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Conversation Escalation Make Small Talk Sexy

In this ground-breaking program you'll learn the subtleties of conversation to pinpoint the specific problems that are ruining your chances with women. You'll learn how to draw people out to talk about more interesting topics in a more natural way instead dragging it out of them. And the mindset tricks so that you can Always be in the zone with women whenever you're talking to them. What's unique about this course is that its based on examples and application and is filled with hundred of little bite size game changers that you'll be able to see an immediate impact on your conversations tonight. Read more here...

Conversation Escalation Make Small Talk Sexy Summary


4.8 stars out of 20 votes

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My Conversation Escalation Make Small Talk Sexy Review

Highly Recommended

I've really worked on the chapters in this book and can only say that if you put in the time you will never revert back to your old methods.

Overall my first impression of this book is good. I think it was sincerely written and looks to be very helpful.

Preface to the First Edition

This book was born during a lunchtime conversation at the University of Washington faculty club, and then it simply took off. It was stimulated by a host of discoveries suggesting to us that complex life is less pervasive in the Universe than is now commonly assumed. In our discussions, it became clear that both of us believed such life is not widespread, and we decided to write a book explaining why.

Confederacy Of Dunces

When we think of aliens sending an interstellar radio signal, we usually picture them as representing their entire species, and imagine them attempting to communicate with humanity as a whole. This makes sense, given that the likely timescale of any conversation, where each reply might take centuries, requires a group effort. Individuals cannot talk to the aliens by radio. For our species to achieve the level of maturity that allows for indeed that may be defined by interstellar travel or communication, we'll have to learn to act collectively.

You Wouldnt Believe Me

December 2002, '' and told my friend 'If I get time, I'll call you on the radio'. I gave him the number for Mission Control, to call a contact back there to update that time. They said 'Okay. We'll try it'. So I call ed him, as it's just as clear as you and me talking here, for about four or five minutes, and we had a good conversation. He was standing out in a parking lot by a Safeway grocery store, with this little handheld radio. And this guy in the parking lot comes up to him afterwards and said, 'Who were you talking to ' And he said, 'Well, if I told you, you wouldn't believe me ''' The mission the two friends had spoken about was, for the newly unified Federal Republic of Germany, one of its most important and expensive scientific ventures, costing over half a billion dollars to develop. In order to accomplish the mission, Columbia was again outfitted with a Spacelab module in her payload bay, which had been equipped with no fewer than 88 medical, radiation, materials science...

Evolutionary Pressures for Language

In practice, different monkey species spend varying amounts of time on grooming one another, up to a maximum of 20 of their waking day, and this is among species whose typical group size is about 50 members. The maximum time available for social grooming, Dunbar argues, has effectively capped the size of monkey social groups at 50 members. How then did the typical size of hunter-gatherer groups grow to 150 members, a number that would in principle require everyone to spend 43 of their waking hours on social grooming, or its human equivalent Because of language, Dunbar suggests. Language is so much more efficient a way of establishing and confirming social bonds that the requisite amount of social grooming could be cut way back. In a wide range of human societies, it so happens, the amount of time people spend in social interaction, or conversation, is 20 . The driving force behind the evolution of language, in Dunbar's view, was the need to bond people in The Dunbar and Miller...

Discovery of a Gene for Language

They have problems in writing as well as speaking. The affected members of the family have been given intensive speech training but mostly hold jobs where not much talking is required. Their speech is difficult to understand, particularly over the telephone, or if the context is not known. In a group of family members it is hard for you to pick up the pieces of the conversation, which is difficult to follow because many of the words are not correctly pronounced, says Faraneh

Science and Intelligence

Everyone was jolly, pleasantries were exchanged, drinks made the rounds - and Igor Rogovin also made the rounds. There was no conversation from which he was absent for more than a few minutes. He was very busy, like a manic bee obsessively flitting from flower to flower. Igor Rogovin's occupation, if not his identity, gradually dawned on me. With a rising fury I explained to him that it was possible to have a conversation with a Soviet scientist that was intended for the benefit of science rather than for the benefit of American military intelligence services. Before Rogovin could reply, our friendly Soviet guests re-emerged, and we all went off to dinner. Although seated again next to Imshenetsky, I found myself unable to talk to him on any subject remotely approaching science. As I recall, our primary topics of conversation were American films and Soviet poets. After a number of drinks, Alexander Alexandrovitch Imshenetsky offered the opinions that William Shakespeare was the...

Convinced with Reasons

And so Commissary Maculano asked the Cardinals' permission to try some private conversation with Galileo, without witnesses or minutes, to get the defendant to perceive his true fault. In this way the next official interrogation could go without a hitch and lead to the result that everyone wanted Galileo's unconditional admission and statement of his intentions - the sinful motives that had brought him into the path of heresy. This last was very important in reaching a judgement and sentence. It was agreed that attempting such a conversation might be profitable, and so Maculano visited Galileo a few days later. Galileo understood these signals, there is no doubt about that. He admitted his fault, was contrite and willing to formulate an admission to the court - indeed, he would sit down immediately and begin it. Three days after his conversation with Father Maculano, he again appeared for formal interrogation.

It Will Take A Hundred Flights

The plan to remove the ejection seats from Columbia was also controversial among many astronauts. Bryan O'Connor, who would later fly Columbia in June 1991, remembers a conversation he once had with fellow astronaut Ken Mattingly. ''I told him I just didn't feel comfortable with how we could possibly get to a

From Wordings to Dynamic Language

The temporal dimension of language is often neglected. First, Markova, Foppa, Linell and others pioneered emphasis on real-time dialogue (see, Markova and Foppa, 1990, 1991). Linking conversational analysis to phenomenology, they abandoned the monological approach to language. By focusing on the effects of dialogical patterns, they rejected centralised systems. Avoiding input output models, Linell et al. (1988) showed that utterances are prospective and retrospective. Even turn taking may owe less to sequencing than cognitive dynamics, politeness, and a language stance. Second, we exploit asymmetries of status, power, knowledge, etc (Linell and Luckmann, 1991). In social life, strategic interaction is dominated - not by wordings - but presentations of self. Third, as Linell (2007) shows, dialogical principles also apply to the brain. Related views are increasingly corroborated. For example, in influential work, Pickering and Garrod (2004) show that semantic priming matters to...

