Natural Childbirth Options

Bump To Birth

The experience that a woman has during childbirth shapes how the rest of her child-raising experience goes, in many ways. A good birth can have a huge effect on how good you feel about your child, whereas a bad birth can often lead to feelings of sadness or PDST-type symptoms due to the pain and struggle of the birth experience. However, you don't need to worry about that now, because the information in this book gives you ALL of the experience and expert advice that you need in order to have a really amazing birth, that really marked that day as the truly special day that it is. This book teaches you how to use natural, holistic remedies to heal yourself during pregnancy in order to make sure that you feel your best during the whole birth experience. You can also learn everything you need to know about natural birth Everything you need to know to have a great pregnancy and birth is in this guide! More here...

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Ill Believe In Evolution When A Monkey Gives Birth To A Human Baby

Once again, humans are not descended from monkeys. We share a common ancestor with monkeys. As it happens, the common ancestor would have looked a lot more like a monkey than a man, and we would indeed probably have called it a monkey if we had met it, some 25 million years ago. But even though humans evolved from an ancestor that we could sensibly call a monkey, no animal gives birth to an instant new species, or at least not one as different from itself as a man is from a monkey, or even from a chimpanzee. That isn't what evolution is about. Evolution not only is a gradual process as a matter of fact it has to be gradual if it is to do any explanatory work. Huge leaps in a single generation - which is what a monkey giving birth to a human would be - are almost as unlikely as divine creation, and are ruled out for the same reason too statistically improbable. It would be so nice if those who oppose evolution would take a tiny bit of trouble to learn the merest rudiments of what it is...

Giving birth to convergence

Remarkable in this respect is the similarity between the mammalian placenta and an ovoviviparous Brazilian lizard (Mabuya heathi) which, as Blackburn and his colleagues remark,146 'has strongly converged upon a reproductive pattern long believed to be unique to eutherian i.e. placental, as against the metatherian marsupials mammals'.147 The relevant features, in addition to the placenta and its nutrient supply, include a remarkably small egg (c. 1 mm), comparable in size to a typical mammalian ovum. Not surprisingly the period of gestation, for a reptile, is prolonged. This has the curious side-effect that females can be impregnated while juvenile and give birth to their live young when adults. Other species of the lizard Mabuya show similar features,148 and it is possible that such viviparity originated at least four times in this group.149 Other viviparous lizards show interesting features convergent with mammals. In a European species of Chalcides (C. chalcides) the placentome, a...

From Birth To Maturity

The birth of a wombat has not, to my knowledge, even been observed, but it undoubtedly is very similar to that of other marsupials. The mother's pouch itself is clean and moist. A dry brown scale, which from time to time exudes from the pouch along with dust and other foreign matter, forming a dark encrustation around the pouch opening, has been wiped away by the mother's tongue. At the time of birth the mother probably adopts the same position as the one she uses when cleaning the pouch opening, that is, sitting on her rump with the hind legs extended forward, so that the cloaca, which is also the opening of the birth canal, is directed slightly upward. If it follows the pattern of other marsupials, the tiny, pink, newborn animal emerges head first from the birth canal. It is only about 15 millimetres long and weighs about half a gram. Its skin is moist and completely hairless (Plate 14). Although its mouth, front limbs and shoulders are well developed, its eyes, like most of its...

Common And Rare Genetic Variants Associated With Venous Thrombosis

With a phenotype of activated protein C resistance, 56 possessed the allelic variant while none of those without activated protein C resistance had the rarer A allele (Bertina et al. 1994). The variant modulated an activated protein C cleavage site, rendering the factor V Leiden protein significantly less sensitive to degradation and inactivation, and promoting a hypercoagulable state (Aparicio and Dahlback 1996). What was particularly striking was that this was a common SNP, originally reported as present in 2 of the Dutch population, with subsequent studies showing it to be common in those of European ancestry, with a prevalence of up to 15 , but rare or absent in African, East Asian, or other population groups (Rees et al. 1995 Dahlback 2008). Possession of one copy of the A allele (being heterozygous for factor V Leiden) is associated with a five-fold increased risk of venous thrombosis having two copies leads to a 50-fold increased risk (Dahlback 2008). All those with the variant...

Section Why wasnt higher IQ an advantage in all regions

3) Larger brains (and heads) require wider female pelvises, and the wider pelvises result in less efficiency in walking and running. The large size of the human head creates serious difficulties in childbirth (which is why human females typically have far more difficulty in delivering their young than do females of most other species). As brains and heads became larger, wider female pelvises were required to accommodate them. Since it was difficult for such a change to be confined to one sex only, the male members of those groups also wound up with wider pelvises. But wider pelvises and hips result in lower running speeds (see section 14-7) and less efficiency in both walking and running.

Lowells Successor Carl Sagan

The space age ended Lowell's influence on the image ofMars as an inhabited planet. Simultaneously, it gave birth to Lowell's successor as the foremost champion of life on other planets Carl Sagan (1934 1996). Sagan was a planetary astronomer and public figure who often criticized Lowell, yet his career bears a remarkable resemblance to Lowell's. The two were the best-known advocates of extraterrestrial life during their lifetimes. They deliberately and tirelessly courted public approval of their scientific work. Finally, they suffered criticism from fellow scientists who believed that their theories and public relations tactics sometimes went beyond the limits of good science.

