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Section Christianity and the Church

Virtually the only institution of the Roman Empire that survived and thrived in Western Europe during the Dark Ages was the Church. Most of the inhabitants of the Roman Empire had been converted to Christianity before Rome fell, and most of the Germanic tribes were converted in the course of the next three centuries. (The Scandinavians were converted somewhat later.) In many ways the medieval Church was a government, and in many fields (such as marriage and divorce) it exercised exclusive jurisdiction. The chief Church official in each region was the bishop, and he appointed the local priests. Understandably, each king wished to appoint the bishops in his kingdom however, the Pope (who was the bishop of Rome) claimed the right to appoint the other bishops throughout Western Europe, which was a frequent cause of discord between medieval kings and the Papacy. Because so many of their subjects were devout Christians, the monarchs could not easily prevail in their disputes with the...

Church Hole

Church Hole Cave

Since the most spectacular figure, discovered at the start, was in Church Hole (Pl. 11), we decided to begin our systematic prospecting in that cave from its mouth, along the left wall to the interior, as far as the far end over 75 metres depth, and then back again towards the exterior along the right wall. During the systematic campaign of documentation of spring 2004 we discovered new figures which have potentially increased, in our opinion, the iconographic corpus of British Palaeolithic rock art to fifty-six figures in Church Hole, one in Robin Hood Cave, and one in Mother Grundy's Parlour. Our work centred on Church Hole Cave, making the most of the scaffolding installed for that purpose. The methodology of the study was that which we routinely employ in various caves as mentioned above, taking a detailed look from the entrance to the back along the left wall, and then returning to the exterior along the right wall. Each of the incised elements was recorded on a plan of the cave,...

Section The Protestant Reformation

The Protestant Reformation was a religious movement in Christian Europe, originating as a protest against certain practices and doctrines of the Catholic Church, and resulting in the establishment of various independent Christian sects (the Protestant churches). Among the underlying causes of the Reformation were Lots of Christians resented the worldliness exhibited by many members of the Catholic clergy. (The extraordinary success of the Roman Catholic Church had vested a great deal of power in the clergy and, notoriously, power corrupts.) Differences in religious doctrine. Despite the name, the Reformation was not a reform movement, but a revolutionary movement. A reformer believes that the institution he wants to improve is fundamentally good. However, many of the Protestant leaders believed that the doctrines of the Roman Catholic Church did not follow the Holy Scriptures, and some even believed that the Pope was the Antichrist. They therefore did not wish to remove a few corrupt...

To Rome and the Jesuits

The papacy had strengthened its grip on the Church. Luther's Reformation in northern Europe was a seismic shockwave that demanded a new direction. The Council of Trent (1545-1563) spelt out the basic tenets of the Catholic faith, and at least got rid of some of the blemishes that Luther had pointed to. It was the start of a fight to win back its lost standing - the Counter-Reformation. The Council of Trent accentuated the splits within Europe by defining the Catholic Church's ideological foundation absolute monopoly on Christian When Galileo arrived in Rome, he found himself in the midst of energetic upheaval in the city on various levels. Pope Sixtus V Peretti unrelentingly tore down cramped, old blocks of houses and constructed wide, straight thoroughfares between the main churches. The streets echoed to the constant noise of cobbles being pounded into place - more than a hundred streets were permanently surfaced in a five-year period. The two chief seats of the organisation's...

The Letter to Castelli

Concerning the secondary conclusions the Church drew from various biblical passages, Galileo thought - and this perhaps not without a trace of irony - that it would be safest not to postulate more articles of faith and dogma than those absolutely essential for belief and salvation. Bible's words and the Church's authority. For the discussion continued in Florence, amongst clerics and in other public forums. But neither Galileo nor Castelli took much notice of all the talk, until the matter suddenly blew up a few days before Christmas 1614, a year after the Letter to Castelli had been written. Precisely what Cigoli had hinted at three years previously, occurred. Father Tommaso Caccini mounted the pulpit of the Dominicans' mother-church, Santa Maria Novella, and delivered a blazing sermon that began with a text from the Acts of the Apostles 1,11 Ye men of Galilee, why stand ye gazing up into heaven The play on words was especially effective in Latin Viri Galilaei could just as easily...

Assess Condition of the Remains or Artifact

One example is that of an on-site field examination of the mummies of Urbania, Italy, at the Church of the Brotherhood of the Good Death (Mama Mia Mummies 2003). These accidental mummies are on display behind the main portion of the church. The mummies were displayed in an upright position and were held in place by fragile wires. The initial conventional radiographs, conducted with the mummies in place, demonstrated that the remains were too fragile to be moved and severely limited future imaging research (Figure 2.68).

Section The Roman Catholic Eastern Orthodox split

Prior to the fall of Rome, the Bishop of Rome (the Pope) was acknowledged by most Christians as the leading church official in Europe. However, during the Dark Ages when Rome was a small city, while Constantinople was the largest and richest city in Europe Christians living in Eastern Europe tended to pay more attention to the leading church figure there, the Patriarch of Constantinople. In 1054 ad, a disagreement between the Patriarch and the Pope led to a permanent split in the governing structure of the Christian church in Europe. After the split, most Christians in the Balkans and in Russia became Eastern Orthodox, whereas most Christians in the rest of Europe were Roman Catholic. Although the immediate cause of the break was a minor issue of doctrine, the main differences between the two churches were political, cultural, and linguistic.

Galileo Galilei and Discovery of the Galilean Moons

Galileo Galilei was perhaps the first person to effectively use a telescope to explore the heavens, and is credited with being the first person to use a telescope to look at Jupiter. In January 1610 he noticed three star-like objects lined up in a row in Jupiter's equatorial plane (he eventually discovered a forth one). This alignment apparently aroused his deep curiosity and he eventually came to the conclusion that they must be in orbit around Jupiter What a discovery Seeing that another planet had bodies in orbit about itself, and knowing of the problems with the orbital theories of the time, Galileo came to the further conclusion that the Earth must not be the center of the motions that were observed in the universe. Having previously been encouraged in his other scientific studies by the Church in Rome, Galileo made his findings known to the Pope. Much to his disappointment, the Church soon took exception to his assertions that Earth was not the center of the universe and forbade...

Soft and Bony Tissue Biopsy Histology and Pathology

One of the primary uses of the medical endoscope is to obtain samples for pathological analysis. These analyses can help determine tissue type and the presence of disease. It follows that the VE used for anthropological research can accomplish those same goals. In mummified human remains, tissue elements of organs and organ systems are not necessarily in their appropriate anatomical position, nor is their morphology the same as while living. In a crypt mummy from the Church of the Holy Trinity in Popoli, Italy, a biopsy was taken using the laparoscopic technique of what was believed to be lung tissue. After rehy-dration of that tissue, it was found to be diaphragm and not lung tissue. Even so, once the tissue was stained and examined microscopically, the sample demonstrated calcifications (Figure 4.37), indicating a long-standing disease process (Ventura 2002). Tissue sampling

Cytogenetics of Spartina alterniflora

The chromosome numbers of S. alterniflora existed a high degree of polyploidy with chromosomes present in multiples of seven (Church, 1940). Octoploids with 56 and the decaploids with 70 chromosomes have been reported, and two levels of polyploidy within S. alterniflora were found to be morphologically and ecologically distinct. Thus, Church (1940) concluded that the basic number of chromosomes within this genus is seven. However, controversy existed as to whether the tall and short forms of S. alterniflora differ genetically or simply reflect differences in adaptation to the environment to which they are exposed. The short form, S. alterniflora var. glabra (Muhl.), was characterized as being octoploid (n 7) with 56 chromosomes and the tall form, S. alterniflora, var. pilosa (Merr.), was characterized by being a more robust decaploid (n 7) with 70 chromosomes. A cytological study of S. alterniflora populations in northeastern U.S.A. and Canada conducted by Marchant (1970), excluded S....

