An Imprint of Springer-Verlag
First softcover printing, 2003.
© 2000 Peter D. Ward and Donald Brownlee. All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be reproduced, stored in a retrieval system, or transmitted, in any form or by any means, electronic, mechanical, photocopying, recording, or otherwise, without the prior written permission of the publisher.
Published in the United States by Copernicus Books, an imprint of Springer-Verlag New York, Inc. A member of BertelsmannSpringer Science+Business Media GmbH
Copernicus Books 37 East 7th Street New York, NY 10003 www.copernicusbooks.com
Library of Congress Cataloging-in-Publication Data Ward, Peter D.
Rare earth: why complex life is uncommon in the universe / Peter D. Ward, Donald Brownlee. p. cm.
Includes bibliographical references and index. ISBN 0-387-95289-6 (pbk.: alk. paper)
I. Life on other planets. 2. Exobiology. I. Brownlee, Donald.
II. Title. QB54.W336 2003
Manufactured in the United States of America. Printed on acid-free paper.
To the memory of Gene Shoemaker and Carl Sagan
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