DNA and the Secret Family of Thomas Jefferson

Soon after their arrival, she gave birth to a child, of whom Thomas Jefferson was the father. It lived but a short time. She gave birth to four others, and Jefferson was the father of them all. Their names were Beverly, Harriet, Madison (myself) and Eston three sons and one daughter. We all became free, agreeably to the treaty entered into by our parents before we were born. It is difficult to believe that a 68-year-old Ohio carpenter, as Madison Hemings then was, would be moved on chance encounter with a journalist to invent an account of such specificity and poignancy. It contained many details that could be independently checked. Jefferson freed very few slaves, but he let all of Sally's children go free. Winthrop Jordan, a historian at the University of Mississippi, documented in 1968 that Jefferson, despite his many absences from Monticello, was present at the time of conception of all Hemings's known children.

Migration Of Giant Exoplanets

All the planets in Table 11.1 are much closer to their star that the distance at which they must have formed. This must have been beyond the ice line i.e., that distance from the star beyond which water condensed to provide much of the mass of the icy-rocky kernels from which the giant planets grew. This was by capturing gas (mainly hydrogen and helium) from the stellar nebula that gave birth to each exoplanetary system, much as the solar nebula gave birth to the Solar System (Section 2.5).

Coordination of locomotion with other adaptations

Reproduction was probably the last tie to land, as in almost all modern marine mammals, birds, and reptiles. Like these, many Mesozoic marine reptiles probably came to land to lay eggs or give birth in isolated places free of land predators. In contrast, whales are fully aquatic and cannot move on land. Instead, the mother gives birth in water to live young, which emerges tail first so that it can swim rapidly to the surface for its first breath. Ichthyosaurs were no less ill-adapted for land movement, and fossils of gravid females have been discovered with embryos still in their ribcages (Fig. 4.1.10.2), indicating that ichthyosaurs also gave birth to live young (Benton

Results And Discussion

Giant pandas have been held ex situ in China since 1953 when a panda was taken from Guanxian County to Chengdu Zoo (Hu et al., 1990). Two years later, Beijing Zoo also added giant pandas to its collection. The first ex situ giant panda birth, however, did not occur until 1963 when female studbook (SB) 25 (Li Li) gave birth to male cub SB 60 (Ming Ming) at Beijing Zoo (Kan & Shu-hua, 1964). In the late 1970s, both Beijing and Chengdu Zoos began investigating assisted reproduction, with the first successful AI and cub produced at Beijing Zoo in 1978 (Liu, 1979, 1981 Liu et al., 1979). In this case, there were three males that did not breed naturally, so semen was collected for the first time by electroejacula-tion. Following fresh sperm insemination of four females, one giant panda (SB 132, Juan Juan) became pregnant and produced twins in September 1978, 15 years after the first birth by natural mating at this same institution. This was followed two years later by the first...

Formation of the Solar Nebula

Ultimately the temperature becomes great enough within the condensation for nuclear reactions to begin, thereby giving birth to the Sun. Meanwhile, the material in the disk collides, coalesces, and gradually forms larger and larger objects, as in Kant's theory. Because most of the grains of material have nearly identical orbits, collisions between them are relatively mild, which allows the particles to stick and remain together. Thus, larger agglomerations of particles are gradually built up.

Clues from measuring radioactivity in lunar rocks and meteorites

Since the Sun is a very unremarkable star in our galaxy, a look at its neighbours may help us to understand its history. Let us concentrate upon very young stars and star-forming regions. These regions are dense, rapidly rotating molecular clouds which will in time collapse, giving birth to a new star. During recent decades the study of the early phases of a star's life has proceeded in leaps and bounds, due mainly to infrared and millimetric astronomy, which allows us to penetrate cold environments opaque to visible light. It has also been possible - especially with the Hubble Space Telescope - to secure images of protoplanetary disks around infant stars.

Reproduction And Infant Development

In RNP, H. g. griseus individuals primarily mate in June-July and give birth in October-November, with a gestation length of about 137 days (Tan, 2000). Elsewhere, in Maroantsetra and ASR in particular, births can occur as late as January (Petter and Peyrieras, 1970 Pollock, 1986). Females generally produce a singleton but twinning has been reported in captivity. The interbirth interval is 1 year (Tan, 2000). Furthermore, H g. griseus exhibits infant parking behavior. Infants are orally transported from birth to 2 weeks of age before they are capable of clinging onto their mother. At 3 weeks, infants begin tasting solid foods, and at 6 weeks, they begin eating bamboo and other plants. Weaning occurs after 4 months (Tan, 2000). In RNP, H. aureus individuals have been observed to mate in July and August with births occurring in late November and December. The gestation length is approximately 138 days and females give birth to a single infant, once a year. Like H.g. griseus, H. aureus...

Life History And Reproduction

Average interbirth interval (IBI) at Talatakely, Ranomafana, is 1.56 years (Pochron et al., 2004) in other words, 1 year for roughly half of births and 2 years for most other cases. This is in contrast to many smaller lemurs, which give birth every year. The roughly even split between 1- and 2-year IBIs suggests a possible pressure to speed up infant development (i.e., reduce time to weaning). Sifakas who are metabolically ready to conceive 12 months after a previous conception can do so, but those who become ready at 13 or 14 months must wait until the 24th month postbirth, due to the strict estrous seasonality. This delay might have led to selective pressures to reduce mothers' postbirth metabolic costs, thereby reducing recovery time.

Chapter History Written All Over Us

Dolphins and whales, dugongs and manatees give birth to live babies, like all mammals. That habit is not actually peculiar to mammals. Many fish are livebearers, but they do it in a very different way (actually a fascinating variety of very different ways, doubtless independently evolved). The dolphin's placenta is unmistakably mammalian, and so is its habit of suckling the young with milk. Its brain is also beyond question the brain of a mammal, and a very advanced mammal at that. The cerebral cortex of a mammal is a sheet of grey matter, wrapped around the outside of the brain. Getting brainier partly consists in increasing the area of the sheet. This could be done by increasing the total size of the brain, and of the skull that houses it. But there are downsides to having a big skull. It makes it harder to be born, for one thing. As a result, brainy mammals contrive to increase the area of the sheet while staying within limits set by the skull, and they do it by throwing the whole...