Case The Nobleman and saint Philomena

The mummified remains of a male were recently discovered in a crypt below the floorboards of the Church of the Holy Trinity in Popoli, Italy (Ventura et al. 2002). It was first believed that the remains were those of a priest based on the burial location in the sacristy within the church. The remains were well preserved, and after a radiographic examination conducted in the crypt, a coin-sized metallic object was seen at the side of the mummy, and further verified by CT scan (Figure 7.27). A pouch underneath the overcoat of the mummy, which contained the object, was visualized via endoscopy and extracted under endoscopic

Changing Patterns Of Cave

Studies of cave usage in antiquity have tended to interpret human activities at cave sites as either ritual (including art, burial, and votive deposition), or as subsistence-related, for instance domestic occupation, storage, industrial activities, and refuge (Bonsall and Tolan Smith 1997 Galanidou 2000). It is often difficult to reconstruct patterns of usage from the cultural evidence preserved at specific cave sites (Church Hole cave is one of very few Palaeolithic caves in the country for which both ritual and subsistence activities are in evidence). The nature and quality of the archaeological evidence recorded from earlier cave excavations, the frequent lack of structural modifications within cave sites and the ephemeral and palimpsest nature of the activities themselves all serve to render interpretations of past activities imprecise. The caves and rockshelters of the Southern Magnesian limestone contain an impressive amount of evidence for Palaeolithic human activity, mainly...

Biopsy and Retrieval Tools

Some industrial VEs do not have a biopsy channel, as do their medical counterparts. To remedy this, two methods are available. The first is to affix a biopsy channel to the external surface of the VE (Figure 4.18). This, of course, increases the diameter of the system and may decrease flexibility regarding insertion routes. The second approach is similar to the laparoscopic medical approach in that visualization is provided from one point of entry, while the biopsy tool is introduced into the field of view from another point of entry (Figure 4.19). We have been successful in extracting a large renal stone using this method from an 18th century mummy discovered in a crypt beneath the Church of the Holy Trinity in Popoli, Italy. Artifact retrieval can be accomplished using these same procedures.

Herculesstream stars and the metalrich thick disk

19001, Santiago 19, Chile 2 Department of Astronomy, University of Michigan, 830 Dennison Building, 500 Church Street, Ann Arbor, MI 48109-1042, USA 3Lund Observatory, Box 43, SE-221 00 Lund, Sweden 4 Department of Astronomy and Space Physics, University of Uppsala, Box 515, SE-751 20 Uppsala, Sweden

A virus inserts its DNA into E coli

No one was more excited by the new results than a young American biologist named James Watson. Watson was only twenty when he was initiated into the Phage Church, blasting E. coli's viruses with X-rays for his dissertation work. He was taught the conventional view that genes are made of proteins, but his own research was drawing his attention to DNA. He saw Hershey and Chase's experiment as a powerful new proof that DNA is the primary genetic material.

Still say its only a theory

The history-deniers themselves are among those that I am trying to reach in this book. But, perhaps more importantly, I aspire to arm those who are not history-deniers but know some - perhaps members of their own family or church - and find themselves inadequately prepared to argue the case.

Marvellous Combination of Circumstances

During his previous visit to Rome in 1615-16, when Galileo had crushed his opponents in improvised discussions about Copernicus in the homes of the Roman ruling classes, he had bumped into an old acquaintance, Francesco Ingoli, who had studied law at Padua. Ingoli had chosen a career in the church, but he was interested in astronomy and had published a couple of minor works on heavenly phenomena. He was not convinced by Galileo's The project could be launched in support of the Church Protestants were not to be left under the misapprehension that Catholics were so stupid that they could not reason clearly and scientifically On the other hand, their piety caused them to relinquish a theory that they had carefully provided proofs for, if it ran contrary to the Bible's express words and the Church's authority.

Objections And Controversies

Before the authenticity of its decoration was accepted unanimously, Gouy, like Church Hole, was not exempt from scepticism. This attitude inevitably accompanies discoveries which call into question our knowledge in all fields of research. However, doubt is necessary and, in some ways, it is obviously very useful. In particular, it incites one to gather together all the elements that And finally, there was the discovery of the parietal art of Church Hole (Bahn et al. 2003 and this volume). The frame of mind which leads people to reject, in advance, any new element that does not fit the established framework may be outmoded, but it is still encountered at times today. At Church Hole, questions were posed about the depiction of animal species, no bones of which have yet been found in Great Britain. At Gouy, a possible 'presence of reindeer' was noted in the preliminary results (1989) of a second palaeontological analysis (Richard 1972). This hypothetical identification involved an...

First Came Adam and Eve Then Came Cain and Abel

Constantine had called this extraordinary and unprecedented convocation of bishops in the summer of A.D. 325 because there was a crisis in the church, and he wanted it resolved immediately. The crisis was a deepening controversy 2Pope Sylvester, who was very frail and elderly at this time, was one of the few church officials not in attendance. Eusebius was a prolific writer who, in earlier years, had written several popular books, including one on the history of the martyrs. One of his strategies for returning to the good graces of his fellow bishops and the church was to make a direct appeal to the emperor. He decided to prepare a new edition of one of his old books in honor of Constantine. The book was a chronology of world history, which he had originally written some thirty years earlier. It was a compendium of all the known peoples and their histories from the beginning of time until the present. He also wrote a completely new book for the emperor, this one a history of the...

Professors Commitments

Galileo's family life was removed to a small house just a few minutes away. There, the couple's eldest daughter, Virginia, was born on 13 August 1600, defornicazione11, as the church register blandly states, i.e. out of wedlock . Galileo is not mentioned there, nor in the entry for the couple's second daughter, Livia Antonia, the following year. The tone is certainly a little less harsh this time daughter of madonna Marina Gamba and 12 When Marina and Galileo had their third and last child in 1606, the church registry is even more discreet young Vincenzio is registered as son of madonna Marina, daughter of Andrea Gamba, and an unknown father 13.

The Tube with the Long Perspective

One of the men pointed the tube to the north, towards the glass-manufacturing island of Murano, about a mile off. He had a little trouble locating the church of San Giacomo within the small field of vision but, once found, he could clearly make out the people who were going in and out of the church door. A little way off a gondola was tied up on the Glass-makers' Canal, and people were disembarking.

Section The Byzantine Empire

During the entire Byzantine era, Constantinople was a great commercial metropolis, noted for its art, its artisans, and its wealth. Throughout the Middle Ages, the Byzantines preserved the writings of the Greeks, and their scholars read and admired the Greek classics. However, in most literary fields the Byzantines were conservative, rather than innovative. Their best fields tended to be those where the Romans had excelled law, administration, military organization, architecture, and engineering. Hagia Sophia, constructed as a church during the reign of Justinian, has long been considered one of the masterpieces of world architecture.

Weighing the Words of Others on Gold Scales

Six weeks prior to the papal election, Cardinal Barberini, as he then was, had written these words to Galileo. Now he had been crowned with the tiara and dressed in papal vestments during a ceremony in which he had surprised everybody by prostrating himself on the floor of St Peter's before the altar and praying that God would end his life if his pontificate was anything but a blessing to the Church. Galileo's re-kindled hope certainly was not unfounded. Young Francesco Barberini had just been made a member of the Accademia dei Lincei, and Urban VIII's first official action was to make his nephew a cardinal. Prince Cesi altered the rule about churchmen not being academicians for Francesco's sake. Other members of the Academy also stood high in the Pope's favour. One of these, Giovanni Ciampoli, was given the highly influential post of Papal Secretary and Privy Chamberlain. Suddenly Galileo had a number of contacts right inside the Church's hub of power. But the appointment of his...

Nor Further to Hold Teach or Defend It in Any Way Whatsoever

This tremendous aggression was noted by another observer, the German Catholic, Lukas Holstein. He was an outsider and saw the situation with fresh eyes. He was worried about the real problem as well, which in Rome had been completely obscured in the excitement surrounding declarations and formulations what would happen to the Church's authority if Copernicus was right after all It would take a long time to report the cause of the hatred harboured against the very fine old man Galileo but one thing cannot be seen without irritation, that is, that persons completely incapable have been given the task of examining the book of Galileo and the whole Pythagorean and Copernican system, while it is above all a matter of the authority of the Church which will suffer widely from a less correct judgment. Galileo suffers from the envy of those who see in him the only obstacle to their having the reputation of the highest mathematicians. Because this whole storm was raised by the personal hatred...

That Universe Is Not Any Greater Than the Space I Occupy

However, Galileo also received discreet assistance and support from the Church as well.126 Neither the Pope nor the Holy Office could tolerate such ideas spreading within the Church, no matter how devout the Piarist Order was in its day-to-day running. The order was dissolved in 1646.

