as a social greeting and general reconciliation technique. Bonobo sexual physiology has a small but socially critical difference from that of chimpanzees. Male chimpanzees seem to be able to tell, probably by smell, the almost exact time when a female is ovulating, setting off fierce competition for her favors. But bonobo...
After the end of the Second World War, the birth of global tourism catapulted the koala into the international consciousness, and its charisma quickly took hold. As more and more people visited Australia, and koalas began to travel overseas to zoos in the United Kingdom and the United States, its popularity soared, particularly in North America and Asia. It seemed that everyone wanted to shake the little Australian's paw international stars from the world of entertainment, Jackie Chan and Janet Jackson, to name only two royalty, including HM Queen Elizabeth II, Prince Harry and TIH Crown Prince Naruhito and Crown Princess Masako of Japan and political heavyweights such as Mikhail Gorbachev and Bill Clinton, Nelson Mandela and Pope John Paul II, all have been photographed with Australian koalas. I hope this selection of examples demonstrates the enormous shift in our attitude towards the koala. From a torpid, sloth-like creature whose only possible value could be its pelt, the koala...
Drift and selection can of course act together. It is possible that with the onset of glacial conditions the widespread population of eastern Asia contracted its range in its northern latitudes, resulting in a number of temporarily isolated groups, writes the physical anthropologist Marta Mirazon Lahr. Under strong environmental pressure, morphological change could have become rapidly fixed in a population of small size. 145 Or, in less technical language, new versions of genes that favored the mongoloid physical appearance could have become universal in one of these groups through the selective pressure of the cold climate. East Asians seem to have evolved light skin independently of the 358
Species charisma, relentless media coverage and parallel explosions in visitation at holding zoos in the west provoked the 'rent-a-panda' programme of the 1980s. This involved short-term loans from only weeks to a few months duration in exchange for substantial Despite the charisma, controversies, money and politics swirling around the species, improvements in captive management are being made. This is largely for two reasons the application of an integrative, multidisciplinary scientific approach (see Chapter 2) and the development of partnerships, including training and the emergence of trusting relationships, across often complex cultural and agency boundaries (see Chapter 22). Before 1996, the primary threats to a sustainable captive panda population were lack of knowledge and no coordinated way to address routine problems encountered in management and husbandry. In fact, the challenges had never been clearly defined, and zoo managers encountering the same health, behavioural,...
First, I was assigned as one of Dennis Sciama's supervisees. I already knew of Sciama through his splendid lecture course on relativity, and had read his book The Unity of the Universe (Sciama 1959). He had charisma he inspired his research group with his infectious enthusiasm he followed developments in theory and observation along a broad front and he was a fine judge of where the scientific opportunities lay. When I joined this privileged group, George Ellis had completed his PhD, and was starting a postdoc Stephen Hawking was still a graduate student, two years ahead of me my closest contemporaries in the group were Brandon Carter, Bill Saslaw, and John Stewart. Within a few months I felt I had made a fortunate choice.
His institute, now defunct, unquestionably did some good work on the dolphin, including the production of an important atlas of the dolphin brain. While I will be critical here about some of the scientific aspects of Lilly's work, I want to express my admiration for any serious attempt to investigate dolphins and for Lilly's pioneering efforts in particular. Lilly has since moved on to investigations of the human mind from the inside - consciousness expansion, both pharmacologically and non-pharmacologically induced.