Sniffing out the brothers

Whenever fratricidal conflicts do emerge within such matriarchal societies, the males always come off second best, a plight which might make one feel sorry for them. But they have a trick that can help them avoid the fate that their sisters have in store for them they survive by 'hiding' their sex. Over the course of evolution, they have developed a mode of disguise, which consists either of smelling like workers or queens, or of being the same size as the females. This idea may sound far-fetched but observation of parasitical ants has shown that it is perfectly possible. Once these gate-crashers have established themselves in another colony's nest, their queen gives birth to sexual offspring even at times of the year when the resident monarch is only producing workers. This means that if the intruders want to avoid being evicted, they must not draw attention to themselves. This they do, male and female, by growing to a size which is similar to that of the workers whose nest they have...

The Language Gene That Wasnt

Gopnik waded in with a battery of tests originally designed for the study of aphasia. This has always been criticized because aphasia, as we have already seen, is strictly a language disorder caused by damage to the language processing centre of the brain in later life. The KE family clearly inherit their disorder and so it is present from birth. Furthermore, whatever the language problems, they were accompanied by severe difficulties in the production of words. Their disability appeared to involve speech and language. Nevertheless, Gopnik concluded that the core deficit in the KE family concerned an inability to change the tenses of words and the lack of a general rule for producing appropriate plurals. For instance, they might be able to distinguish between a picture of a solitary book, versus a pile of books, when asked to point to 'the book', a known word they might have filed in memory, but when shown a picture of an imaginary animal called a 'wug' they could not describe a group...

Reproductive Strategies and Primate Evolution

Precocial Mammal

Primates as an order are classified as strongly precocial (Derrickson, 1992 Eisenberg, 1981 Martin, 1975a,b). The great majority of species give birth to a single, well-developed offspring with relatively large neonatal brain size, following a prolonged gestation period (Martin and MacLarnon, 1985, 1988 Pagel and Harvey, 1988). Significant variation among primate (predominantly strepsirhine) species does exist in the number of offspring, teat number, mother-infant relations, nest-using behavior, and related attributes (Martin, 1975a,b). Kappeler's (1995, 1996, 1998) studies have contributed considerably to the documentation and phylogenetic analysis of this variation. He notes that primates range from those producing the most precocial young (such as Eulemur, Lemur catta, indris, lorises, tarsiers, and the anthropoids), where neonates are very well developed and capable of grasping the mother's fur or other supports, to certain species characterized by less precocial young (e.g.,...

Dinosaurs And Their

Sauropod Growth Curve

Ichthyosaurs (Fig. 17.9a) were fish-shaped animals, entirely adapted to life in the sea, and they evolved from land-living diapsids. Ichthyosaurs had long, thin, snouts lined with sharp teeth, and they fed on ammonites, bel-emnites and fishes. Exquisite preservation of many specimens shows the tail fin, dorsal fin and the paddle outlines. Ichthyosaurs swam by beating the body and tail from side to side, and they used the front paddles for steering. There are even some remarkable specimens of mothers with developing embryos inside their bellies like whales and dolphins, ichthyosaurs could not flop up on to land to lay eggs, and they gave birth to live young while at sea.

The young mature wombat

Most species of mammals have seasonal cycles of sexual activity, and in many marsupials this cycle occurs at the time of year which will ensure that the young emerge from the pouch in spring. As a wombat leaves the pouch at about nine to 10 months of age, this would mean that wombats would mate in late spring to early summer, giving birth about a month later. In the bare-nosed wombat, pouch young of all ages have been found at all times of the year. However, studies of this species in which the ages of a considerable number of pouch young have been estimated indicate that there are seasonal peaks in the time of breeding. In the highlands of New South Wales, most wombats give birth during the four months December to March, while in Tasmania Green and Rainbird found that, although births occurred at all times of the year, there appears to be definite bias towards October to January as a season for giving birth - 48 of births occurred in that four-month period. On Flinders Island,...

Social Organization And Behavior Group Composition

Indeed, Pochron and Wright (2003), using data from 46 group-years for P. edwardsi at Talatakely (Ranomafana), found an average of 3.2 adults per group and a surprisingly even distribution of the four possible group types. Since the competitive regime would be expected to vary greatly in different group types, these differences may have profound effects on other aspects of social life. However, Pochron and Wright (2003) found no effect of group type on infant birth rate and survival. They argue that feeding competition limits group size, causing small, nonuniform social groups, but mating may occur more freely across group boundaries (as in P. verreauxi Richard, 1985). However, mating season influxes have not yet been observed in eastern sifakas to the same degree known

Expert In Space Rendezvous

Shatalov was born on 8 December 1927 in Petropavlovsk in northern Kazakhstan. When he was two years of age his family moved to Leningrad (now St Petersburg), and there during the Second World War he served in the same brigade as his father Aleksandar, who held the Gold Star of Hero of the Soviet Union, and participated in the legendary defence of that city. In 1945 Volodya completed a special school in Voronezh for future military pilots, and 4 years later graduated from the famous Kachinsko Higher Air Force School. In September 1949 he was flying as a pilot-instructor. He married Muza Andreyevna Yonova, an agricultural engineer, and in 1952 she gave birth to their first child son Igor. On attaining the best scores at the prestigious Red Banner Air Force Academy, Shatalov became a pilot-engineer in 1956. After a period serving as a deputy squadron commander he gained his own squadron. In 1958 their second child, daughter Yelena, was born.