Some Final Thoughts on Aridity Chronology and the Evolution of Homo

Acknowledgments We thank Richard Leakey, Fred Grine, and John Fleagle for the opportunity to write this chapter. MS also thanks them for the opportunity to participate in the Stony Brook Human Evolution Symposium and Workshop, and the other participants for their stimulating conversation, companionship, and in one case, a fine rendition of Gilbert and Sullivan. MS also thanks the families who took us into their homes at various points during the week, the graduate students and staff who made it all possible and the anonymous reviewers whose comments helped us to revise this chapter.

Metallicities of stellar populations

Another contentious issue is whether there is a smooth transition from thick to thin disc or a discontinuity, revealed in the a Fe - Fe H diagrams. As was mentioned by Cristina Chiappini, Gratton et al. (1997) and Fuhrmann (1998) found a distinct gap in O Fe and Mg Fe, respectively, which receives new support from the Texas survey reported by Carlos at this meeting. Thick and thin discs overlap in Fe H, but their a Fe trends are different, having a constant value around 0.3 in the thick disc and a downward trend in the thin one. The implication is that the thick disc 'got rich quick' and the metallicity was actually lower when the thin disc came into being. Carlos flashed up on the screen (and immediately took down) a schematic model not unlike one that I put forward at a meeting some years ago (Pagel 2001). We agreed in private conversation that what you have to do (in Carlos's words) is 'to add water'.

The Second Excavation

Whenever people talk about the conflict between science and religion I think of Mary. She is a person of strong religious faith that she says has only gotten stronger as she has learned more about science. Her faith is personal, and it is not something she brings up in conversation, but when asked, she is open and clear about it. She says the strength of the evidence for the process of evolution and the several-billion-year-old age of the earth is a separate matter from moral values or belief in God. She came to the study of paleontology from a background in which the assumption was that people study evolution trying to find a way around God and his laws. Instead, she came to see science as a strictly defined process for gathering and evaluating evidence. When I talk to Christian groups or when I teach in my class, I explain that 'science is like football.' There is a set of rules and everybody follows the same rules. The young earth creationists play basketball on the same field....

Looking for Easter Island

Of creation 'science', the reality of evolution as a historical process is not in dispute. And whatever the divergences of opinion, which as often as not have a tacit ideological agenda concerning the origins of human uniqueness, there is a uniform consensus that vitalism was safely buried many years ago, and the slight shaking of the earth above the grave marking the resting place of teleology is certainly an optical illusion. But is it an illusion Perhaps as the roots and the branches of the Tree of Life are more fully explored our perspectives will begin to shift. Evolution is manifestly true, but that does not necessarily mean we should take it for granted the end results, be it the immense complexity of a biochemical system or the fluid grace of a living organism, are genuinely awe-inspiring. Could it be that attempts to reinstall or reinject notions of awe and wonder are not simply delusions of some deracinated super-ape, but rather reopen the portals to our finding a metaphysic...

From telephones to the

Obviously, the Internet also counts as a communication system. The circulation of data via the Web being even more unpredictable than telephone conversations, it is no mean feat to maximize flow and minimize delays. This is why Marco Dorigo and his team once again trotted out their virtual ants. They released them periodically at the network nodes, then, without telling them what their position was, asked them to go to a particular spot. A quick check of the pheromone map was enough to define the route that in each case linked one point to

Sources and Suggested Readings

One work was a key to this entire project and was used in almost every chapter John Playfair's Biographical Account of the Late Dr. James Hutton, also referred to as the Life of Dr. Hutton. This memorial was published in the fifth volume of the Transactions of the Royal Society of Edinburgh in 1805 (still available from the RSE Scotland Foundation), after having been read to the fellows of the Society on January 10, 1803. The Life of Dr. Hutton is only sixty pages long, but it is filled with invaluable information about James Hutton's life, and, perhaps most important, details about his thought processes based on conversations between Hutton and Playfair that can be gleaned from no other source.

Navigating to the Moon Captain Refsmmat

The set of numbers that defined the desired orientation of the platform had their own peculiar abbreviation - the REFSMMAT, a remarkably simple concept couched in very opaque terms. Not only was this acronym extraordinary in its size, it was also ubiquitous, being peppered throughout the crews' conversation with the ground and their documentation. It stood for reference to a stable member matrix, an incomprehensible jumble of jargon but it was simply a numerical definition of an orientation in space, one to which the platform could be aligned. Being an inertial orientation, it was defined with respect to the stars and therefore, the alignment of the platform was always carried out by taking sightings on the stars with the scanning telescope and sextant.

Towards a theology of evolution

Let us suppose that I am an immensely successful biochemist, and happen to be engaged in experiments involving gene manipulation. A couple of years ago I was attending a conference - keynote speaker, naturally - when I fell into conversation with a curious individual, who for some reason seemed much older than he actually looked. As we talked, it seemed we were walking across a plain of infinite dreariness, but his voice, his demeanour, how can I describe it He knew all about our work, and as conversation progressed, gave me remarkable hints as to some avenues of research we had somehow overlooked. I was enthralled, and as we parted he remarked, 'I am sure we will meet again.' The next day, however, he had vanished, and checking at the registration desk, I was puzzled to find no record of my companion. It was all a little eerie, but the hints were sufficient. Now my team and I have managed to reconfigure a gene that will allow animals, and the poorer humans, to digest cellulose...