Charles Stuart was charismatic, but he knew nothing about leading an army. In the hours after the reading of the declaration of war against King George, another 450 or so Highlanders made their way to Glenfinnan before nightfall, creating a force totaling 1,400 men. George Murray, an experienced officer who had seen a great deal of action in Europe as a mercenary, was among them. Murray was quickly designated as the military
Campanella, like Giordano Bruno, was a Dominican from the Kingdom of Naples. He had studied at Padua for a year and knew Galileo from there. Then he was arrested and sent to Rome, just like Bruno, but released through the efforts of influential friends. He returned to southern Italy where, together with other Dominicans, he attempted to organise a veritable revolt against Spanish hegemony. The rebellion was easily quelled, and Campanella imprisoned in Naples where, oddly enough, he escaped the death sentence. He was eventually allowed a certain freedom to correspond from his cell, and he wrote repeated letters of admiration to Galileo
Every society has its outstanding personalities, its stars, who swagger through life and are made much of. The galaxies of the ants are no exception, for they too have their stars, extraordinary luminaries with original ways of doing things and antics that prove very attractive to myrmecologists. Scientists study these species very closely, at times with astonishment and admiration at the devious ways in which some of them have contrived to adapt to their milieu, and sometimes with anxiety at the ravages they cause. Weaver ants, for instance, can astound even the experienced entomologist with the skill they show in stitching leaves together to make their nests high up in the canopy. Honeypot ants, too, can be the source of much amusement as they gorge themselves on sugar and act as the colony's larder.
''You've made many scientists very happy their LDEF experiments are finally coming home,'' replied Capcom Jernigan over the sound of applause in Mission Control. It was the first of many accolades for Columbia's crew that day. Lead Flight Director Al Pennington called it ''the culmination of a lot of work by a lot of people'', while NASA Administrator Dick Truly - who had first put the RMS through its paces as an astronaut himself more than eight years earlier - expressed his admiration as he ''watched America's space programme at its best''.
Of course, that is the major focus of this book, to encourage the reader to study Jupiter and add something to our knowledge of the planet. Certainly, your images will become part of the historical record of the physical appearance of the planet but there is more to be gleaned from these images. For your images to be truly worth something scientifically, they will need to be measured to determine the position of features seen on Jupiter's disk.
Shortly after returning to Boston in 1893, Lowell learned of the telescopic observations of the Italian astronomer Giovanni Schiaparelli, who, in 1877, had drawn maps of Mars with unprecedented detail, showing a network of straight lines that he called canals. Schiaparelli's canals sparked the imagination of Percival Lowell, who began to conceive a way of confirming his cosmic vision of abundant life and intelligence. It did not take him long to throw together a well-financed (with Lowell family money) expedition of Harvard astronomers to Arizona in search of an ideal high-altitude site to build a new observatory. He chose a forested hill at seven thousand feet on the outskirts of Flagstaff, where today the Lowell Observatory remains one of the premier American institutes of planetary research. Charismatic, and fabulously wealthy, Lowell had the means to build an observatory, but he lacked the patience and objectivity of a great observer. He arrived in Flagstaff to begin his...
The history of the Tikopia was first outlined by New Zealand-born ethnologist, Sir Raymond Firth, who lived on the island for a year beginning in July of 1928. His book We, The Tikopia, published in 1936, is a wonderful read.4 The title itself carries for us an important message since, as Firth notes, ''It is constantly on the lips of the people themselves it stands for that community of interest, that self-consciousness, that strongly marked individuality in physical appearance, dress, language and custom which they prize.''
The first was the manner in which he handled large meetings that involved engineers, programmers, mathematicians, crews or whoever in order to get this diverse mass of people to reach a decision. David Scott attended lots of these meetings and shares the admiration that many have for Tindall's abilities. Tindall would control the debates in terms of giving people the opportunity to talk, and then mix and match and make the trades. Then he would make a decision and say, 'I'm gonna recommend this to management. Anybody have any really strong objections ' And the guy who lost the debate may say, 'Yeah, it
Considering the fundamental importance of proplastids to plastid biology, the knowledge of proplastid cell biology and their fine ultrastructure is limited, mostly because of the difficulties with analysing small organelles with no pigment in small regions of dense tissue. Knowledge of the physical appearance of proplas-tids has been derived largely from electron micrographs (Chaley and Possingham 1981 Akita and Sagisaka 1995 Robertson et al. 1995 Gunning 2004), which show proplastids as small organelles containing limited internal structure that are dispersed throughout the cytoplasm. Most proplastids contain rudimentary pieces of thylakoid membrane, but are unpigmented although those in shoot apical meristems appear to contain more thylakoid in a more organized state than those in the root apical meristem (Gunning 2004). In addition, ingrowths from the inner plastid envelope membrane into the proplastid stroma can also be seen occasionally, as well as ribosomes. Starch grains may be...