Interesting Things Attract Me

Space Soyuz

Aleksey was born on 13 July 1934 in the small town of Zhizdra - near Kaluga, which is famous for Konstantin Tsiolkovskiy. His father, Stanislav Kuraytis was of Estonian origin, and worked in the laboratory of a shoe factory. Before Aleksey was one year old, his father was accused of being an enemy of the Soviet Union and was sentenced to five years in prison but stayed incarcerated for almost a quarter of his life.5 After her husband's imprisonment Aleksey's mother, Valentina Ivanovna, remarried. She worked as a chemist for the Soviet Academy of Sciences, and later gained a PhD degree. When the Second World War began they were in Moscow, and young Aleksey joined his childhood friends in collecting scattered bomb parts from German aircraft. When his mother was transferred to a factory to Siberia, Aleksey was sent to stay with his grandparents in Kazakhstan, where he gained his first schooling. He moved back to Moscow in 1943 when his mother returned to give birth to her second son. In...

Antecedent Of Dinosaurs

In many cases, once a female vertebrate shows receptivity to a male, mating will occur quickly relative to time spent in attraction and courtship. In fish and amphibians, the male's sperm is simply deposited in the water near a female rather than through more proximal association. Amniotes presumably developed sex organs that worked more effectively for getting gametes together through direct bodily contact. After all, internal fertilization was necessary before an egg could be developed internally. In some reptiles (crocodilians and turtles) the delivery of sperm into a female's oviduct, which also functions as the birth canal for egg laying, is sometimes facilitated by the insertion into the oviduct of a male's penis. Snakes and lizards have similar but smaller structures called hemipenes. Most modern bird species lack a penis, although some flightless birds and ducks, geese, and swans do possess such organs. Birds without penises mate through close contact of their cloacae, which...

Many Questions Still Remain

Tectonic Plates

Plate tectonics has also played a huge role in explaining the evolutionary history of many animal and plant species scattered throughout the world. Take Australia for instance. It is well known that the land down under is home to some interesting animals like the echidna and the duck-billed platypus. These animals belong to a group of mammals called monotremes that are quite primitive and still lay eggs. In all other parts of the world, monotremes have been replaced by placental mammals, which produce young through live birth. Most biologists believe that the live birth process is much more efficient than laying eggs. So far, monotremes have only been found in Australia and some of the surrounding islands like Tasmania. The reason for the existence of these unusual animals is related to the theory of plate tectonics. According to the theory, when Gondwanaland broke up, Australia was the first to separate from the rest of the continents. This caused the primitive animals found there to...

The Abstraction Of Beasts

She brought me my hat, and I knew I was going out into the warm sunshine. This thought, if a wordless sensation may be called a thought, made me hop and skip with pleasure. We walked down the path to the well-house, attracted by the fragrance of the honeysuckle with which it was covered. Someone was drawing water and my teacher placed my hand under the spout. As the cool stream gushed over my hand she spelled into the other the word water, first slowly, then rapidly. I stood still, my whole attention fixed upon the motion of her fingers. Suddenly I felt a misty consciousness as of something forgotten-a thrill of returning thought and somehow the mystery of language was revealed to me. I knew then that W-A-T-E-R meant that wonderful cool something that was flowing over my hand. That living word awakened my soul, gave it light, hope, joy, set it free There were barriers still, it is true, but barriers that in time could be swept away. I left the well-house eager to learn. Everything had...

How Are Biological Rhythms Induced

In C. medius, circannual cycles of reproduction, body mass, and body temperature depend on the variations of the photoperiod (Pages and Petter-Rousseaux, 1980 Petter-Rousseaux, 1980). Day length is a very reliable cue for such predictable seasonal changes as occurring in Kirindy forest. Indeed, the mean dates of entrance into hibernation do not change greatly between the years, despite differences in the progression of the vegetation period and thus the availability of food resources, due to differences in amount and timing of precipitation during the rainy season (Table 1, Figure 1). Taking the last change of tree hole before hibernation as an indicator of when hibernation starts, the mean date varied only little more than a week between the years 1999 and 2001. Within one year, however, the range is much greater, with the first animals occupying their hibernation tree holes at the end of March, and the last at the end of May (Figure 2). The opposite pattern is true for birth dates....

Old Debate Young Science

Oparin formulated in 1924 a prebiotic scenario where organic compounds built from inorganics were organized first into coazervate droplets as soon as these droplets became separated from the surrounding medium by a more or less definite border, they at once acquired a certain degree of individuality competition in growth velocity and at the end simplest primary organisms have emerged. JBS Haldane could not be more enthusiastic over the potential ofprebiotic synthesis of organic compounds that must have accumulated till the primitive oceans reached the consistency of dilute soup, thus giving birth to the legendary 'primordial soup'.6-8

The last common ancestor

With the last common ancestor probably predating 3,460 Myr ago, it is reasonable to conclude that the Earth is likely to have given birth to its last common ancestor within about 1,000 Myr of the Earth's formation. Such timing might well apply to other planets that resemble the Earth. But how do we get from simple molecules to a cell

Mammals finally arrive

Many changes occurred to the mammal-like reptiles before they eventually evolved into true mammals. But what made the first true mammals different Mammals have larger brains than snakes and lizards, and give birth to live young (except for echidnas and platypuses, which lay eggs). What really makes cats, rats, you and me different from therapsids, lizards and snakes (apart from not usually being especially slithery and scaly) is that we are far more active and create our own high body temperature. We don't need to wear a solar panel on our back. We just need to eat a lot more food, in fact about ten times as much as a reptile of the same size.