The Explanatory Filter and Forensics

On 3 October 1998, John Wayne Punkin Brown, Jr., was preaching at the Rock House Holiness Church in northeastern Alabama. With him was his 3-foot-long timber rattlesnake. The snake bit Brown on his finger, and the 34-year-old collapsed and died within 10 minutes. He had survived an estimated 22 snakebites. Brown's family does not rule out the possibility that his death was due to a heart attack rather than the snakebite. In 1991 Glendel Buford Summerford, pastor of the Church of Jesus with Signs Following, was convicted of trying to kill his wife with poisonous snakes. Summerford, a snake-handling preacher, forced his wife at gunpoint to place her arm into a box full of rattlesnakes. The court found him guilty of attempted murder (Covington 1996).

New Star in an Unchanging

For Galileo, perhaps the most important result of the nova was that he had to apply himself seriously to astronomy, a corner of the curriculum he had not studied in depth up to that point. But he was certainly aware that the parallax question could also be turned into a serious argument against the Copernican theory of the Sun in the centre and the Earth in orbit, presumably the best scientific argument the Church and the defenders of tradition had.

Death and Two New Sciences

The Holy Office was clearly accustomed to anonymous written complaints. At any rate, it took no obvious notice of the accusations against Galileo and his most venerable host, unless the decision to allow Galileo to return to Florence was motivated by a feeling that it might be advantageous to get him away from an influential aid as powerful as an archbishop. If those in the most elevated circles of the Church reckoned that Grand Duke Ferdinando II was easier to control than one of their own prelates, they were completely right. At first it looked as if the Republic of Venice might be his salvation. Courageous Paolo Sarpi had been followed by a worthy heir, Father Micanzio. He had written Sarpi's biography and, on his death, had assumed the position of theological adviser to the Venetian Senate, a position that entailed many confrontations with Rome as Venice still was not especially keen to bend the knee to the dictates of the Church in matters large and small. The situation was...

European Power Struggle and Roman Nephews

Urban VIII Barberini was a francophile. His career had taken off in France, where he had shone at court. As pope he needed a powerful France for political reasons, as a counterweight to Spain. But the French, led by Cardinal Richelieu gradually began to support the Protestants quite openly. This was something that the Prince of the Church could not countenance. Urban had to show solidarity with the imperial war effort, but his solidarity was limited to words of encouragement he provided neither funds nor troops.

An Advantageous Decree

Cesi left no will behind him and no adult heirs. As he was the organisational and financial force behind the Lyncean Academy, all its work was paralysed. No one else could make the necessary decisions, and the remaining members were forced to concentrate on one immediate practical problem they had to save the Academy's library. There were books in it that would not bear close scrutiny by the Church authorities.

Convinced with Reasons

In a strictly legal sense, Father Inchofer was completely right in his judgement. Galileo had held, taught and defended the heliocentric system and was guilty. The fact that it was not just the law - or for that matter theology - that counted within the Catholic Church, but the entire, convoluted matrix of connections, protectors and influence, he was shortly to experience himself. Inchofer had to quit Rome in disgrace after arguing against the practice of castrating young boys in order to keep their singing voices pure. This could hardly be called a particularly heretical viewpoint - but the choir in the Sistine Chapel needed castrati, and Inchofer was exiled to Milan The defendant had. It had occurred to him to read the Dialogue again, something he claimed not to have done for three years. He wanted to see if, despite his purest motives certain formulations could have emanated from his pen that might be construed as contrary to the Church's ordinances. And alas, he was forced to...

Gifted Young Tuscan

It is said that Galileo's first scientific discovery was made in Pisa Cathedral during Mass. From his pew in the church he noticed a chandelier that was swinging to and fro, and he noted that the time these small oscillations took was constant and unrelated to how far the lamp swung.

Sun Stand Thou Still upon Gibeon

If the Lord could, by a miracle, make the Sun stand still, the implication had to be that it normally moved. Therefore there was an open conflict between Scripture's unambiguous words and the Copernican theory. To dismantle the entire ingenious Aristotelian-Ptolemaic philosophical edifice would have profound consequences. It would alter enlightened laymen's picture of the world and undermine the prestige of traditional academics. But Galileo knew only too well that those few words in the Book of Joshua had far more weight for many of his opponents. Scriptural interpretation was not an area for private discussion. In the spirit of the Counter-Reformation, everything of this sort was the absolute monopoly of the Church.

The Inquisitions Chambers

Much indicates that someone from this circle may have pointed out the concluding sequence of the Dialogue to Urban VIII, where his well known tenet about God's omnipotence was trotted out by il semplicione, the simpleton. Was this not an infamous trick, a neat way of inferring that the Pope was unsophisticated, that Urban VIII was the jester in the drama beingplayed outbetween the Aristotelian-Ptolemaic system which Galileo so obstinately and obviously despised, and the Copernican, which the Church itself had clearly and expressly forbidden

Insects Were The First Domesticators

The sunflower, Helianthus annuus, is a North American plant whose wild form looks like an aster or large daisy. Cultivated sunflowers today have been domesticated to the point where their flowers are the size of a dinner plate.* 'Mammoth' sunflowers, originally bred in Russia, are 12 to 17 feet high, the head diameter is close to one foot, which is more than ten times the size of a wild sunflower's disc, and there is normally only one head per plant, instead of the many, much smaller, flowers of the wild plant. The Russians started breeding this American flower, by the way, for religious reasons. During Lent and Advent, the use of oil in cooking was banned by the Orthodox Church. Conveniently, and for a reason that I - untutored in the profundities of theology - shall not presume to fathom, sunflower seed oil was deemed to be exempt from this prohibition. This provided one of the economic pressures that drove the recent selective breeding of the sunflower. Long before the modern era,...

The Types of Tools and the Raw Materials

Ancient Stone Tool For Cutting

In 1932 Pei began a collaboration on the archaeology of Longgushan with Pierre Teilhard de Chardin. Teilhard was a widely respected, globetrotting Jesuit geologist and prehistorian who was allowed by the Catholic Church to pursue research for some 20 years in China. He had also been in England for the Piltdown Man discoveries, and before that had worked in the famous archaeological caves of southern France. He now worked for the Geological Survey of China in the capacity of a consultant. Pei and Teilhard examined all the archaeological finds up to that point from the cave and concluded that there were three cultural zones preserved at Longgushan.5 The oldest and most primitive was Zone C, found in the lowest parts of the excavation. Zone B was above that in the excavation, particularly at Locus H, and was typified by hominids' use of better raw materials, such as chert (flint), for the artifacts, and by better techniques of chipping and forming the tools. The highest level was poorly...

Towards a theology of evolution

Thus Darrow embraced a moral perspective, as exemplified by the Leopold and Loeb trial, which led to Dayton and his battle against Bryan. Here was a very different man. No fool as a Democrat, he had been quite close to winning the American presidency, and at the time of Dayton was America's greatest defender of fundamentalist Christianity. Like Darrow he, too, was a brilliant orator. And it was this engagement, between Bryan and Darrow, rather than either the teaching of evolution or its scientific truths, which lay at the heart of this trial. To be sure, the action began as a defence of the protection of civil liberties and the necessary separation of Church and State, and this was initiated as a test case by the American Civil Liberties Union (ACLU). To their dismay, Darrow effectively imposed himself, offering to waive fees in his determination to ridicule and thereby crush the forces of religious obscurantism and, quite incidentally, maintain his public profile. Before long, the...

De Revolutionibus Orbium Coelestium

Viewed in this light, Copernicus' system was viable as a purely intellectual and mathematical model, without the Church needing to involve itself in the matter. And a number of experiments were made in this direction, without producing noticeably better results than the old model, as Copernicus had not been very precise in his specification.

Other Deposits in and Benefits from Impact Structures

Dellen Impact Structure

Besides metallic and mineral deposits, as discussed in detail in the above, impact structures may have much potential for other commercial or economic interests. Building materials have - for centuries - been obtained from impact structures, as, for example, witnessed by the century-old churches in Nordlingen in the Ries Crater of southern Germany and in Rochechouart in the meteorite crater of same name in the Haut-Limousin province of southwestern France. Like the medieval castle at Rochechouart, both historical churches have been erected, to a large degree, with blocks of suevite impact breccia. Impact melt rock has been utilised for the construction of a large hotel in the northern part of the Lappajarvi crater in Finland.