Playing With Strangers

I am not uninterested in the lively theoretical work and empirical research going on these days in regard to questions about language touching human and nonhuman animals. There is no doubt that many animals across a wide range of species, including rodents, primates, canids, and birds, do things few scientists expected them to be able to do (or had figured out how to recognize, partly because hardly anyone expected anything interesting to show up, at least not in testable, data-rich ways).43 These recently documented talents fuel conversations and arguments in several sciences as well as popular culture about what counts as language. When even Noam Chomsky, long famous for his touching faith that the hard science of linguistics proves that people do it and animals don't, becomes the object of his still pure colleagues' ire for selling out, or at least reconsidering the matter from another point of view and in the company of odd new colleagues, we know something big is happening in...

T he G reatest Inventors

Do you know what else these cavemen invented Can't you guess They invented talking. I mean having real conversations with each other, using words. Of course animals also make noises - they can cry out when they feel pain and make warning calls when danger threatens, but they don't have names for things as human beings do. And prehistoric people were the first creatures to do so.

Wendigo Skinwalkers and Man Wolves

Whatever it was, natural or supernatural, the Chupacabras quickly became the topic of conversation throughout Puerto Rico. Soon, people everywhere were seeing the Goat Sucker. Corrales reports that in May 1995 a San Juan television station reported that a police officer and several witnesses had seen a gargoyle-like creature while waiting at a bus stop. The creature was reportedly spotted outside a government building unpleasantly devouring a large rat. The police officer attacked it with his baton, but quickly had the tables turned on him. The Chupacabras flew into the air and grabbed the baton in its claws before flying away. Soon after, the creature was spotted flying over a busy expressway (15).

The Language Gene That Wasnt

Spoke in very simple sentences and failed to use proper tenses and plurals, where appropriate, for words. His father shared the same difficulties. Although a successful computer scientist, he had no simple everyday conversation and his speech was laboured and agrammatic. It reminded her of the speech of aphasics, whose language difficulties arise in adulthood because of brain traumas like strokes, especially if they affect Broca's Area, the main language processing centre of the brain. While she was talking to the father she noticed he had very poor inflection. He told her he had 'two computer' for instance he couldn't make the plural. His wife told her she thought her husband's language was impaired and that it took great effort for him to construct simple sentences with inflected words in them. Even simple conversational sentences like 'We built the pool about five years ago' required great and laboured thought. It reminded Gopnik of how tired one gets after a day of stumbling...

Imperial ambitions and the Permian System

During that second expedition, Murchison and de Verneuil did indeed change their opinion, but not before they had indulged in a little socialising. Murchison attended a grand court ball held to mark the marriage of the Czar's eldest son and was presented to Czar Nicholas himself, who engaged him in conversation about the prospects for coalmining and other matters geological in Russia. Murchison was particularly concerned about the waste of money and

Paul Boynton Testing the fireball hypothesis

Order, but big science did not bring about the discovery of the CMBR. I believe that one could not find more compelling support for the value of quick, modest, table-top approaches to research than the essays collected in this volume. These accounts portray a vitally diverse community of experimentalists rapidly and resourcefully responding to a new landscape of phenomena to be observed and new hypotheses to be tested - while in constant conversation with their theoretician colleagues. This process was clearly a triumph of small physics. Although there were no toads in our space, I do identify with Richardson's sentiment. I could not (and still can't) imagine a more exciting place, shared with these splendid colleagues amid the exhilarating conversation and consuming activity of engaging small science that loomed so very large.

Communications Frequencies

Information on a satellite communications link is carried by electromagnetic (EM) waves Figure 6.2 in Chapter 6 illustrated the various parts of the EM spectrum. As a consequence, the speed of communication is the speed of light, which is around 300,000 km per sec (186,000 miles per second), so that communication with spacecraft in LEO is effectively instantaneous. However, for a communication satellite in GEO, the altitude of the satellite is around 38,000 km, so that EM waves take just over a tenth of a second to travel from the ground to the spacecraft. This may not seem a lot, but bear in mind that for me (in the United Kingdom) to hold a telephone conversation with someone in the United States requires four such trips for the EM waves my voice needs to travel up to the satellite, and then down to a ground station in the U.S. My friend's response then needs to make the same return trip, requiring about half a second of travel time. If I talk with someone in Australia, the...

Foolish and Absurd in Philosophy Formally Heretical

If, during the conversation in these elegant salons, a doubting cleric or nobleman objected that the Earth could not revolve in just one day, that such speed was unthinkable, Galileo would turn the argument around and point out that, according to Ptolemy, the entire constellation revolved in one day, and that was unimaginably larger than this planet. If they took up the old argument that the Earth's motion must at least be noticeable by us, Galileo would invite them to think that they were aboard a ship let a ball sink slowly in a container of water while the ship is at rest. It will sink straight down, without touching the sides. But if the ship is under way at a constant speed - what happens to the ball then It still sinks straight down. It is not affected by the even motion of the ship.

Respiratory convergence

Whether the journey is by bicycle or airship is less important than the common destination. One suspects, for example, that if elephants and sperm-whales could somehow communicate about their strikingly convergent social systems (p. 250) it would lead to an animated conversation about how much they had in common. And in an analogous way molecular convergences might also point to deeper patterns in evolution. It is to this controversial topic that we now turn.