Growth and Development

According to Paul (1997), dinosaurs would have grown extremely rapidly. The larger the adults, the greater the number of eggs that they would have laid -probably many tens of thousands during the life spans of the largest sauro-pods. The extreme ratio between size on hatching and at adulthood would have necessitated very rapid growth for sexual maturity to have been reached within two or three decades. Breeding would have had to begin within that time scale if sufficient juveniles were to survive to sexual maturation. Dinosaurs could not have lived and grown for more than 100-150 years at most. Smaller dinosaurs may have been K-strategists, with low birth rates and advanced parental care, although with fast growth rates. Large species, on the other hand, were undoubtedly fast-breeding r-strategists, with high levels of egg deposition, fast growth and high juvenile mortality. Only small numbers of juveniles needed to reach sexual maturity to build up and maintain large populations....

The Early Miocene of Africa

Arguably the earliest apes, though it is possible that the Proconsulidae at least may represent stem catarrhines (the population that gave birth to the Old World monkeys and apes) of modern aspect (Andrews, 1985, 1992 Harrison, 1987, 1988, 1993, 2002 Groves, 1989a Begun et al., 1997 Harrison & Rook, 1997 Fleagle, 1999). Representatives of the Proconsulidae include the genera Proconsul, Rangwapithecus, and Turkanapithecus and have a temporal span from 23 to 15 million years ago, while the larger-bodied apes, allocated to the Afropithecidae, include the genera Afropithecus, Morotopithecus, and Heliopithecus, which date from between 18 and 15 million years ago (see Andrews, 1992 Harrison, 1992,2002 Cameron, in press a). (See Figures 2.2 and 2.3.) There is little to support a particularly close phylogenetic relationship between these early Miocene apes and the earlier Eocene and Oligocene primates from the Fayum depression of Egypt. This should not be particularly surprising, because...

The Molecules Of Aids

The World Health Organization estimates that since its discovery in 1981 AIDS has caused more than 25 million deaths around the world, and about 33 million people are currently infected by HIV, the virus that causes AIDS. It is transmitted through blood or body fluids that pass from one individual to another during sex, when they share needles, or from mother to child during childbirth. Researchers have not yet been able to create an effective vaccine against HIV because of the way HIV infects cells, the fact that it targets cells of the immune system that could help fight off infections, and its rapid rate of mutation.

Chapter Missing Link What Do You Mean Missing

The silliest of all these 'missing link' challenges are the following two (or variants of them, of which there are many). First, 'If people came from monkeys via frogs and fish, then why does the fossil record not contain a fronkey ' I have seen an Islamic creationist ask truculently why there are no crocoducks. And, second, 'I'll believe in evolution when I see a monkey give birth to a human baby.' This last one makes the same mistake as all the others, plus the additional one of thinking that major evolutionary change happens overnight.

Using Antibodies In Research And Medicine

Antibodies contribute to a problem that arises during pregnancy when mothers and fetuses have differences in their blood involving Rhesus factors. The blood cells of some people produce the Rh protein, which appears on their surfaces (such people are called Rh positive), and the cells of Rh-negative people do not. This can potentially lead to disaster because the mother's body might build antibodies against the Rh proteins of her fetus. While the blood systems of the mother and child are kept separate during pregnancy, the baby's blood sometimes enters a mother's bloodstream during complicated pregnancies or childbirth.

Finding A Home

Long before most other microbes have moved into a human host, it has established a healthy colony. E. coli may infect a baby during the messy business of childbirth, hitch along on the fingertips of a doctor, or make its leap as mother nurses child. It rides waves of peristalsis into the stomach, where it must survive an acid bath. As the swarms of protons in hydrochloric acid seep into it, E. coli builds extra pumps that can flush most of them out. It does not try to behave like a normal microbe in the stomach instead, it enters what one scientist has called a Zen-like physiology. Except for the proteins it needs to defend against stomach acid, E. coli simply stops making proteins altogether.

Intelligent Design

Examples of unintelligent design are abundant, even in humans who are often considered the pinnacle of design. The human eye has blind spots and it sees everything upside down so the brain must flip everything right side up. Due to anatomical changes in the throat that are associated with speech, it is easy to get food lodged in the trachea (the windpipe) and choke. The combination of the narrow birth canal (a pelvic adaptation for walking upright) and the very large head of brainy human babies makes childbirth difficult and often dangerous. Because of the constraints on the raw material that natural selection had to work with, some human traits appear to bejerry-rigged. But, we overcome them with other anatomical adaptations and with

Reproduction

An increase in brain size must accompany an increase in body size, so H. erectus could not have fit the same sized infant's brain and skull as expected for its body size through its narrow hips. That is, H. erectus may have shortened gestation (i.e., the period of fetal development in the uterus) to be physically capable of giving birth to larger brained babies through its relatively small birth canal. An earlier birth results in a more helpless, less developed, altricial infant. So it is probable, that with H. erectus, higher levels of parental investment, especially from the father (paternal investment), began to evolve. Selection would favor such a change if it fostered brain growth and development, especially if selection was acting strongly on brain size increase in the species. Other major changes are correlated, like the incorporation of meat into the diet, food-sharing, and the creation of home bases where males provisioned females and offspring and where females localized...

Summary of Chapter

The disc of gas and dust that gave birth to the planets would have been rotating in the same direction as the solar rotation, giving rise to prograde planetary orbits roughly in the same plane. The axial inclinations are less well ordered partly because of off centre acquisition of material as the planets grew, and, at least in the case of Saturn, probably because of a resonance.