Finally, during the course of this work, we (and the entire conservation community) lost two colleagues who were intimately associated with the CBSG Biomedical Survey. Arlene Kumamoto (Zoological Society of San Diego) was the geneticist laboratory technical specialist during the first year of the Survey she died of pancreatic cancer in 2000. Her diligence, good humour, friendship and strong belief in the importance of collaborative science are sorely missed. Ulie Seal (former Chairman of CBSG) was one-of-a-kind - a charismatic scientific leader, Renaissance Man and a person who believed that people and collaborative problemsolving were the keys to successful conservation he died of lung cancer in 2003. Ulie made us all believe that it wasn't an option to give anything but our very best - and then some. Arlene and Ulie would have been delighted with what has been accomplished but at the same time would have said 'Do more'. We dedicate this book to their memory and hope that it is a...
Most famous of which was the Renaissance Pope, Pius II. If the august Archbishop's respect for the upstart Urban VIII was less than enthusiastic, his admiration for the Tuscan Galileo was all the more genuine. Piccolomini had read the Dialogue and had realised that Copernicus was probably right, and that the book would get its author into very hot water.
Amateurs have contributed to the observational record of Jupiter for years and years. The official reports of the British Astronomical Association go back at least 114 years, to 1891. Individual reports by amateurs can be traced back even further than that to 1869, and Rogers (1995) shows sketches as far back as 1831. The Association of Lunar and Planetary Observers can claim organized records beginning in 1947, the year the organization was formed and certainly individual A.L.P.O. members were making serious observations even before then. Organizations in Europe and the Orient have also made serious contributions to the observation of Jupiter. The amateur and professional Jupiter astronomers of today stand in awe of observers like T. E. R. Phillips, P. B. Molesworth, Antoniadi, F. J. Hargreaves, Bertrand M. Peek, Walter H. Haas, Elmer J. Reese, T. Sato, A. W. Heath, J. Dragresco, and many, many others. If the accomplishments of the scientists of the past are due in part because they...
Without realizing it, we are in exactly this situation today. In what paleontologists have begun to call near time, the last 50,000 years, datable by radiocarbon, the world lost half of its 200 genera of large mammals (those weighing more than 45 kilograms or 100 pounds). Beyond the living bears, bison, deer, moose, and other large mammals familiar to us now, an additional 30 genera and over 40 species lived in North America, and even more in South America. Most of the Western Hemisphere's charismatic large mammals no longer exist. As a result, without knowing it, Americans live in a land of ghosts.
Genetically, Africa is the most diverse continent in the world. Two Africans sampled from the same village could have Y-chromosome or mtDNA lineages that are more divergent from each other than either is to a non-African. This diversity extends also to physical appearance, where there is a broad range in different regions. The features North Americans and Europeans typically associate with Africans are influenced by the populations they have had
For such devotees Galileo is above any hint of criticism, he has become an icon, a character that is not to be sullied. We are forced to call such admiration worship. The strange object in the Science Museum in Florence emphasises this. For it is a worldly relic - an anti-relic, if you will, in a country whose innumerable churches are awash with sacred objects.
In retrospect, Murchison claimed that his mapping in Wales proceeded by 'Smithian' stratigraphic principles. Right from the start he certainly took care, whenever he could, to characterise his rock units by listing their fossil contents. But his palaeontological skills were limited and to begin with he was often basing his mapping on the physical appearance of the strata. For instance, he could differentiate between successions of shales or limestones, but since there is a considerable repetition of these strata types within the overall succession and their fossil content can to the inexpert eye seem similar, he sometimes got confused. In 1839 Murchison recognised an Upper Silurian made up from higher Ludlow strata and lower Wenlock Limestone, below which was his Lower Silurian comprised of the Caradoc Sandstone and Llandeilo Flags, and then below this lay Sedgwick's Cambrian strata.
The Power Of Charisma
You knowthere's something about you I like. I can't put my finger on it and it's not just the fact that you will download this ebook but there's something about you that makes you attractive.