Chelomey And The Kremlin

The capabilities of the MOL prompted the Kremlin to back Chelomey's proposal, and the project was given to OKB-52's Branch No. 1 at Fili, in the heart of Moscow, which had developed the Proton launch vehicle. The manager was Branch No. 1's Chief Designer, Viktor Bugayskiy. On 12 October 1964, the day that Chelomey announced the start of work, the first Voskhod spacecraft was launched for a 1-day flight with a crew of three cosmonauts. While they were in space, Khrushchov was overthrown - and Chelomey lost his main supporter. The situation was particularly dire because, as Khrushchov's favourite, Chelomey had gained many enemies. Not only was the new Kremlin leader, Leonid Brezhnyev, not an ally, the new Prime Minister, Aleksey Kosygin, was very rude to Chelomey during their first telephone conversation regarding the future of the UR-200 rocket programme. In fact, neither Brezhnyev nor Kosygin shared Khrushchov's enthusiasm for manned space flights.

Would Like So Much To Explore

Gallo Matese Perrino

From my nephew, who was several years older. Viktor even sat with him on the same bench. The teacher decided not to send him home. In the class photograph, he is present as an equal member of the class. Then when he turned six, Viktor said firmly ''Now I am starting the school seriously '' His father said he should remain at home at least another year, as he was too young. We forgot this conversation, and the next September when the time for school arrived of course we didn't buy books, pencils or copybooks because Viktor was still one year too young for the first class. On that day he disappeared, returning with tears in his eyes. 'What happened to you Vitya ' I asked. 'They didn't allow me to enter school,' he replied. Then I thought we had not understood our son sufficiently. I called my husband. He talked with the school director, who agreed to allow Vitya to start school a year early. We thought Vitya would stay there only a few days and return home, but we were wrong again....

The Smoke Isnt Being Produced Any More

During the emergency Volkov had become extremely nervous and, as the veteran, had usurped Dobrovolskiy's role and attempted to resolve the situation by himself. When he used expressions like I decided'' and I did'' in later conversations with Yeliseyev, Nikolayev and Bykovskiy it became clear that he was too emotional and independently minded to realise or acknowledge his errors. In one of his last interviews, published in 1989, Mishin recalled I had a complex conversation with Volkov. He declared himself to be in command. When the cable burned, they lost their heads and wanted to depart the station. I calmed them down.'' In addition, Mishin ordered Volkov to respect the commander Everything must be solved by the crew commander carry out his orders.'' But Volkov had replied The whole crew decides things together. We will sort out how to proceed by ourselves.''

From Vera Patsayevas Notes

In 1971 Skella Aleksandrovna Bugrova worked for the Control Group in Yevpatoriya. She recalls that the 'sliding' circadian rhythm imposed on the first Salyut crew had a serious effect on their health and relationships with the people on Earth. With added fatigue and the influence of weightlessness, they became spiritually and physically overloaded. ''And we on Earth could not manage to analyse the flight information. As a result, we were slow to respond to the questions and observations of the crew, which irritated them. In our memories, even today, are the last conversations with them before the descent. If we had not rushed the crew to prepare for the descent, if only the flight director had had the courage to postpone the undocking from Salyut in order to fully investigate the absence of the signal from the hatch, and then reviewed once again the status of the life support system, then maybe the tragedy would have been avoided.''

Aleksey Stanislavovich Yeliseyev

Roscosmos Mission Control

Just in case, I decided to ask Ustinov. There was not much time left before the start of the session with the cosmonauts. Without hesitating, I sprinted to Ustinov and put to him the question posed by the reporter. Ustinov remained silent, pretending that he had not heard me. I realised that he did not wish to take the responsibility. I tried my best to assist I suggested that the reporter should say 'Leonid Brezhnyev'. Still Ustinov said nothing. I started to sweat. There was now just one minute to the beginning of the session. Noticing my nervousness, Afanasyev volunteered, ''I agree with the suggestion.'' Ustinov made a slight ambiguous nod that could be interpreted as his agreement, but also indicated that he considered the conversation over.

The Meeting with Infinity

It is remarkable how much Simplicio's role has changed since his appearance in the Dialogue. He is no longer the naive and slightly unsophisticated Aristotelian who invites the sarcastic comments of the others. His function now is to act as an intermediary between Aristotelian physics and the mathematically orientated physics of Galileo. Whenever he introduces Aristotle's observations, they are received with deep respect by his conversational partners. Sagredo even quotes one infallible maxim of the Philosopher .111 This At this point the three take a well deserved rest until the next day. The second day offers a fairly brief and technical description of how one calculates the breaking strength of various bodies. Salviati returns to the starting point of the conversation, and demonstrates geometrically why large constructions are proportionately more vulnerable than small ones -and he explains that is why giants, many times bigger than ordinary people, cannot exist. If they did, their...

The Abstraction Of Beasts

There is by now a vast library of described and filmed conversations, employing Ameslan and other gestural languages, with Washoe, Lucy, Lana and other chimpanzees studied by the Gardners and others. Not only are there chimpanzees with working vocabularies of 100 to 200 words they are also able to distinguish among nontrivially different grammatical patterns and syntaxes. What is more, they have been remarkably inventive in the construction of new words and phrases. At the Yerkes Regional Primate Research Center in Atlanta, Georgia, they are learning a specific computer language called (by the humans, not the chimps) Yerkish. The computer records all of its subjects' conversations, even during the night when no humans are in attendance and from its ministrations we have learned that chimpanzees prefer jazz to rock and movies about chimpanzees to movies about human beings. Lana had, by January 1976, viewed The Developmental Anatomy of the Chimpanzee 245 times. She would undoubtedly...