Mating System

Resource availability and photoperiod are often cited as important factors in reproductive timing in animals, but aye-aye breeding behavior does not appear to be influenced by either variable. Aye-ayes eat all their major food resources across almost all months of the year, and the timing of peak availability of fruits varies from year to year. It is unclear whether the availability of food resources is highly unpredictable, or if there are patterns that existing data cannot detect. Field observations of aye-aye births occurring throughout the year suggest that photoperiod has little effect on reproductive timing. In addition, aye-ayes maintained on different light regimes in two different captive institutions mated and gave birth at approximately the same time, indicating that breeding was not prompted by changes in the light cycle. It seems that whatever factors contribute to reproductive seasonality in most other lemurs may not affect wild aye-ayes (Sterling, 1994b).

Results

Table 2 shows the size and age sex composition of the Andranobe study community divided by core groups. There were five core groups, the majority consisting of one adult male, one or two adult females, and immatures. Four of these core groups contained two reproductive females during part or all of the study. Core group 1 had two females that mated, but only one that gave birth. Core group 2 initially had two reproductive females, but one of these females disappeared several months after the study began. Core group 3 was composed of two juveniles or subadults. There were two reproductive females in both core groups During gestation (Jul-Oct), V. rubra females continued the confined ranging pattern observed during the cold rainy season, traveling only within their respective core areas (Figures 1 and 4). Female gestation coincides with part of the cold rainy season, the transitional month of September, and the first month of the hot dry season (Table 1). After giving birth and...

Comets

Only one year after the conference mentioned above, Kuiper (1951) suggested that the mass distribution in the primordial cloud, which gave birth to the Solar System, did not end abruptly at the distance of Neptune. Although no major planet formed beyond Neptune (only the minor planet Pluto formed there), more distant remnants of the accretion disk still exist, many probably in the form of cometary nuclei. That assemblage of trans-Neptunian objects is now referred to as the Kuiper Belt. In recent discussions of these objects, Weissman & Levison (1997) as well as Gomes (1999) point out that Edgeworth (1949) had similar ideas and, therefore, the belt should more correctly be called the Edgeworth-Kuiper Belt. This belt may contain as many as 6.7 x 109 objects with a radius larger than 1 km within 50 AU (Weissman & Levison, 1997). It is believed to be the source of comets with periods of less than about 200 years and with orbits more or less in the ecliptic plane. Older comets, such...

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Lemurs among primates uniquely coupled with seasonal changes (van Horn, 1975 Pereira, 1993). Furthermore, in contrast to most primate communities in the Neotropics, Africa, or Asia (Terborgh, 1983 Gautier-Hion et al., 1985 Struhsaker, 1997 Chapman et al., 1999), lemurs do not have synchronous birth peaks across species. In Ranomafana sympatric lemurs show that while individuals within a species have synchronized births, different species gave birth at different times of the year (Wright, 1999 Wright et al., 2005a). However, while mating and birth seasons are not synchronized across lemur species, weaning appears to happen in all species during March-April (Wright, 1999 Wright et al., 2005a) in the rainforest.

Cognition

Fodor (1975) has vehemently argued for the existence of an innate, language-independent, language of thought. He insists that computation over representations is the essence of cognition, and that therefore there must be a language of thought in which representations are couched for cognition to occur. He exploits the fact that absolute innatism, like its cognate absolute idealism, is irrefutable we must, he argues, possess the complete set of representations from birth. Essentially, the argument boils down to the fact that, if concept Y is logically distinct from concept X, it cannot possibly have been learned as an extension of concept X if it is not logically so distinct, it essentially is concept X. It is therefore, either a distinct innate concept, or an extension of an innate concept. To his opponents like Talmy who insist on compositional semantics with new meanings emergent from combinations of old such, Fodor offers ridicule it is like saying that 'New York' is simply an...

Intelligence

Wynn's studies are based on the classic investigations of Jean Piaget into patterns of cognitive development in human children -using this as a possible analogue for the development of similar mental abilities during the course of human evolution (Piaget 1960, 1970). Piaget identified three major stages of cognitive development, which he referred to respectively as the 'sensorimotor' stage, extending from birth to about 18-24 months the 'pre-operational' stage, from 18-24 months to around 6-7 years and the fully 'operational' stage, from 6-7 years onwards. Although each stage was defined by a number of different cognitive aspects (levels of communication skills, emotional reactions, social relationships etc.), Piaget argued that each stage was reflected equally in the ways in which children visualize and manipulate physical objects. Piaget was convinced that in recognizing these sequential stages in childhood development he had also identified the major stages in the mental evolution...

Problems with males

When the queen is present, however, the workers generally remain sterile. This is especially remarkable since, according to the theory of kin selection, they would be better served by reproducing, thereby passing on more copies of their genes. If a queen has mated only once, the workers will share with their own sons half of their genetic inheritance, whereas their degrees of kinship with their brothers (who are male offspring of the queen) or their nephews (offspring of other workers) will drop respectively to 0.25 and 0.375. It is conceivable that, as they are closer to their nephews than to their brothers, it would be to their advantage to help their sisters reproduce rather than their mother. But the queen, too, has more to gain in the matter of heredity if she gives birth to her own male offspring, with whom her degree of kinship is 0.5, than if she is content to have grandsons (0.25). In this area as in others, the interests of the queen and the workers diverge, heralding new...

No sex please

Thus the queen has it both ways, eating her cake and having it. By producing new queens via asexual reproduction, she avoids paying the cost of sex, because she hands on all her genes to her reproductive daughters. But by using sexual reproduction to give birth to barren daughters, she manages to maintain the colony's

First Impressions

Telescope atop the Eyring Science Center on the campus of Brigham Young University (see Figure 1.2). There were several other young couples with us on that occasion, and, like us, one of the other couples was expecting a child in the near future. The sky clarity and stillness were ideal, and Saturn made a huge impression on each of us. The night was June 28, 1962, and before the evening hours of June 29 both expectant mothers had given birth to healthy new babies. It is entirely possible that our viewing of Saturn that evening had no connection with the births of those two babies it is also likely that the climbing of a steep flight of stairs that marked the entrance to the observatory was more directly responsible for the timing of these blessed events than was Saturn. Whichever (if either) hastened the births of the two babies, Saturn has nevertheless held a special place in our family's hearts and minds since that night.