Chapter Comparative Fairy Mythology and Folklore

This is an interesting statement since early Christian theologians used to say that Fairies were fallen angels, or, as Harry Percival Swan wrote, the fairies were angels who had remained neutral during the great war in heav-en. 3 Should we assume that a worldwide race of little people existed, in the dim recesses of time If so, how did they become associated with evil We do know that pagan traditions and icons were intentionally altered by the Church to reflect darker, more evil aspects in an effort to sway pagan populations away from their original beliefs and into the fold of Christianity. According to 19th century folklorist John Fiske Christianity, having no place These nature spirits are widely worshipped and even venerated by the local Christian priests although this practice is not condoned by the Church. They admit these beings are only indirectly apparent but say they are believed to exist in two areas of the Qemant territory. One that is venerated is believed to increase...

Comets Portend Disaster

This was Galileo's great opportunity. The new, absolute ruler of the Catholic Church's spiritual realm and the Papal States' temporal lands was the author of the eulogy Adulatio perniciosa, his admirer, countryman and friend like a brother , the Florentine Maffeo Barberini.

Target Identification for Biopsy and Retrieval

Two examples using conventional radiography with needle localization are provided. In the first case, a radiopaque mass, thought to be a kidney stone, was demonstrated on the abdominal radiograph of a mummy located in a crypt under a church in Popoli, Italy (Tales of an Italian Crypt 2001). In order to remove the mass endoscopically,

The Origin of Icelanders

To help in its quest for disease genes, DeCode Genetics has assembled a genealogical database of the Icelandic population that extends back 1,100 years into the past. It is based on calfskin documents that hold the first 300 years of records, on church archives, and on the data from three complete censuses that were held starting in 1703. DeCode's genealogist, Thordur Kristjansson, reckons the database includes the names of about half the Icelanders who have ever lived, including 85 of those born in the nineteenth century and almost

How to Go to Heaven Not How the Heavens Go

Things were not made better when Galileo learnt that Father Tommaso Caccini, the man who thought that mathematicians ought to be exiled, had gone to Rome. He was to take up a position at the important Dominican monastery in the church of Santa Maria sopra Minerva. Galileo anticipated that Caccini would use his new position to continue the attack on him. This impressive construction did not help much. Bellarmine was also asked for his opinion of this work, and it was not high. Behind the series of courteous fraternal niceties that were expected between sons of the Church, his meaning was crystal clear Copernicus' system couldbe used for purposes After this, Galileo goes on the offensive. He tries to enlist one of the Church fathers on his side. Bellarmine had repeatedly pointed out that the entire theological tradition was against Copernicus' ideas. But Galileo takes the case of Augustine, and believes he can show that he has an anticipatory and wholly different position regarding...

Some Specific Comparanda And Interpretations

Size Boobs Year Old

At least four images in Church Hole and one in Robin Hood cave may formally be regarded as triangular 'vulvae', whatever their interpretation. Such images, be they stylized female genital triangles, hoofprints, or less-obvious items, are known throughout the Upper Palaeolithic from the Aurig-nacian onwards (Bahn 1986). The Creswell vulvae take two main forms. One of these is comprised of three lines that converge in an apex (I acknowledge that others refer to this form as a 'bird track', Hunger 1986) the second takes the form of a triangle within the apex of which is a line or shallow oval. The former are found in both Church Hole and Robin Hood Cave, the latter only in Church Hole. In all cases they are engraved high on the walls (even to the Magdalenians) or on the ceiling. In the case of those engraved on walls (four out of five), the apex of all points downwards, that is, in the 'correct' orientation one would expect for a vulva. Vulvae similar to the Church Hole examples, that...

Institute for Historical Review

In 1978, IHR was founded and organized primarily by Willis Carto, who also published Right and American Mercury (considered by some to have strong antisemitic themes) and now runs Noontide Press, publisher of controversial books including those denying the Holocaust. Carto also runs Liberty Lobby, which is classified by some as an ultra-right-wing organization. In 1980, IHR's promise to pay 50,000 for proof that Jews were gassed at Auschwitz made headlines. When Mel Mermelstein met this challenge, headlines and later a television movie detailed his collection of the award and an additional 40,000 for personal suffering. IHR's first director, William McCalden (a.k.a. Lewis Brandon, Sandra Ross, David Berg, Julius Finkelstein, and David Stanford), was fired in 1981 due to conflicts with Carto and was succeeded by Tom Marcellus, a field staff member for the Church of Scientology who had been an editor for one of the church's publications. When Marcellus left IHR in l995,JHR's editor,...

Introduction And History Of Discoveries

Church Hole (SK 5339 7411) is towards the western end of Creswell Crags gorge. It is the only cave or fissure on the south (Nottinghamshire) side of the crags to have yielded evidence ofhuman occupation. It is not known when the cave got its name and at the beginning of its exploration, perhaps through ignorance, it was referred to simply as 'Fissure C' (Mello 1875) or the 'Notts Cave' (Dawkins n.d., 1876). Looking into the cave from the entrance grille is very like looking down the nave of a church and there may be no more to the name than this resemblance. This study was funded as a part of the Leverhulme Trust project 'Ancient Human Occupation of Britain'. Writing took place in the Dept. of Prehistory and Europe at the British Museum and I thank Jill Cook, head of the Quaternary Section, and Nick Ashton, Senior Curator, for their support. I would like to thank all the curators and staV of the institutions whose collections I have used in piecing together this account the Trustees...

The Reductionist Perspective

How the mother's immune system tolerates the fertilized egg is an interesting and largely unanswered question in the biology of reproduction. Another interesting finding should be mentioned in this context. According to a news article entitled Sex Is Good for You (Buckland, 2002), recreational sex - sex with no procreational purpose - can have a positive impact on pregnancy. But an important qualification should be added sex with the same partner. Sex, early, often, and with the intended father, may help overcome the reluctance of the mother's immune system to accept a fetus that is producing foreign proteins from the father's genes. That is, the more accustomed the woman's immune system is to the man's sperm, the more habitual or conventional the encounter, the less likely her body will be to reject the fetus. From this study we learn two things. First, the Catholic Church was again found to misunderstand the nature of living organisms. If pregnancy should be encouraged, then sex...

Testing Intelligent Design An Uncompromising School Board

One board member, William Buckingham, sought advice from the Thomas More Law Center (TMLC), a Michigan-based organization that describes itself as the sword and shield for people of faith, and was told of a supplemental textbook, Of Pandas and People, that presented ID. The TMLC had, in fact, been searching for a school district willing to mount a test case of the legality of teaching ID (Goodstein 2005). Buckingham proposed to the board that Pandas could be used to counter the evolution presented in the Prentice Hall book. (Pandas was discussed in chapter 6 produced by the Foundation for Thought and Ethics (FTE), it is the first book to use the phrase intelligent design in its modern context.) Teachers examined Pandas and rejected it as not matching the curriculum for high school students and as scientifically inaccurate. They also criticized its old-fashioned pedagogical approach. School board members, led by Buckingham, persisted in holding up the textbook adoption and refused to...

The bombardment hypothesis

Hot mass weighing 127 kg fell, with much noise and flame, into a field in Alsace not far from a party of travellers led by the future Emperor Maximilian I. By his order, it was taken to the church at Ensisheim where it remained until the French Revolution, when it was cut down and distributed to museums.

Bone And Antler Artefacts

All of the bone and antler artefacts from Church Hole are in the British Museum and are parts of the Christy collection. Fig. 7.12. Church Hole bone artefacts flesher needle awls Needles of late Upper Palaeolithic age are known from Cathole (Swansea Green 1984 fig. 10.g), Gough's Cave, and Kent's Cavern (Jacobi 2004 fig. 39.3). Each appears to have been made from thin-walled bone and in the collection from Gough's Cave there is evidence for production of needles from bones of whooper swan (Cygnus cygnus) and mountain hare. By contrast, the needle from Church Hole is thicker (3.7 mm maximum thickness) and has clearly been cut from a large mammal bone. As already noted, there is from Gough's Cave 0xA-4107 Mountain hare, pointed tibia 12,550 + 130 bp Robin Hood Cave OxA-3416 Mountain hare, pointed tibia 12,580 + 110 bp Both determinations are older than any of those for artefacts and bones from Church Hole (Table 7.4) and it is worth considering whether the two awls from Church Hole...