The conceptualizing pancake

So are we, as humanoids, in some sense either very probable, or perhaps even inevitable Given that much of this book is about convergences, no bets need be placed. With a sample of one, that is the Earth's biosphere and its four billion years of history, it can always be argued that a descendant of Bieri, an astronaut, will land on a remote planet and strike up a conversation with one of those conceptualizing pancakes, but even at the most basic levels it now seems increasingly likely that whatever alternatives there might be they are going to be highly restricted. How many avenues are available even for the origin of life Given our lack of success in this area (Chapter 4), could there be only one Similarly, as I explained in Chapter 6, George Wald has argued that wherever there are planets whose biosphere is dependant on the light of a star, there, too, there will always be chlorophyll (and the associated antenna proteins) harvesting the radiant energy.35 What of DNA In a brilliant...

Control of Self Replicating Systems

Whenever engineers discuss the technology and role of self-replicating systems, their conversations inevitably turn to the interesting question What happens if a self-replicating system (SRS) becomes out of control Before human beings seed the solar system or interstellar space with even a single SRS unit, engineers and mission planners should know how to pull an SRS unit's plug if things grow out of control. Some engineers and scientists have already raised a very legitimate concern about SRS technology. Another question that robot engineers often encounter concerning SRS technology is whether smart machines represent a long-range threat to human life. In particular, will machines evolve with such advanced levels of artificial intelligence that they become the main resource competitors and adversaries of human beings whether the ultrasmart machines can replicate or not Even in the absence of advanced levels of machine intelligence that mimic human intelligence, the self-replicating...

John Faulkner The day Fred Hoyle thought he had disproved the big bang theory

There I also met, for the first time, relativists of world class like Bondi, Dicke, Schild, and Weber. While I enjoyed their lectures immensely, I also learned a lot in informal conversations. I shall have to recount Alfred Schild's amazing wartime saga elsewhere it involves his mother in England receiving the first postcard he was allowed to send her, as an alien internee in Canada, a year after she thought that he had died - he had been declared officially lost to a bombing at sea, en route from England. In lectures and conversation from 1960 onward, the idea we stellar students received from Fred was Of course, the helium content of the oldest stars is very low. (When we undertook extensive main sequence calculations in 1962, he suggested we calculate our Population II models for X 0.985.) I did not once hear such ideas questioned. Indeed, I began to notice a curious thing. Roger Tayler had returned to Cambridge in 1961, originally to act as an intermediate mentor for Fred's many...

Absolutely No Concern For Entry

''I tell you, it's certainly an amazing place to live and to work,'' Pettit added. The conversation lasted a matter of minutes before the crews bade each other farewell and drifted out of radio contact. The following morning - 28 January - they both united with thousands of people on Earth in remembering the victims of the Challenger accident 17 years earlier. As Husband spoke of his crew's profound sadness at the loss of those seven brave lives, he could hardly have imagined that he,

Donald E Osterbrock The helium content of the universe

Once a day we all got together in the main room of the observatory, to have coffee and talk about astronomy. In those conversations McVittie and two of the older professors, Dean McLaughlin and Freeman Miller, were scathing in their remarks on Fred Hoyle's steady state theory of cosmology, involving continuous creation of matter. McVittie was a classical mathematical cosmologist, and I had soon seen from his lectures that Chandra had been right. He had little if any physical insight, and his criticisms of Hoyle's ideas were ridiculous, I thought. Basically, he said continuous creation just couldn't happen, and McLaughlin and Miller chimed in as his conservative claque.

The Curse Of Steve Hawley

When the crew left their quarters early on 12 January, Steve Hawley had gained the unenviable record of having ridden the bus to the launch pad on 10 occasions for only two 'real' liftoffs. To this day, he thinks a conversation and agreement he had with Commander Hoot Gibson may have helped to finally get Columbia into space ''I decided that if Columbia didn't know it was me, then maybe we'd launch, and so I taped my name-tag with grey tape and had the glasses-nose-moustache disguise and wore that.'' It worked and the STS-61C crew lifted off safely at 11 55 am.

Radiation from the big bang

Their paper - about remnant radiation from a big bang. Hoyle (1981) recalls discussions of the possible temperature of a sea of microwave radiation in conversations with Gamow and Dicke. In a very readable popular book, The Creation of the Universe, Gamow (1952) describes the cooling of a sea of thermal radiation in an expanding universe. He notes, as an example, that a universe with mass dominated by radiation cools to a temperature of 50 K at three thousand million years after the big bang, a common estimate then for the age of the universe. (The method of calculation is indicated in footnote 1 on page 26.) The calculation is not directly relevant, because the mass of our universe is not now dominated by radiation, but the pointer to a sea of thermal radiation is quite direct.

Two Wise Men and a Third

The author in Galileo brings this off. Even though the conversation between the three of them sometimes necessarily assumes the character of a string of deductions, it always remains a conversation. The three are individually drawn, each has his voice , and they are certainly not reluctant to contribute quick, witty comments and characterisations. After Simplicio has carefully described how all the material in the heavens is unalterably and impenetrably solid (because Aristotle says so), Sagredo exclaims What excellent stuff, the sky, for anyone who could get hold of it for building a palace But Salviati disagrees

Some of My Best Friends Are Dolphins

Most of the communication among dolphins that I have heard is of the squeaky-door variety. Dolphins seem to be attracted to humans who make similar noises. In March 1971, for example, in a dolphin pool in Hawaii, I spent forty-five minutes of vigorous squeaky-door conversation with several dolphins, to at least some of whom I seemed to be saying something of interest. In delphinese it may have been stupefying in its idiocy, but it held their attention. I am probably one of the few people who has been propositioned by a dolphin. The story requires a little background. I went to St. Thomas one winter to dive and to visit Lilly's dolphin station, which was then headed by Gregory Bateson, an Englishman of remarkable and diverse interests in anthropology, psychology, and human and animal behavior. Dining with some friends at a fairly remote mountaintop restaurant, we engaged in casual conversation with the hostess at the restaurant, a young woman named Margaret. She described to me how...

