Cichlid Fish Secrets

Cichlid Fish Secrets

There is an amazing, brand new ebook called Cichlid Fish Secrets. It covers everything you could possibly need to know about keeping healthy, happy cichlids, and breeding them as well. Here is just a preview of what you'll learn in this book: What size tank you should have when keeping cichlids. What filter you should use in your tank. How to properly cycle your aquarium. How to properly manage pH levels. The water temperature you need to maintain. The correct way to perform a water change. How to clean the glass of your fish tank. How to be an expert water tester. The Best rocks and wood you Need to be using. The right ways to prepare your rocks & wood for your tank. The only way to have live plants in an African Cichlid tank. How to choose the right cichlids. What to feed your cichlids & how often to feed them. The expert ways to breed your cichlids. How to diagnose, treat, and cure the most dangerous fish diseases.

Cichlid Fish Secrets Summary

Rating:

4.6 stars out of 11 votes

Contents: Ebook
Author: Mike Logan
Price: $27.77

My Cichlid Fish Secrets Review

Highly Recommended

It is pricier than all the other books out there, but it is produced by a true expert and is full of proven practical tips.

Overall my first impression of this book is good. I think it was sincerely written and looks to be very helpful.

Download Now

Speciation Process and Product

The difficulty in grasping the speciation process is understandable, as no one has ever observed it in nature, nor has anyone identified definitively what exactly happens as one species gives rise to two descendants. Instead, we can usually only observe the outcome of speciation and try to reconstruct the origins of species and the consequences of species formation. The time scale is part of the problem. The process must usually take longer than a lifetime of human observation, even if it can be geologically rapid. The renowned fish family Cichlidae has long been known to be able to produce distinct species in a few thousand years (e.g., Brooks 1950). Lake Victoria appears to have dried up 12,400 years ago, suggesting that the endemic cich-lid fauna arose since then (Johnson et al. 1996). The Mbuna species flock of Lake Malawi may have diverged even more recently, owing to an episode of drying and lake lowering over several hundred years, followed by lake level rise and spread of...

Why Worry about Species

There are metrics of genetic distance and phenotypic difference that, on average, predict separation at the species level reasonably well. Because there are many instances of morphologically nearly indistinguishable sibling species, we can state with authority that morphological jumps in speciation fail to occur in many species complexes. We cannot, however, readily predict that speciation will generate a given amount of morphological divergence. For example, the Tropheus lineage of the cichlid radiation in Lake Tanganyika consists of a large group of species that are morphologically nearly identical but nevertheless quite genetically divergent (Sturmbauer and Meyer 1992). This lineage of six species contains twice as much genetic variation as the entire morphologically highly diverse cichlid assemblage of Lake Malawi.

Definition of the Process of Macroevolution

It is not useful to distinguish sharply between microevolution and macroevolution, as I will show in this volume. The taxonomic rank marking any dichotomy between microevolution and macroevolution would depend on the kind of transition being studied. Our impression of major degrees of evolutionary change is inherently qualitative and not fixed at any taxonomic rank across all major taxonomic groups. This is apparent when we consider transitions whose importance may rely on many characters, or just one. For the cichlid fishes, a synarthrosis between the lower pharyngeal jaws, a shift of insertion of the fourth levator externus muscles, and the development of synovial joints between the upper pharyngeal jaws and the basicranium may be necessary (but not sufficient) for the morphological diversification of species with differing food collection devices (Liem 1973). On the other hand, the evolution of the mammals involved a large number of integrated physiological and morphological...

Bibliography And Further Reading

The Cichlid Fishes Nature's Grand Experiment in Evolution, 1st pb edn. Cambridge, Mass. Basic Books. Owen, R. B. Crossley, R. Johnson, T. C. Tweddle, D. Kornfield, I. Davison, S. Eccles, D. H. and Engstrom, D. E. 1989. 'Major low levels of Lake Malawi and their implications for speciation rates in cichlid fishes', Proceedings ofthe Royal Society of London, Series B, 240, 519-53.