The Southern Magnesian Limestone

Pleasley Vale, a limestone gorge about 10 km south of Creswell Crags (Dawkins 1869). Between 1870 and 1875 sporadic discoveries of fossil animal bones were made at Creswell Crags (Heath 1882 169), and scientific excavations were started in the Creswell caves in 1875 by the Revd J. Magens Mello, assisted by Thomas Heath, George Busk, and joined subsequently by William Boyd Dawkins (1877). These scholars, assisted by other members of the Creswell Caves Exploration Committee, carried out excavations in Church Hole, Pin Hole, Robin Hood Cave, and Mother Grundy's Parlour. Contrary to some reports, these excavations were of a reasonable standard for their day deposits were dug (albeit rapidly) by layers, some sieving for finds was undertaken, and the contexts from which finds were recovered were recorded. Mello and Dawkins also discovered the first portable cave art to be found in Britain an engraving of a horse on an animal rib in Robin Hood Cave (see Bahn, this volume).

Creation Science Expands

The ICR has grown steadily since its inception in the early 1970s, taking pride in always ending the year in the black and never borrowing money for its building projects. To promote creation science, ICR conducts extensive outreach to churches and individuals. In any given week, ICR staff may be found around the country leading workshops, lecturing, or occasionally debating evolution with scientists. The ICR's popular Back to Genesis program, begun in 1988, consists of two days of lectures, movies, and workshops for adults and children. other programs, such as the Good Science Workshops, are aimed at school-age children, parents, and teachers, and focus on creation science education. The ICR's foremost debater, Duane Gish, trained Ham also wrote the new Back to Genesis evangelical pamphlets that, beginning in January 1989, accompanied the ICR newsletter Acts and Facts, and Ham-led Back to Genesis revivals soon were held at least once a month throughout the united States. By August...

Chapter Only A Theory

If my fantasy of the Latin teacher seems too wayward, here's a more realistic example. Imagine you are a teacher of more recent history, and your lessons on twentieth-century Europe are boycotted, heckled or otherwise disrupted by well-organized, well-financed and politically muscular groups of Holocaust-deniers. Unlike my hypothetical Rome-deniers, Holocaust-deniers really exist. They are vocal, superficially plausible, and adept at seeming learned. They are supported by the president of at least one currently powerful state, and they include at least one bishop of the Roman Catholic Church. Imagine that, as a teacher of European history, you are continually faced with belligerent demands to 'teach the controversy', and to give 'equal time' to the 'alternative theory' that the Holocaust never happened but was invented by a bunch of Zionist fabricators. Fashionably relativist intellectuals chime in to insist that there is no absolute truth whether the Holocaust happened is a matter of...

Diplomacy in the Time of the Plague

This was the dramatic development north of the Alps that had caused problems for Pope Urban and had been the backdrop to the scandalous consistory meeting in March. But in Tuscany and Florence the war was far away. Grand Duke Ferdinando II had just reached his majority and, fortunately for his subordinates, Tuscany's ruler no longer had any role to play on the European stage, where power and religion were becoming enmeshed in such an unhappy manner. He did, however, engage himself in local conflicts with the men of the church. The cause of this was his genuine attempt to do something about the most imminent threat to Tuscany the plague. The work was based on vague contemporary ideas of infection. They kept the sick isolated, limited social contact between people and exterminated the sources of infection. This opened the way for a conflict between faith and science even at the local level. Churchmen in villages believed that the best thing to do was to bring the local image of the...

Conservation Works of

Jeremy Bentham (1748-1832) was a forward thinker in London, England. Bentham is frequently associated with the founding of the University of London, specifically University College London (UCL), although in fact he was 78 years old when UCL opened in 1826 and played no active part in its establishment (A Head for Science 2003a). However, it is likely that without his inspiration, UCL would not have been created. Bentham strongly believed that education should be more widely available, particularly to those who were not wealthy or who did not belong to the established church, both of which were required of students by Oxford and Cambridge. As UCL was the first English university to admit all, regardless of race, creed, or political belief, it was largely consistent with Bentham's vision. Bentham is credited with advocating the philosophical social construct of Utilitarianism, which, simply stated, suggests that the needs of the many outweigh the needs of the few, or the one.

Evolution as Theory Not Fact The Cobb County Textbook Sticker

Back before Judge Cooper, plaintiffs were prepared to retry the case, bringing in a new legal team that included Eric Rothschild from Pepper Hamilton and Richard Katskee from Americans United for Separation of Church and State two members of the team that successfully had argued Kitzmiller v. Dover. They asked for and won permission from the judge to bring in expert witnesses and reopen discovery. Before long, the defense had settled. The settlement agreement stipulated that neither antievolution nor pro-creationism or ID disclaimers of any kind, oral or written, would be allowed in the district, and the district was directed to follow the state curriculum regarding the teaching of evolution. Mindful of the district's previous policy of cutting references to evolution out of textbooks, the settlement also forbid excising or redacting materials on evolution in students' science textbooks. The first court trial of a theory, not fact, disclaimer policy, part of the EAE arsenal, had ended...

When Scientists Published The First

Despite its new incarnation, the Archimedes palimpsest carried traces of the original text. The prayer book was passed from church to church, scorched in a fire, splashed with candle wax, freshened up with new illuminations, and colonized by purple fungus. In 1907, a Danish scholar named Johan Heiburg discovered that the battered prayer book was in fact the only surviving copy of Archimedes' treatises in their original Greek. But with only a magnifying glass to help him, Heilburg could

Section Occupational structure of the Ashkenazi Jews

They could, however, be merchants, and many of them were. Furthermore, many rulers, particularly in Poland and Lithuania, welcomed them as bureaucrats and tax collectors. Also, a considerable number of them became moneylenders.9 (That occupation was closed to Christians, since Church law prohibited the taking of interest for centuries, therefore, the Jews had a near-monopoly in that field.)

Interpretation Of The Artistic Complex

Moreover, some researchers have mentioned the non-existence of Bison in the English Late Pleistocene palaeontological record, but we wonder whether this is an erroneous interpretation. In the publication by J. B. Campbell (1970) on the excavations at Creswell Crags, quite apart from the remains found in the Mesolithic level of Mother Grundy's Parlour, he says that in stratum C and D C Bos Bison sp. is present, while it is abundant in level D. In addition, W. Boyd Dawkins (1876) cites the existence in Robin Hood Cave of thirty remains (four mandibles or teeth and twenty-six bones) of Bison priscus in the cave's lower level, which were not introduced by hyenas (since they bear no tooth marks) but perhaps by streams. However, in the intermediate level, the same author reports the presence of six bones of this same species. One needs to take into account the fact that this stratigraphic horizon contains clear evidence of a human presence through the existence of...

List of Illustrations

Plan of Church Hole showing location of the engraved panels 16 2.3. Church Hole Panel III, the 'stag' 18 2.4. Church Hole Panel III, bovid, line drawing 20 2.5. Church Hole Panel IV, line drawing of engraving low 2.6. Church Hole Panel IV, engraving low relief of bird 22 2.7. Church Hole Panel IV, head of bovid (Bison ) 24 2.8. Church Hole Panel IV, head of bovid (line drawing) 24 2.9. Church Hole Panel VII, the 'birds' 27 2.10. Church Hole Panel VII, the 'birds', line drawing 27 3.1. Sketches showing sample locations for the 'notches' and 'birds females' in Church Hole and for the 'vulva' in Church Hole and Robin Hood Cave 41 3.3. U-series results for flowstones overlying engravings in Church Hole and Robin Hood Cave and calibrated radiocarbon dates of humanly modified bones Church Hole 48 4.3. Simulated damage to the 'Birds' panel at Church Hole 51 6.1. The Southern Magnesian Limestone outcrop, with the 7.1. Plan of Church Hole 72 7.2. Longitudinal profiles of Church Hole...

The Paradox of the Soil

The rest of the Borders consisted almost wholly of various farms. The few towns, connected to one another by narrow dirt roads, were tiny, merely collections of a dozen or so sturdy homes. Two deserve specific mention. Just 5 miles from Slighhouses, and clearly visible from Hutton's front door, was Chirnside. This quaint village was built atop a 400-foot-high ridge, one street running east to west along the ridge, and the other one dropping straight downhill and south to the parish church, or kirk, below. The church was the largest in the district, parts of it dating from the twelfth century, and it was the closest to Slighhouses. The large public house, in the middle of town at the top of the ridge, would have been the center of activity on market days.