Beep This is Houston beep

One iconic symbol of the 'space programme' was the strange 'beep' that constantly seemed to punctuate the conversation between mission control and the spacecraft. Anyone mimicking or lampooning the spacemen felt the need to pepper their speech with the curious tone that came on the public feed of audio to the press and broadcasters from NASA. Despite their association with something hi-tech, their purpose was rather prosaic. They were called Quindar tones and their purpose was simply to control a switch. The USB radio system required that a radio carrier was sent to the spacecraft at all times for tracking purposes (see Chapter 6) in contrast to the situation with a walkie-talkie where the carrier is transmitted only when the push-to-talk button is pressed. However, it was not desirable for Capcom's microphone to be constantly live on the uplink to the spacecraft. He had to talk to others in the mission operations control room (MOCR) and indeed to any other site on the net, and his...

Foreword The improbability of life

The catalysts provide plausible connections among the elements of the network. The conversations among catalysts - conversations controlled by the very molecules the catalysts are controlling - allow the components of the network to form a single, coherent, interconnected, albeit very complicated, entity rather than an inchoate collection of independent processes. And how intricate these conversations are The molecules whose production is required for the cell to live and to replicate itself modify the activities of the catalysts that make them. These already very complex interactions are further modulated by additional signals that come from outside the cell and by signals generated by an internal clock. (This clock - the

Pidgins Creoles and Sign Languages

One of the Chomskyans' problems with evolution of language, that language is too complex to have halfway steps, has been addressed by Derek Bickerton. Bickerton became interested in the subject through his study of a fascinating language phenomenon, the development of creoles from pidgins. Pidgins are languages of limited vocabulary and minimal grammar, usually invented by two populations who have no language in common. The children of pidgin-speakers do something very interesting they spontaneously develop the pidgin into a fully fledged language with proper grammatical rules. These developed pidgin languages are called creoles. It seemed to Bickerton, as he studied Hawaiian creoles, that their development offered an insight into the evolution of human language. The first language was pidgin-like, he suggested, consisting mostly of vocabulary, and syntax was grafted on later. Several possible remnants of this proto-language still survive. If children are not exposed to language in...

Cells Communicate With Each Other Through Signals And Receptors

Some signals are tethered to the surface of the signaling cell. Tethered signals can only be sensed by receptors on neighboring cells in direct contact with the signaling cell. This highly restricted form of communication is akin to carrying on a confidential conversation with a single person in a low voice. Other kinds of signals are secreted from cells, travel or diffuse some distance, and bind to receptors present on the surface of cells several cell diameters away. This more public form of communication is similar to broadcasting or widescale publication of a message. A developmentally important type of secreted sig-

Origin Myths

Now, just as the word theory is used differently in science than in casual conversation (see chapter 1), so the word myth is a term of art in the anthropological study of cultures. The common connotation of myth is something that is untrue, primitive, or superstitious something that should be discounted. Yet when anthropologists talk of myths, it is to describe stories within a culture that symbolize what members of the culture hold to be most important. A culture's myths are unquestionably important, and myth is not a term of denigration.


For example, many people think that the key to protecting endangered species is to conserve the maximum number of individuals possible. But understanding evolutionary biology and the patterns of variation present in natural populations helps us recognize that the real key is conserving genetic variability. If two populations are genetically different, part of a viable conversation management plan is maintaining this diversity, for two reasons


Verbal communication is one of the most difficult things we do. Think about a typical conversation, which not only requires mastery of the grammatical rules that underlie the structure of the language, knowledge of a wide variety of vocabulary terms as well as short-and long-term memories to provide context, but also a complex set of motor skills involving roughly a hundred muscles in the face, mouth, and throat. The latter is important, as young children typically understand far more words than they can pronounce correctly. The real excitement of our language ability, though, lies within our brains.

Are We Intelligent

LONELY SBF* species seeks a special friend. You must be capable of abstract thought and symbolic language, must have the ability to learn from experience, to pass on learned knowledge by teaching others, to purposefully modify your environment, to anticipate the future and act accordingly, to make tools, dream, and play the drums. If this sounds like you, let's meet for conversation and possibly something more.

Lost Worlds

I am deep underground and chin-deep in muddy water that hovers at 58 degrees Fahrenheit. Except for the small glow of my helmet lamp, it is dark, very dark. A spotted salamander looks at me in disgust. I return the gesture. My boots are, once again, full of water. My jeans and shirt are soaked. I have just dropped down from a large cavern into a tiny compartment, roughly the size of a shallow grave. My heart is racing and I am beginning to feel a little panicked. I hear the voices of my companions from above me, to my left and my right, but I cannot see them. It sounds as if I am listening in on a conversation in another room, or in another reality. Perhaps this is the way conversations sound to the deceased, just before the dirt is thrown on the grave. 'I heard a fly buzz when I died,' and all of that. I feel completely alone. The salamander blinks and I take a deep breath and begin sliding cautiously to my right. I have been told that I have to move about ten feet before I will see...


''Gosh Look at the size of some of those craters,'' continued Bean, their conversation sounding like a B-movie script. The direction of the Moon's lighting on this flight was quite different from that encountered by previous crews. As the landing site was well to the west of the near side, the Moon appeared to be nearly full to observers on Earth. As a result, the far side was largely unlit and the crew hadn't had a glimpse of the Moon prior to LOI.

Inside The Bones

She felt she was being called on the carpet to explain this highly suspect discovery. Mary laid out quite clearly what evidence she had. She didn't think she had any proof that these were red blood cells. But there was a lot of evidence that pointed in that direction. After a long conversation I suggested that she do her dissertation by setting up the hypothesis that these were fossilized red blood cells, and then try to knock it down.