Darwins map of the Galapagos islands with English names now seldom used

Each of the great African lakes has its own unique fish fauna, dominated by the group called cichlids. The cichlid faunas of Lake Victoria, Lake Tanganyika and Lake Malawi, each several hundred species strong, are completely distinct from each other. They have evidently evolved separately in the three lakes, which makes it all the more fascinating that they have converged on the same range of 'trades' in all three. In each lake, it looks as though one or two founder species somehow made their way in, perhaps from rivers, in the first place. And in each lake these founders then speciated and speciated again, to populate the lake with the hundreds of species that we see today. How, within the confines of a lake, did the budding species achieve the initial geographical isolation that enabled them to split apart When introducing islands, I explained that, from a fish's point of view, a lake surrounded by land is an island. Slightly less obviously, even an island in the conventional sense...

Prospects of evodevo for linking pattern and process in the evolution of morphospace

Indeed, one vigorous aspect of evo-devo is that it is rapidly expanding to include new, emerging model organisms which lend themselves to studies both in the laboratory and in the wild. Studies on Heliconius butterflies, dung beetles, stalk-eyed flies, fruit flies, nematode worms, centipedes, and stickleback, cichlid and danio fish all spring to mind (for references see Brakefield et al. 2003, Brake-field and French 2006). This body of work is also ranging widely over differing morphologies from body plans and larval forms through to skeletal morphology, patterns of pigmentation and bristles, and structures such as horns, spines, segments, eyes and so on. Developmental plasticity is becoming better represented, for example in research with butterfly wing patterns, beetle horns, Daphnia helmets and aphid wings. Eventually, this wide net across the animal kingdom and different morphologies will capture many of the general properties of how the genetic variation that...

Box Semionotid Species Flocks

This is only a small sample of the total diversity of semionotids in the Newark Supergroup and many hundreds or thousands of species must have existed in the lakes, and during the repeated lake cycles. Whole faunas were wiped out by catastrophic drying episodes and replaced by new species flocks that evolved rapidly when the lakes became re-established. Modern parallels exist today in central African lakes where the cichlid teleosts have achieved great diversity by rapid speciation.

A pragmatic approach for selecting evodevo model species in amniotes

Amniote Evolutionary Tree

(ecomorphs), e.g. of cichlid fishes (Kocher et al. 1993, Ruber et al. 1999), ranid frogs (Bossuyt and Milinkovitch 2000), Anolis lizards (Losos et al. 1998) and mammals (e.g. between some afrotherian and eulipotyphlan insectivores, see below). Similarly, the snake-like body form has evolved multiple times independently in squamate reptiles (Wiens et al. 2006). Investigating the development of such convergent traits in different lineages could form the basis for understanding possible general mechanisms involved in convergence (see Jenner, Chapter 6 of this volume, for a discussion on nomothetic versus idiographic approaches to evo-devo). Such analyses will require a strategy of choosing model organisms based on their traits rather than phylogenetic position per se (Figure 7.1).

Paleobiogeography and Paleoecology of Placenticeras kaffrarium

Ecologically isolated regions promote great diversity. Islands and lakes of the present day are areas of adaptive radiation (Stanley, 1979 169-174). These regions experience much less biotic pressure, and organisms living there show a great genetic variability due to eco-insular conditions (Stanley, 1979). We believe that the release of stabilizing selection pressure due to the absence of competitors and predators, triggered the great intraspecific variability within the P. kaffrarium population, which ultimately led to polymorphism. For example, Janusson (1973) has also found the widespread presence of polymorphism in graptolite communities, which facilitated great evolutionary changes. Another example is pharyngeal teeth of cichlid fishes (Sage and Selander, 1975). The polymorphic differentiation of teeth enables the species as a whole, to get access to various foods. We shall see later that the different morphs of P kaffrarium indicate niche partitioning and not a biological...