Holding Water

At the same time, baby Venus and baby Mars arrived, also swaddled in thick, steamy air. They were littermates, fresh rocky worlds coalescing out of a single swarm of tussling planetesimals. Almost surely, they all began life somewhat waterlogged. How come only Earth has managed to remain so Why did Venus and Mars lose their water while Earth retained what seems to us a healthy amount The answer may lie in the different ways that each responded to the hot, steamy birth experience.

Conclusion

Acknowledgments I am grateful to Robin Fox, Peter Kappeler, and Joan Silk for their helpful comments on the manuscript, and to Julie Cascio for technical assistance with the figures. I also thank several people who provided invaluable comments on my book Primeval Kinship How Pair-Bonding Gave Birth to Human Society, on which the present chapter is based, namely Peg Anderson, Bernard Bernier, Annie Bissonnette, Carol Berman, Robert Crepeau, Michael Fisher, Michel Lecomte, Martin Muller, Jean-Claude Muller, Robert Sussman, Shona Teijeiro, and Richard Wrangham.

Ichthyosaurs

Stenopterygius

Of all reptiles, the ichthyosaurs were the most highly specialised for aquatic life. So fully adapted to a marine existence were they that they never came ashore, but gave birth to ovoviviparous young in the sea. The babies emerged tail first, as do those of whales. (If they were born head first, they would drown.) The external nares or nostrils were set back near the eyes so that the animals had only to break the water surface very slightly in order to breathe.

Giant brains

Coefficient Encephalisation

Such similarities are indeed intriguing but do they really address the central question as to whether or not humans as a biological property are inevitable This is because as well as having a complex social system, agriculture, placentas and live birth, warm-bloodedness, and vocalization, we have something else. Even if some reptiles give birth to live young, and others chewed the equivalent of celery, their mental powers neither were nor are conducive to rumination. Whatever may be said in favour of reptiles, their brain size is distinctly disappointing. Bigger brains are largely the prerogative of the birds and mammals, although as we saw earlier the electrosensory mormyrid fish also weigh in with a hefty brain. To a first approximation the size of the brain scales to the body mass (Fig. 9.2).86 Most mammals, the group upon which I shall now concentrate, have a brain whose size matches the

Synapsids

Jurassic Marsupials

Lay eggs, and marsupial and placental mammals have very different styles of gestation. Many non-vertebrate groups have also independently evolved the ability to give birth to live young. This feature thus assumes less importance in identification of the clade and, possibly, in explaining its Cenozoic success.

Life Styles

It is not yet known for certain whether the pterosaurs gave birth to living young or laid eggs, but it seems more probable that theywere oviparous. Fossils of eggs, which could easily have been those of pterosaurs, have been discovered on several occasions. In the case of Quetzalcoatlus, fossils of eggs have been found at the same site in Texas as have fossils of the adults. As yet, however, there is no positive proof that the two were associated. So far, no fossils of adult pterosaurs have been found with either eggs or embryos in their bodies. Indeed, there is no indication of the gender of most individuals although in the case of certain species of Rhamphorhynchus there are sufficient fossils for statistical confirmation of the fact that two forms are present. One, probably representing the males, has larger skulls and wings than the other that may consist of females (Wellnhofer 1991). Quetzalcoatlus northropi (wingspan ca. 12 m) is known only from wing fragments, but bones of...

Pyramid Power

Our DNA is being reprogrammed to trigger our metamorphosis and activate our light body. Time is speeding up because of Earth's changing electromagnetic forces. Some believe that our 24 hour day has been condensed into a 16 hour day. It has become very clear about Earth's place in our solar system and how we are a part of Her. When she is affected by increases in energy coming from Galactic Center, so are we. She is a living being undergoing her own process of growth and transformation. Our development mirrors hers. We and Earth are raising our vibrational frequencies, which is slowly birthing us both into a dimension or reality.

Speciation

The best concept to apply to fossil organisms is debated. As of now there are no fossils of hominins killed in the act of mating. (Although there are dinosaurs from Mongolia that fossilized in the act of fighting and there is a fossil ichthyosaur (an extinct dolphin-like reptile) that got buried while giving birth.) In fossils too old to preserve ancient DNA it is impossible to knowwhich ones could interbreed successfully. Therefore, the biological species concept, which is the concept most commonly used to group living mammals, is of no use for hominin paleontology. Instead, scientists must look to morphological variation within living species of humans, monkeys, and apes to gauge and predict the amount of variation one expects to find within species in the hominin fossil record.

Just Go And Look

It's a bit like the legal distinction between an adult and a minor. For legal purposes, and for deciding whether a young person is old enough to vote or join the army, it is necessary to make an absolute distinction. In 1969 the legal voting age in Britain was lowered from twenty-one to eighteen (in 1971 the same change was made in the USA). Now there's talk of lowering it to sixteen. But, whatever the legal voting age may be, nobody seriously thinks the stroke of midnight on the eighteenth (or twenty-first, or sixteenth) birthday actually turns you into a different kind of person. Nobody seriously believes there are two kinds of people, children and adults, with 'no intermediates'. Obviously we all understand that the whole period of growing up is one long exercise in intermediacy. Some of us, it might be said, have never really grown up. Similarly, human evolution, from something like Australopithecus afarensis to Homo sapiens, consisted of an unbroken series of parents giving birth...