Harts Answer

These are well-argued points, but several alternatives are possible. For instance, perhaps there is only one intelligent race in the galaxy, but it is not ours. Maybe an advanced civilization long ago spread throughout the galaxy, but to them we are so clearly not intelligent, and incapable of meaningful conversation, that they don't bother with us. To the truly intelligent species in the galaxy, we may not seem threatening or promising.

Codes and Context

They are silent. One says, Well The other says nothing in reply. For us who were not present in the room at the time of the exchange, this conversation is completely inexplicable. Taken in isolation the utterance well is void and quite meaningless. Nevertheless the couple's peculiar exchange, consisting of only one word, though one to be sure which is expressively inflected, is full of meaning and significance and quite complete.

If We Succeed

The vast distances between the stars imply that there will be no cosmic dialogues by radio transmission. Suppose we receive a signal from a civilization at some likely distance for first contact, such as three hundred light-years. The message says, perhaps, Hello, you guys how are you Having long been prepared for this moment, we immediately reply, let us say, Fine, how are you The total round-trip communication time would be six hundred years. It's not what you'd call a snappy conversation.


Artificial satellites have eliminated the uncertainty created by variable ionization by providing a dependable refracting surface. But they are subject to solar interference as regards their elevation, their electronics and their radio links true creatures of the space age. Indeed there are settings where their dominance has already passed. In 1988 satellites carried most conversations and other data across the oceans, as they were deemed more cost-effective and flexible than cable systems on land and under water for distances of over about 700 km12 by the year 2000 over 80 of the traffic had been lost to submarine cables enjoying the wide bandwidths, rapid response time and greater security made possible by fibre optics.13 The fibres consist of very pure glass. Single-mode fibres have a diameter of about 8 im and transmit IR laser light (1,300-1,550 nm) multi-mode fibres have a diameter of about 62.5 im and transmit IR light (850-1,300 nm) from light-emitting diodes (LEDs). As well...


My thanks for help with this book go first and foremost to my editors, the tireless Hans Petter Bakketeig and Arne Sundland at Gyldendal Doku-mentar, thereafter to everyone else with whom I have had conversations and discussions. Thanks also to the staff of Fredrikstad Library who have assisted me with many special book requests, to the helpful staff at the Center for vetenskapshistoria in Stockholm and to Daniela Pozzi of the Istituto e Museo di Storia della Scienza in Florence. Any misunderstandings or misinterpretations in this book, are not the fault of these kind helpers, but wholly and completely my own.

John Titor

Science is kept strong, however, I don't see how Bigfoot and all of the other things talked about in this book can possibly pose much of a threat. I don't see any reason to think that we need to force a choice between one or the other or even get snippy about it in our dialogues and conversations with people with whom we disagree.

Back to Australia

Initially, Latham was wary of Steve, but after a bit of casual conversation he started to let some information slip out. He said that his late brother Dennis could have been the person who carried out the first theft. He also confirmed our suspicion that the crime was committed using a chisel and plug and feather set. Steve drew a sketch of how the rock was cut away but Latham crossed it out and drew another one. His rough drawing almost exactly matched the photos we had of the crime scene. Michael Latham suggested to Alan during their last conversation that the 'first' theft of the dinosaur footprints was orchestrated by his brother, Dennis. Perhaps he could be referring to an earlier theft, not that from the stegosaurid site. When he was first questioned by Steve he had tried to implicate his brother in this theft, yet Dennis had died in early 1992. Perhaps he is too worried by retribution by the local Aboriginal people to admit to his role in the theft. According to Joseph Roe, the...


My colleague Dr John Endler, recently moved from North America to the University of Exeter, told me the following marvellous - well, also depressing - story. He was travelling on a domestic flight in the United States, and the passenger in the next seat made conversation by asking him what he did. Endler replied that he was a professor of biology, doing research on wild guppy populations in Trinidad. The man became increasingly interested in the research and asked many questions. Intrigued by the elegance of the theory that seemed to underlie the experiments, he asked Endler what that theory was, and who originated it. Only then did Dr Endler drop what he correctly guessed would be his bombshell 'It's called Darwin's theory of evolution by natural selection ' The man's whole demeanour instantly changed. His face went red abruptly, he turned away, refused to speak further and terminated what had hitherto been an amiable conversation. More than amiable, indeed Dr Endler writes to me...

Heikea japnica crab

Illinois High Oil Selection Corn

I see that he considers your weak point to be that you do not see that 'thought and direction are essential to the action of Natural Selection.' The same objection has been made a score of times by your chief opponents, and I have heard it as often stated myself in conversation. Now, I think this arises almost entirely from your choice of the term Natural Selection, and so constantly comparing it in its effects to man's selection, and also to your so frequently personifying nature as 'selecting', as 'preferring' . . . etc., etc. To the few this is as clear as daylight, and beautifully suggestive, but to many it is evidently a stumbling-block. I wish, therefore, to suggest to you the possibility of entirely avoiding this source of misconception in your great work, and also in future

The Anning family

Anatomia Rata Hembra

People such as Jane Austen and her social circle increasingly frequented picturesque fishing villages such as Lyme, to admire the seascapes, the quaint cottages and their inhabitants, whose local accents were barely understandable. At the time it was becoming fashionable to collect natural curiosities to adorn glass cabinets in the reception rooms of spacious middle-class homes. The specimens could always be brought out as aids to polite conversation. Typical of their time were the three Philpot sisters, who first visited Lyme in 1806 and became avid samplers and collectors of natural objects. Somehow, the Philpot ladies met the 7-year-old Mary Anning junior and befriended her. Over the following years they bought numerous specimens from Mary and her family. Eventually, the Philpot sisters' magnificent collection of fossils was donated to Oxford University Museum.