The Hammer of the Heretics

This did not prevent him from radiating personal authority and he could make the most powerful of men shrink when he gave them one of his penetrating stares. His admiring co-religionists called him the hammer of the heretics . On his grave in the Jesuit mother-church of Il Gesu was this telling inscription By force have I subdued the thoughts of the strong. 38 Over three centuries later he was canonised as San Roberto after one of the most controversial processes in the Church's history. For Galileo, who in the course of that harrowing February had celebrated his fifty-second birthday, was certainly not a broken man. Copernicus' book had not been prohibited for ever. It had to be corrected , something which could surely be effected with an assurance that it described a hypothetical model and not the physical reality. It was also reassuring that he was called in to an audience with Pope Paul V just one week after the Index decree. The Pope's tone was amiable, he assured Galileo that...

R What do we learn from our own solar

Copernicus's theory, which sat ill alongside the teachings of the all-powerful Catholic church of the time, finally found acceptance thanks to the work of mathematicians and astronomers such as Tycho Brahe (1546-1601), Johannes Kepler (1571-1630), Galileo Galilei (1564-1642) and Isaac Newton (1642-1727), whose calculations and observations scientifically justified the Copernican model. Tycho's observations were profitably taken up by his pupil Kepler, who

Context Of The Creswell

The Pleistocene antiquity of the engravings at Church Hole and Robin Hood Cave is beyond doubt (Pike et al., this volume), and of relevance to this paper a U-series date on the flowstone overlying Church Hole Panel VII (the 'birds') indicates that they have a minimum age of 12,800 (cal) bp. In terms of the archaeology of the Creswell caves and of the UK in general (Jacobi 2004), as well as stylistic similarities with art on the continent, the most plausible cultural attribution of the Creswell art is to Garrod's 'Creswellian', which I hereafter refer to as Final Magdalenian. This places the art into a relatively well-dated cultural context broadly in the first half of the Late Glacial Interstadial, that is, between 13,500 and 15,000 (cal) bp, although it Although Late Glacial archaeology in several caves of the Manifold Valley in the Southern Peak District seem to attest human activity in the earlier part of the Younger Dryas (Greenland Stadial 1) and thus not in the Late Glacial...

Triassic To Permian

The uppermost and relatively younger strata of the New Red Sandstone are mostly mudstones, which can be difficult to differentiate from the Lias. The older and lower New Red Sandstone strata are predominantly sandstones, as their name suggests. In places the dark red-brown and occasionally almost blood-red sandstones outcrop at the surface to form low hills. Historically, the sandstones were widely used for building and many of the low hills are surmounted by ancient prestigious buildings such as churches, castles and the grand houses of wealthy landowners.

List of Plates

Engraving of deer on east wall of Church Hole 4. Incomplete engraving of bovid on east wall of Church Hole cave 5. Two vulvae engraved on the west wall of Church Hole, opposite the deer and bovid of Church Hole, between wall engravings of deer and vulvae 7. Part-sculpted, part-natural bird's head on upper wall of Church Hole west wall of Church Hole at the rear of the entrance chamber 10. General view of Creswell Crags looking towards the west. Church Hole cave is in the distance on the left 11. General view of the main cave of Church Hole. Most of the engravings can be found in this area 12. Church Hole Panel III, the 'stag' with engraved lines emphasized. Antler tines are the interpretation of S. Ripoll but are probably natural

List of Tables

U-series results from Church Hole and Robin Hood Cave 40 7.1. Sources of artefacts from Church Hole by institution 82 7.2. Church Hole quartzite artefacts and hammerstones 83 7.3. Contexts of flint artefacts from Church Hole 83 human activity at Church Hole 88 7.6. Late Upper Palaeolithic artefacts from Church Hole 91

Conclusions

Church Hole is a cave which was used in both the Middle Palaeolithic and the late Upper Palaeolithic. Its late Middle Palaeolithic (Mousterian) use may have been pene-contemporaneous with occupation of the cave by spotted hyenas. Humans and hyenas were present during the middle Devensian and there is no reason why Neanderthal use of Church Hole should not have been at about the same time as that of the other Creswell caves. Pettitt (in Bahn et al. 2005) has observed that there is less evidence for late Upper Palaeolithic occupation at Church Hole than there is from the other caves at Creswell Crags Mother Grundy's Parlour, Pin Hole, and Robin Hood Cave. This is, however, difficult to quantify at a locality where the collections are so chronologically mixed. One way around the problem may be to compare counts for Upper Palaeolithic abruptly modified (backed) pieces from each of the four caves. However, even this is not straightforward. For example, at Mother Grundy's Parlour there is...

Conclusion

In terms of a general artistic repertoire, the Creswell art is clearly Final Magdalenian in form. The presence of engravings of a large bovid, a stag, and vulvae, in addition to more ambiguous elements such as vertical lines, demonstrates clearly that the first Palaeolithic groups to occupy Doggerland and adjacent parts of the United Kingdom employed artistic traditions shared by their contemporaries further south and east. The images of Church Hole Panel X do not depict anything readily identifiable, and I have argued above that it is unlikely that the images of Panel VII depict birds. Instead, I have illustrated their general resemblance to contemporary female outlines which are found across a wide spread of the Magdalenian world. As this is so, it would not be surprising that they formed part of any new discovery of contemporary art, or to put it another way we should be more surprised if the Church Hole images really did depict (rare) birds rather than a very common cultural...

Implications

Each of these dates for the formation of flowstone in Church Hole and Robin Hood Cave at Creswell is consistent with a late Upper Palaeolithic antiquity for the art. They eliminate in two cases the hypothesis that the art is of Holocene age and in one case that it is younger than the early Holocene. A series of radiocarbon determinations, largely on human-modified arctic hare bones found in association with late Upper Palaeolithic stone artefacts from Robin Hood Cave, Church Hole, and Pin Hole, give a tight cluster of

Laser Scanning

The 'Birds' panel located within the passageway in Church Hole Fig. 4.1. The 'Birds' panel located within the passageway in Church Hole Triangulation laser scanners typically have a very high resolution and accuracy, making them ideal for accurately recording fine details. In addition to this, the high accuracy also enables us to directly measure changes in the surface of the stone caused by either decay or perhaps even vandalism. The downside, such as it is, is that extremely large datasets can be generated. For example, the 'birds' panel located in the passageway in Church Hole was scanned at a resolution of 0.17 mm and an accuracy of 0.047 mm. The panel required twelve scans to cover an area of only 30 cm wide x 50 cm high. In total, those scans comprised nearly 4 million measurements. Fig. 4.3. Simulated damage to the 'Birds' panel at Church Hole Fig. 4.3. Simulated damage to the 'Birds' panel at Church Hole

Growing Crisis

As discussed in chapter 4, evolution had become well accepted by the scientific community by the turn of the twentieth century. It thereafter began to be included in college and secondary school textbooks. The late nineteenth century was not a period of extensive religious hostility to evolution, partly because of the efforts of American scientists who accepted evolution and who also were active church members. It was not until the twentieth century that the antievolution movement became organized, active, and effective. Three trends converged to produce the first major manifestation of antievolutionism in the twentieth century the growth of secondary education, the appearance of Protestant fundamentalism, and the association of evolution with social and political ideas of social Darwinism that became unpopular after World War I.

Old Earth Creationism

As mentioned, the idea that Earth is ancient was well established in science by the mid-1800s and was not considered a radical idea in either the Church of England or the Catholic Church (Eiseley 1961). From the mid-1700s on, the theology of special creationism has been partly harmonized with scientific data and theory showing that Earth is ancient. To many Christians, the most critical element of special creation is God's personal involvement in Creation precise details of how God created are considered secondary. The present may indeed be different from the past, but old-Earth creationists (OECs) see God as a direct causal agent of the observed changes.

Useries Dating

The interstratification of rock art and flowstone has been used to verify the authenticity of Palaeolithic cave art, for example in the Grande Grotte and Grotte du Cheval at Arcy-sur-Cure, France (Liger 1995). Actual verification of the age of the art by dating of flowstone remains rare, however. One example of such, using U-series dating of calcite, has provided minimum dates for cave paintings at Covalanas, Cantabria, Spain (Bischoff et al. 1999). It is imperative that the stratigraphic relationship between the bed-rock, the art, and the calcite deposit is secure for the resulting U-series dates to be meaningful. At Church Hole and Robin Hood Cave there are several motifs that are clearly incised into the bed-rock, with subsequent thin flowstone formation partially covering the engravings. Three areas where this stratigraphic relationship is unambiguously represented were sampled for U-series dating (Fig. 3.1) the vertical 'Notches' below the Stag (Panel III) and the 'bird female'...