Diapsids

Marine reptiles appeared in the Triassic, and radiated through much of the Mesozoic. Some groups that took to the water are familiar today, such as turtles and crocodiles. Others are extinct, and the most important of these are the ichthyosaurs and sauropterygians, including the plesiosaurs and pliosaurs. The origin of the ichthyosaurs is unknown they are a highly evolved, or derived, family. They had large eyes and sharp, conical teeth, and well-preserved specimens often contain fish scales or belemnite hooks in their stomachs. Rare specimens have been preserved in the act of giving birth, showing that they bore live young. Sauropterygians evolved from the line leading to modern reptiles and snakes in the Permian. They evolved into marine predators that swam using their highly modified limb paddles. Some may have been specialized bottom feeders, while others were predatory on smaller marine reptiles. Along with pterosaurs and dinosaurs, most marine reptiles became extinct at the end...

On Human Nature

At the same time that the hominid cranial volume was undergoing its spectacular increase, there was another striking change in human anatomy as the British anatomist Sir Wilfred Le Gros Clark of Oxford University has observed, there was a wholesale reshaping of the human pelvis. This was very likely an adaptation to permit the live birth of the latest model large-brained babies. Today, it is unlikely that any further substantial enlargement of the pelvic girdle in the region of the birth canal is possible without severely impairing the ability of women to walk efficiently. (At birth, girls already have a significantly larger pelvis and skeletal pelvic opening than do boys another large increment in the size of the female pelvis occurs at puberty.) The parallel emergence of these two evolutionary events illustrates nicely how natural selection works. Those mothers with hereditary large pelvises were able to bear large-brained babies who because of their superior intelligence were able...

Honorary mammals

It is in its reproduction, however, that the kiwi (Fig. 8.7) is the most mammal-like. Not so far as giving birth to live young like the monotreme mammals, such as the duck-billed platypus, the kiwi still lays eggs. Given the widespread occurrences of ovoviviparity, that is, where the egg is retained in the female who ultimately gives birth to live young (and as discussed below is strongly convergent), it is something of a mystery why, with one dubious exception concerning a budgerigar living in Dorking,137 no bird has managed to become capable of live births. There has been no shortage of suggestions, including potential problems of immunology (leading to rejection of the embryo), the type of sex determination (which in birds depends on the female, with a ZZ-ZW system of chromosomes as against our XX-XY

Human Adaptation

The consequences of vitamin D depletion include the onset of rickets, where bones do not form properly, often leaving the affected individual incapable of independent locomotion. A person's leg bones with rickets literally buckle under their weight. What's more, women who suffer severely from rickets have misshapen pelvic bones that render natural childbirth difficult to impossible. This is a direct link to fitness. In fact there are very few areas away from the tropics where people with darkly pigmented skin can live year-round and absorb enough UVB. Many

Tales Of Dim Eden

Perhaps this is simply a metaphor of the unpredictability of the future. But my invariable dream experience is that I am unable to read, I can recognize, for example, a stop sign by its color and its octagonal shape, but I cannot read the word STOP, although I know it is there. I have the impression of understanding the meaning of a page of type, but not by reading it word by word or sentence by sentence. I cannot reliably perform even simple arithmetic operations in the dream state. I make a variety of verbal confusions of no apparent symbolic significance, like mixing up Schumann and Schubert. I am a little aphasic and entirely alexic. Not everyone I know has the same cognitive impairment in the dream state, but people often have some impairment. (Incidentally, individuals who are blind from birth have auditory, not visual dreams.) The neocortex is by no means altogether turned off in the dream state, but it certainly seems to suffer important malfunctions.

Vestigial Traits

Small, nonfunctional third nipples are not unusual in humans. These kinds of evolutionary leftovers, like the rare occurrence of a human tail, are what are known as vestigial traits, or atavisms. As the manifestation of an organism's evolutionary history, vestigial traits are stamps in the passport of evolution. Some mammals, like mice and dogs, have multiple mammary glands for feeding litters of young. Humans, like most primates (but there are some exceptional strepsirhines with multiple nipples), normally give birth to one baby at a time that requires only a pair of mammary glands for nursing. Extra nipples on humans symbolize the common ancestry with other mammals that have more than two teats.

Sperm bank

For the rest of her life, she will draw upon them to fertilize her ova, eventually giving birth to offspring whose fathers have been dead for many years. The survival of such a natural sperm bank is somewhat mysterious. How do queens manage to keep spermatozoa in their required functional state It has been suggested though this remains a hypothesis that glands close to the spermatheca secrete a substance capable of nourishing the male cells.

Chauvinism

While such chauvinism has been common throughout human history, clearer views have occasionally surfaced, for example, by the great French astronomer Pierre Simon, the Marquis de Leplace. In his classic work La Mecanique Celeste he wrote The Sun's influence gives birth to the animals and plants which cover the surface of the Earth, and analogy induces us to believe that it produces similar effects on the planets for it is not natural to pose that matter, of which we see the fecundity develop itself in such various ways, should be sterile upon a planet so large as Jupiter, which, like the Earth, has its days, its nights, and its years, and on which observation discovers changes that indicate very active forces. Man, formed for the temperature which he enjoys upon the Earth, could not, according to all appearance, live upon the other planets but ought there not to be a diversity of organization suited to the various temperatures of the globes of this universe If the difference of...

Pregnancy And Childbirth

Pregnancy And Childbirth

If Pregnancy Is Something That Frightens You, It's Time To Convert Your Fear Into Joy. Ready To Give Birth To A Child? Is The New Status Hitting Your State Of Mind? Are You Still Scared To Undergo All The Pain That Your Best Friend Underwent Just A Few Days Back? Not Convinced With The Answers Given By The Experts?

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