Day Monday June

At a meeting of the Landing Commission at the TsUP, Feoktistov ventured that there were too many long and unnecessary conversations with the crew, which the cosmonauts evidently found irritating. As an example, he mentioned that there was no need to specify each day how to make an emergency return to Earth. The crew could readily obtain such data using the globe on the station's central control panel. Surprisingly, some members of the commission debated this issue, and at the end of the discussion it was agreed that the crew should be consulted and the accuracy of the globe be checked by several brief experiments.

Authors preface

In a less than a year and a half after the worst tragedy in Soviet cosmonautics, the book Salyut in Orbit was published. The first time that I laid my hands on it was in the mid-1980s, on a visit to the Russian Home of Culture in Belgrade, Serbia. What caught my interest was that a book intended as a memorial to the fallen cosmonauts should contain a wealth of information describing the first Salyut space station, its apparatus and the experiments that were conducted by the unlucky crew. It contains the cosmonauts' diaries, and even some of their conversations with the controllers on Earth - it was astonishing that such a book was allowed to be published during the Soviet era. However, it seemed incomplete because it said little of the tragic end of the mission. Why did cosmonauts Georgiy Dobrovolskiy, Vladislav Volkov and Viktor Patsayev lose their lives Was it a design error in the Soyuz spacecraft Was it the result of an error by the cosmonauts Was it utterly inexplicable The...


Alan and the film crew then visited a fossil market in Jinzhou. Outdoors, in the open air, there were many people selling the local fish and plant fossils, all quite legal as these are not deemed to be 'cultural relics' on the same level as the birds or dinosaurs. He enquired if there were any dinosaurs for sale. A Chinese woman took them back to her house, where she unwrapped a small, almost complete dinosaur skeleton on the floor in front of him. It was a Psittacosaurus. The conversation, as recorded, went like this

Medical matters

When mission control eventually decided that there was something to listen to, they heard about Borman's condition and arranged to have a private conversation with him from another control room in the Mission Control Center building. Their diagnosis was that Borman must have contracted a viral infection, but by that time, he had recovered. With hindsight, his condition was attributed to motion sickness. After Schweickart suffered similar symptoms, NASA had its crews try to condition themselves to extremes of motion by performing aerobatic manoeuvres in the T-38 aircraft that were made available to them.


The Nuncio's respect for Francesco's uncle, who was the real intended recipient of the rumours, was even higher. And His Holiness' view of Galileo was unchanged, as the Tuscan Ambassador was to find out in an audience. This was his report home to Florence regarding his conversation with Urban VIII, a true study in the art of diplomacy he told me that he wanted me to share with him in confidence a particular and only for the simple purpose of conversation and really not that I should be obliged to write anything about it it was that His Holiness had heard that the Most Serene Master the Grand Duke of Tuscany may have had plans to have a tomb for him erected there in Santa Croce, and he asked me if I knew anything about it. In truth I have heard it talked about for many days now, nonetheless I answered that I did not know anything about it. The reply from His Holiness was that he had heard some news, but did not yet know whether it was true or false at any rate he nonetheless wished to...


In a by now much quoted and possibly even apocryphal story, the nuclear physicist Enrico Fermi asked, during a luncheon conversation at Los Alamos in the middle 1940s, Where are they If there are vast numbers of beings more advanced then we, he was musing, why have we seen no sign of them - by a visitation to Earth, for example

Background radiation

DW The group that was looking for this microwave background, which is what we call it, consisted of four people, Bob Dicke, the leader Peter Roll and I, the experimentalists and Jim Peebles, the theorist. Every Tuesday at lunch we would meet in Bob's office and discuss the progress and problems and so forth and try to figure out what we needed to do to get there. There were some very specialized pieces of equipment we had to build, and it wasn't obvious how to do these things. Well, one Tuesday we were sitting there and the phone rang. (That often happened Dicke was a famous guy so people called him all the time.) He picked up the phone and we went on with our conversation as usual, and then we heard him say horn antenna. Well, that was one of the very special things you needed to do this experiment. And then he said, cold load - cryogenic load - and that was the other thing you needed to do this experiment. So now we were pretty tuned in because at this stage we were about halfway...

Undercover in Tucson

As we had spent the last two days filming openly, with cameras and boom microphones clearly in sight, we felt it would be inappropriate for Alan or me to do any of the undercover filming as our faces were now quite well-known around the venues. So instead we used Annie, a police operative who was there as part of a team investigating wider issues of fossil trading and its associated illegal activities. We wired Annie up and handed her the camera, hidden in a shoulder bag. Under Steve's guidance, her mission was to do a quick walk around the show and drop in at a number of key places we had earmarked as having significant material for sale. Her aim was simply to try to get some good footage of the specimens, and to make some simple enquiries about how the dealers managed to get their specimens into the USA. Being the second-last day of our visit we thought we had nothing to lose and could try this bolder approach. We dropped Annie off at the top of the Ramada Inn, with clear...

The Fermi Paradox

Edward Teller Sex Life

The four of them sat down to lunch, and the discussion turned to more mundane topics. Then, in the middle of the conversation and out of the clear blue, Fermi asked Where is everybody His lunch partners Teller, York and Konopinski immediately understood that he was talking about extraterrestrial visitors. And since this was Fermi, perhaps they realized that it was a more troubling and profound question than it first appears. York recalls that Fermi made a series of rapid calculations and concluded that we should have been visited long ago and many times over.

Friendship and Power

Pope Paul well knew of the misgivings of his best theologian, Bellarmine. And he was certainly aware that Galileo had been a friend of the infamous Paolo Sarpi. But the Prince of the Church was at his most gracious during the meeting with this scientist who had brought such lustre and fame to the Italian states. As a special concession Galileo was not required to kneel for the entire conversation, as would normally have been the case.

Spontaneous Conversation

Spontaneous Conversation

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