Postscript

In the past twenty years two books have appeared that provide wholly new interpretations of Galileo's career and destiny. Mario Biaglioli's Galileo, Courtier deals with the relationship that Galileo and the science of his age had with the complicated social structure surrounding the Church, the universities and the nobility - what we might call the patronage culture. Biagioli has had an influence on almost everything written on Galileo over the past few years. There are many traces of him in my work as well. Pietro Redondi's Galileo, Heretic re-interprets the entire case, indeed even the course of events from early in the 1620s, in a sensationally novel way. He believes it was Galileo's atomism as formulated - almost in passing -in The Assayer, that was the real cause of Galileo's downfall, because that threatened to contravene the doctrine of transubstantiation. (Grassi's book from 1626, p. 160, would in that case take on an entirely different meaning.) Under these circumstances the...

Allende Meteorite

One of the earliest instances of a meteorite fall on record is that of the Ensisheim meteorite, which descended from the sky onto a wheat field in Alsace (now part of France) in 1492. Maximilian I, who was proclaimed Holy Roman emperor soon afterward, assembled his council to determine the significance of this event their verdict was that the meteorite was a favourable omen for success in Maximilian's wars with France and Turkey. Accordingly, Maximilian ordered the Ensisheim stone to be placed with an appropriate inscription in the local parish church. The meteorite was fixed to the wall with iron crampons to prevent it from wandering at night or departing in the same violent manner in which it had arrived. It resides in the town of Ensisheim today, although visitors in the intervening centuries chipped off all but 56 kg (123 pounds) of its original 127-kg (280-pound) mass. The Ensisheim meteorite is classified as an ordinary chondrite.

Darkrooms

In place by duct tape will eliminate light from windows and around doors with particular attention given to door jambs (Figure 2.15). More inventive light-tight film changing spaces were created within museum displays, a circular staircase leading from a museum up into a cemetery, bathroom stalls, and a church confessional (Figure 2.16). Figure 2.16 Material (arrow) placed over the door of a confessional in a church in Moquegua, Peru, to convert it into a light-tight film changing room. Figure 2.16 Material (arrow) placed over the door of a confessional in a church in Moquegua, Peru, to convert it into a light-tight film changing room.

Deaths and Omens

Galileo's position had certainly been weakened, but not his self-confidence. He knew he was right and that the Holy Office, the Congregation of the Index and the Pope himself were wrong. Things could change. Society and Church politics in Rome shifted constantly, especially in conjunction with a change of popes. New men must necessarily one day come to the most important positions. Banned books could then be rehabilitated it had happened before - even Bellarmine's first book was put on the Index because it was not sufficiently pope-friendly At that time, though, Pope Sixtus V had died before the decision had been made public, and his successor had reversed it without delay. case anyone not belonging to the Church should try to appropriate my curious fancy, as has happened to me with many of my discoveries, these personages, being above all suspicion, may be able to bear witness that it was I who first dreamt of this chimera. 45 Behind this letter lies not only Galileo's self-confident...

The Stuff Of Genes

In the merging dance of E. coli and its viruses, the Phage Church discovered clues to some of life's great questions. And for them there was no greater question than what genes are made of. It would take another decade of research on E. coli and its viruses to start to redeem DNA's reputation. While Avery was sifting Pneumococcus for genes, Delbr ck's Phage Church was learning how to see E. coli's viruses. The viruses were no longer mathematical abstractions but hard little creatures. Using the newly invented electron microscope, Delbr ck and his colleagues discovered that bacteriophages are elegantly geometrical shells. After a phage lands on E. coli, it sticks a needle into the microbe and injects something into its new host. The shell remains sitting on E. coli's surface, an empty husk, while the virus's genes enter the microbe.

Need To Know

What do I mean when I say this is our origin story Just whom am I referring to A bunch of males who are not only dead but white Is this story accepted and embraced by everyone Of course not. But our knowledge of Cosmic Evolution is not in conflict with the core beliefs of most of the religions, and it certainly isn't necessary to discard or discredit older origin stories to embrace this new one. Even if you go to church, temple, or ashram for the singing and the dancing (that's the part I like), for the comfort of spiritual community, or to receive ancient wisdom, you probably accept that science has clued us in to some big truths about our origins that the writers of our ancient texts could not have known. Except for some Rastas I used to play with in a reggae band, and some Jehovah's Witnesses who've knocked on my door, I haven't met many people who take a seven-day Genesis literally.

Youthful Wanderings

Mossner's standard biography of David Hume, there is a marvelous passage about how illegitimacy was dealt with in the eighteenth century. Apparently, David Hume's own father, Joseph, impregnated a young servant girl when he was twenty-one, the same age as Hutton when his indiscretion occurred. The young woman, Elspeth Burnett, who was a servant to Joseph's uncle, testified before a church committee that she was with child in March 1702, and she claimed that Joseph Hume was the father. Joseph took his time about appearing before the same committee. When he finally showed up in August (the baby probably had been born by then), he simply denied the accusation. With barely a pause, he announced that he had to leave for Utrecht, in Holland, and off he went. No one tried to stop him. He did, in fact, go to the University of Utrecht to study law, and he stayed in Holland for the next three years. Mossner points out that young men in Joseph Hume's position were usually recommended by...

Prologue

When I organized the first brief survey of selected British caves for possible art, I and the other members of the team had no idea that we would actually find any. While I agreed with Paul Bahn that it was certainly worth a try, if I were a gambling man I'd have wagered money on the fact that nothing would be found. Thankfully I am not, and I have never been so pleased to have been so wrong. Creswell was, in fact, the first port of call on an itinerary that would take us on to Cheddar Gorge, the Gower Peninsula, and Devon. My strategy involved concentrating on caves and gorges that seemed to attract relatively large amounts of activity in the Late Upper Palaeolithic. There is, of course, no compelling reason why art, ifit was to be found, should be found at such places, but in the absence of any other guiding principles it seemed logical that if we stood a chance of finding any it would be maximized at places which Upper Palaeolithic hunter-gatherers knew well and appeared to return...

Surveyor oflnferno

In fact, it was malaria that had killed them. At all events, that was the story of his brother and successor, and since Ferdinando was of a different stamp to Francesco, he was believed. Ferdinando de' Medici had been made a cardinal at the age of fifteen and had then spent many years in Rome, where he proved himself to be a womaniser of a somewhat unseemly sort for a churchman, but also a brilliant administrator and an avid collector of antique statues. He bought a large house on the slopes of Monte Pincio in order to have somewhere to store his collection. It was called the Villa Medici. But now he had to return home to Florence and his grand ducal title. On the whole Ferdinando was a good ruler. He left the Church and married a distant relative. She was Christina of Lorraine, the granddaughter

Heikea japnica crab

Illinois High Oil Selection Corn

Experimental interference is of enormous importance, because without it you can never be sure that a correlation you observe has any causal significance. This can be illustrated by the so-called 'church clocks fallacy'. The clocks in the towers of two neighbouring churches chime the hours, but St A's a little before St B's. A Martian visitor, noting this, might infer that St A's chime caused St B's to chime. We, of course, know better, but the only real test of the hypothesis would be experimentally to ring the St A's chime at random times rather than once per hour. The Martian's prediction (which would of course be disproved in this case) is that St B's clock will still chime immediately after St A's. It is only experimental manipulation that can determine whether an observed correlation truly indicates causation.

Limone Sul Garda

Their curiosity whetted, the researchers performed blood tests on all 1,000 inhabitants of Limone and found a total of 43 people with this same unusual blood-lipid profile. The local church had birth records going back centuries, and the researchers were able to determine that all those individuals could trace their ancestry back to the same couple (Giovanni Pomaroli and Rosa Giovaneli), who had married in 1780.4 This genealogical pattern suggested that these villagers shared a mutation, which turned out to be a change in the protein called ApoA-I (Apolipoprotein A-I), a major component of high-density lipoprotein (HDL). ApoA-I helps to clear cholesterol from arteries, but this variant, ApoA- (M for Milano), apparently does a considerably better job of it. A change in a single nucleotide modified an amino acid in the protein, completely changing its chemical action.

Psychic Sasquatch

For some, Bigfoot is a forest god, leading our technological society away from our fallen ways and back toward the Garden of Eden. For others, Bigfoot is that secret part of ourselves, hidden from others, but central to who we are. For some, Bigfoot is the core of community, Bigfoot believers are like a church - people to gather with, who share our concerns, our hopes, and our dreams - people who share our fantasies and our realities.

