Adaptive Radiation

To be fruitful and multiply, all living things have to acquire energy (through photosynthesis or by consuming other living things), avoid predation and illness, and reproduce. As is clear from the study of natural history, there are many different ways that organisms manage to perform these tasks, which reflects both the variety of environments on Earth and the variety of living things. Any environment marine, terrestrial, arboreal, aerial, subterranean contains many ecological niches that...

Legal Teams Square

The plaintiffs' legal team included two civil liberties organizations, the Pennsylvania affiliate of the ACLU and Americans United for Separation of Church and State (AU). It also included the large Philadelphia-based law firm of Pepper Hamilton LLP, and a consultant, the National Center for Science Education (NCSE). The school district was defended by the Thomas More Law Center (TMLC) its regular attorney had warned it not to adopt the antievolution policy. The Discovery Institute (DI), the...

Darwins Science

In addition to the idea of evolution by natural selection, On the Origin of Species illustrated a somewhat different way of looking at biology and a different philosophy of science from that familiar to Darwin's contemporaries (Mayr 1964 xviii). A New Conception of Biology. For Darwin, transmutation of species was a natural phenomenon it neither required a guiding hand nor resulted in a predetermined goal. Species changed as a result of the need to adapt to immediate environmental...

Critically Analyzing Evolution

One EAE variant was promulgated by ID supporters on the Ohio State Board of Education during a controversy over the content of state science education standards in 2002. Lacking enough votes to have ID included in the standards, pro-ID board members arranged for a public hearing in March 2002 that would include ID proponents and opponents. Stephen C. Meyer, the director of the Center for Science and Culture at the Discovery Institute, testified that as a compromise, the board members who had...

Scientific Alternatives To Evolution Abrupt Appearance Theory

Creation science is of course the original scientific alternative to evolution, but it had been identified as a religious view in both McLean and Edwards and could not constitutionally be advocated in the public schools. The lawyer Wendell Bird, who had advised the Institute for Creation Research on legal matters and who was appointed to argue Louisiana's position before the Supreme Court in the Edwards case, proposed a new scientific alternative to evolution that he claimed was distinct from...

Organizing Those Beetles

Linnaeus classified a huge number of plants and animals during his lifetime. His rationale was overall similarity the more similar organisms were, the more closely together they were placed in the ranked (hierarchical) system familiar to anyone who has taken middle school or high school biology. The highest Linnaean ranking is kingdom, followed by phylum, class, order, family, genus, and species. (There are a variety of mnemonics to remember their order, such as Kings Play Chess On Fine Golden...

Strengths and Weaknesses of Evolution

Another approach creationists use is to propose that when evolution is taught, both strengths and weaknesses of the subject should be taught sometimes the language used calls for teaching evidence for and evidence against evolution. In all cases, the content presented is the familiar creation science and ID claims that there are gaps in the fossil record, that natural selection cannot produce big changes like body plan differences, that the overwhelming complexity of even the simplest cell...

Ds Cultural Renewal Focus

According to Dembski, Two animating principles drive intelligent design. The more popular by far takes intelligent design as a tool for liberation from ideologies that suffocate the human spirit, such as reductionism and materialism. The other animating principle, less popular but intellectually more compelling, takes intelligent design as the key to opening up fresh insights into nature (Dembski 2002 1). Whether or not ID actually has opened fresh insights into nature, there is no doubting the...

Creation Science Expands

To counter the BSCS and other evolution-based textbooks, in 1970 the CRS published its own high school biology textbook, Biology A Search for Order in Complexity, which by its title revealed its orientation of seeking divine design in nature (Moore and Slusher 1970). The CRS textbook did not sell many copies, however, and ran into legal difficulty in several states because of its frankly religious orientation. In 1974, Henry Morris published a textbook of his own, Scientific Creationism. To try...

Testing Intelligent Design An Uncompromising School Board

The small central Pennsylvania community of Dover had for several years feuded over the teaching of evolution. From at least 2001 on, some school board members had made public comments derogatory of evolution or in favor of teaching creationism. In 2002, a four-foot by sixteen-foot student-painted mural depicting a line of progressively more human ape-men was removed from the wall of the science classroom and burned by a school district custodian, allegedly while a school board member looked...

The Amphioxus Song

A fish-like thing appeared among the annelids one day. It hadn't any parapods nor setae to display. It hadn't any eyes nor jaws, nor ventral nervous cord, But it had a lot of gill slits and it had a notochord. It's a long way from Amphioxus. It's a long way to us. It's a long way from Amphioxus to the meanest human cuss. Well, it's goodbye to fins and gill slits, and it's welcome lungs and hair It's a long, long way from Amphioxus, but we all came from there. It wasn't much to look at and it...

Geocentrism

Geocentrists accept that Earth is a sphere but deny that the sun is the center of the solar system. Like flat earthers, they reject virtually all of modern physics and astronomy as well as biology. Geocentrism is a somewhat larger, though still insignificant, component of modern antievolutionism. At the Bible-Science Association creation-ism conference in 1985, the plenary session debate was between two geocentrists and two heliocentrists Bible-Science Association 1985 . Similarly, as recently...

Equal Time for Creation and Evolution

By the early 1960s, evolution was returning to science textbooks and classrooms after largely having been absent since the 1930s. It is not coincidental that Whitcomb and Morris's The Genesis Flood was published in 1961 and that the ICR was founded a few years later the increased exposure of public school students to evolution was a cause for alarm among conservative Christians. In Arizona, opposition to the use of BSCS books in the Phoenix school district stimulated state...

Materialist Evolutionism

Before discussing materialist evolutionism, I need to distinguish between two uses of the term materialism or naturalism . As I mentioned in chapter 1, modern science operates under a rule of methodological naturalism that limits it to attempting to explain natural phenomena using natural causes. Philosophical materialists sometimes The Relationship between Methodological and Philosophical Naturalism. All philosophical naturalists are methodological naturalists, but it is not accurate to say...

Indirect Experimentation

In some fields, not only is it impossible to directly control variables but also the phenomena themselves may not be directly observable. A research design known as indirect experimentation is often used in such fields. Explanations can be tested even if the phenomena being studied are too far away, too small, or too far back in time to be observed directly. For example, giant planets recently have been discovered orbiting distant stars though we cannot directly observe them. Their presence is...