Attacking convergence

In their different ways mantids and sabre-tooths are powerful examples of convergence in the context of overpowering prey. Hunting style has, moreover, wider fields of similarity. In an assessment of diversification among freshwater fish Kirk Winemiller drew attention to recurrent patterns of what he called ecomorphological convergences.134 One example is the repeated evolution of an eel-like morphology from phylogenetically divergent sources, as seen in the North American brook lamprey, neotropical swamp eels, and African spiny eel. In the context of hunting, and especially lunging predators, there are again striking convergences on different continents, this time towards a pike-like morphology (Fig. 6.6) and again from ancestors that are only distantly related to each other. Given these convergences among the fish, it is not surprising to see other examples of recurrent evolution. These include similar patterns of teeth, as in sea-breams,135 or related trophic specializations within...

Conclusions

As in all aspects of historical inquiry, the study of character evolution is exceptionally sensitive to the amount of information that has actually survived up to the present. The reality of neural evolution was in most cases almost certainly very complex, and may be reliably regarded to have included vastly more numbers of independent transformations than has been recorded in the distribution of phenotypes preserved among living species. The signature of many historical events has been overwritten by reversals and convergences, or eliminated altogether by extinctions. Paleontologists estimate that more than 99 of all species that have ever lived are now extinct (Rosenzweig, 1995). This figure, of course, includes higher taxa (e.g., trilobites, placo-derms, plesiosaurs) that are now entirely extinct, bringing up the aggregate percentage of extinction for all taxa. The proportion of living species that persists within certain targeted taxa may be much higher (e.g., Lake Victoria...

Literature Cited

Evolutionary strategies and morphological innovations cichlid pharyngeal jaws. Systematic Zoology, 22 425-441. Norton, S. F., and E. L. Brainerd. 1993. Convergence in the feeding mechanics of ecomorphologically similar species in the Centrarchidae and Cichlidae. Journal of Experimental Biology, 176 11-29.

Guppies

I have long nursed an ambition to do exactly this experiment with fruit flies (because their reproductive turnover time is so short) but, alas, I never got around to it. So I am especially delighted to say that this is exactly what John Endler did, not with insects but with guppies. Obviously he didn't use chameleons for predators, but instead chose a fish called the pike cichlid (pronounced 'sick lid'), Crenicichla alta, which is a dangerous predator of these guppies in the wild. Nor did he use green versus brown backgrounds -he opted for something more interesting than that. He noticed that guppies derive much of their camouflage from their spots, often quite large ones, whose patterning resembles the patterning of the gravelly bottoms of their native streams. Some streams have coarser, more pebbly gravel, others finer, more sandy gravel. Those were the two backgrounds he used, and you'll agree that the camouflage he was seeking was subtler and more interesting than my green versus...

The Tangled Bank

These experiments on E. coli may shed light on how new species form. Nature has formed its own petri dishes in Nicaragua, where dead volcanoes have filled with rainwater. These crater lakes are completely isolated from neighboring lakes and rivers, but on rare occasion a hurricane can sweep fish into them. In Lake Apoyo, which formed about 23,000 years ago, two species of cichlids live together. One of the fish, known as the Midas cichlid, is a big creature that roots around in the muck and crushes snails. The other fish, the arrow cichlid, is a thin, quick-darting creature that hunts for insect larvae in the open water. Their DNA indicates that the Midas cichlid was swept into the lake after it formed and that the arrow cichlid evolved from it. The split may have taken only a few thousand years. Whether scientists study cichlids or E. coli or any other organism, they face the same question Why specialize Why don't organisms evolve to become jacks-of-all-trades instead There may...

DNA Sequence Data

In most cases, molecular data provide informative phylogenetic indications for determining evolutionary relationships between sibling species or at least morphologically nearly identical species. A famous example is the study of teleost fish species by Sturmbauer and Meyer (1992). Numerous, nearly morphological identical cichlid species recognized in Lake Tanganyika are genetically divergent. The genetic divergence within these species displays twice as much as the genetic divergence within the morphologically different cichlid species from Lake Malawi. Many further examples can be found in the literature of the last 20 years (e.g., Palumbi and Benzie, 1991 Knowlton et al., 1993).