Very Human Machine

Jeff Ashby, another Columbia veteran, spoke at a memorial service in Lufkin, Texas, on 8 February. He recalled the warmth, humanity - and humour - of the STS-107 crew. ''They actually baked cakes for their training instructors on their birthdays,'' he told a congregation at the First Baptist Church. ''The crew mascot

Saturnus Triformis

First Picture Saturn

Galileo Galilei, the son of a musician, was born in Pisa, Italy, in 1564. Although he attended the University of Pisa as a medical student his passion was mechanics, and in pursuing this interest he became the first real experimental physicist since Archimedes of Syracuse, almost two thousand years earlier. He is reputed to have dropped differently sized masses from the top balcony of the Leaning Tower to demonstrate that they would all fall at the same speed - a prediction that was at odds with the conventional view that the heavier ones would fall more quickly. This simple observation was counter to the 'world view' of the Church, which derived from Aristotle, a student of the philosopher Plato. Galileo then accepted the post of professor of mathematics in Padua, which fell under the authority of Venice where the administration was rather more open-minded. more observations, he realised that these objects were circling around the planet, but this was contrary to the accepted view,...

Galileo Galilei

Long ago, before the decision of the Congregation of the Index and before the warning, said Galileo, he had been neutral and had viewed both models, the Ptolemaic and the Copernican, as feasible, that one or the other might accord with reality. But after the decision, all doubts were gone, because he was convinced of the wisdom of the Church. Therefore he believed fully and unreservedly in Ptolemy's model the Earth stood still and the Sun was in motion. The Dialogue was written to present the different possibilities and emphasise that truth must be found in higher thought . Master Adamo was publicly burnt at the stake. It was no coincidence that the punishment for counterfeiting and heresy were the same. Both crimes represented attacks on the very foundations of society the state's monopoly on fixing the worldly standard of value, and the Church's corresponding spiritual one. Butitwas notatthe Jesuits' that theoldmaninhis whiteattiredescended, but at their neighbours', the Dominicans....

War and Heresy

Grassi was no small fry within the powerful Jesuit order. Just at that time he had been given the prestigious job of designing the Collegio Romano's new church, dedicated to the order's founder, the saintly Ignatius. The Sant' Ignazio church never turned out as grandly as planned, but that was not Grassi's fault. He intended to give it a magnificent dome - which perhaps not totally unintentionally would have blocked out the light to the library of the Dominican monastery close by Just before Christmas 1624 a disturbing event took place not far from the Collegio Romano. In the Dominicans' church of Santa Maria sopra Minerva the members of the Inquisition had assembled to pass a sentence. The accused was the former Archbishop, Marco de Dominis. He had once dabbled in geometry and optics, lived in the Republic of Venice and had been a friend of Paolo Sarpi and Gianfrancesco Sagredo. As an enemy of Bellarmine and the Pope's increasing worldly power he had fled to England, where he...

The origin of humans

The primates are one of the eighteen orders of modern placental mammals, named from the Latin primus, 'first'. As primates, it was our privilege to call ourselves members of the 'first' order -this privilege extended to the Church as well, in which bishops and archbishops are termed primates. There was a time when books entitled 'The sex life of primates' could not be sold safely in England. All primates share a number of features that give them agility in the trees (mobile shoulder joint, grasping hands and feet, sensitive finger pads), a larger than average brain, good binocular vision, and enhanced parental care (one baby at a time, long time in the womb, long period of parental care, delayed sexual maturity, long lifespan).

Planethopping Jesus

But Cusa was not scorned by the Church hierarchy for his belief in life elsewhere. On the contrary, after writing Of Learned Ignorance Cusa was made a cardinal. So why did the Church celebrate Cusa and, 150 years later, condemn Galileo There are several reasons. First, Galileo was somewhat of a tactless boor a quality often left out of the Galileo myth and his obnoxious-ness helped seal his fate. Perhaps if he had put the right spin on his new discoveries, Rome would have showered him with praise and rejoiced in the addition of new worlds to God's creation. Instead, he seemed to go out of his way to piss off the Church authorities with his know-it-all comments on Scripture. He might have fared better if he had kept a lid on it and not told the clerics how to interpret the Bible. Galileo was also a victim of bad timing. He challenged authority at a time when the Church was threatened by the Reformation. Even worse, Galileo's world-shaking telescopic discoveries were made...

Orgone Energy

Many have done this with great success and report excellent results from the community - better attitudes, a vibrant and healthy plant and aviary life, and a far better atmosphere all around than was ever there before. What you are doing is freeing the world around you. By this process, you are disabling underground bases, cell towers and their negative effects, black magicians, and satanists who live in your area. You are freeing the many from the dogma of the church and are forcing law enforcement to rethink what they have allowed themselves to become. Parents become better parents, children better adjusted and normalized. The years ahead no doubt will reveal much as yet, the data is too new and baselines are just now being established. On the whole, all fronts and aspects of life show a much improved increase in vitality and radiance. (www.cloud-busters. com)

Spaceship Tunguska

On the ground, Kiyosi Tenimoto, a pastor of the Hiroshima Methodist Church, who was about 4 kilometres from the centre of the explosion, saw a blinding flash of light, like 'a sheet of sun', that cut across the sky. Moments later the flash of light had turned into a gigantic mushroom cloud, now known to everyone as the characteristic signature of an atomic explosion. John Hersey, one of the first Western journalists to record the bomb's immediate aftermath, reported in The New Yorker magazine of 31 August 1946 that the survivors described the explosion as 'a noiseless flash of light'. He noted that almost no one in Hiroshima recalled hearing any noise of the bomb, but all saw the vast, blinding glare and felt the wave of heat, which was followed closely by the roar of the explosion and its shock. Hersey's extraordinary article, 'Hiroshima' - published simultaneously as a Penguin book which remains in print - had a profound effect on a world which knew hardly anything about the horrors...

Epilogue

Galileo Il Galileo died on Thursdaythe 9th, on the following day hisbody was privately placed in Santa Croce Church of the Holy Cross in Florence . The word is around that the Grand Duke wishes to provide a sumptuous tomb for him comparable to and facing that of Michelangelo Buonarroti and he is of a mind to give the modelling of the tomb to the Academy of the Crusca. Out of my respect for you I thought that Your Eminence should know this. 129 During the course of the 19th century the Vatican's archives were opened to some extent to researchers who wanted to study Galileo. (The archives of the Holy Office have remained closed to this day, although certain documents have been made public after special application.) This led to a wave of ecclesiastical self-criticism, but it was a wave that gained momentum very slowly indeed. Even at the time of the great Second Vatican Council in the 1960s -a radical attempt to think through the relationship between the Church and the modern world -...

The Roman Style

The crisis came when two priests were arrested in Venice in 1605 and accused of murder. The church demanded that, following the normal rules, they be handed over to their clerical superiors, who would then look into the matter. The Venetian Senate refused to hand them over and instead arraigned the priests before a secular court. The church regarded this as a serious attack on its privileges. During the Bruno affair the Venetian authorities had not bent over backwards to try to save the sceptical friar from extradition. But now it was no longer a question of a friar's fate, or that of a couple of priests - it was a question of power, of just how much legal sovereignty an independent state really had in relation to the Church. So the Senate struck back hard and fast. It ordered all priests in the Venetian region to regard Rome's interdict as invalid, it expelled all Jesuits from Venetian soil and drafted its own legal counter-recommendation which concluded that the Pope's bull of...

Friendship and Power

This address, about and for Galileo, was just as much a social event as a scientific lecture. The entire upper echelon of influential Romans, both within and without the Church, seated themselves in the Jesuit college's great hall. There they learnt about the irregular surface of the moon, Jupiter's sensational satellites, and of the new, extraordinary phenomena that had been observed in conjunction with Saturn and Venus. In 1605 Paul V Borghese became the new pope. He, too, thought much of Barberini's efforts. When the Florentine returned to Rome, he was elevated to cardinal. Now, at the age of just 38 he found himself on the penultimate rung of the Catholic Church's ladder. Ludovico Cigoli, who had known Galileo from his youth, also wanted to pay his own tribute. The painter ensured that he honoured his friend in a very special way. He was in the middle of a highly prestigious commission, helping to decorate a side chapel - the Cappella Borghese - of Santa Maria Maggiore, one of...