Biological Hazards

Travel to remote areas carries with it inherent risk dictated by the flora and fauna of the region. Regional public health concerns become the concern of the research team as well. Biological hazards can be defined as those hazards that pose a risk of infection to the individual. These biological risks may include viral, bacterial, parasitic, or fungal invasion of the body. Malaria, hantavirus, rabies, tetanus, poisonous plant exposure, and poisonous reptiles and insects are a few examples of...

Disadvantages of CT

Perhaps the greatest disadvantage of CT scanning applications in anthropology and archaeology is the size of the equipment. CT scanners are most often fixed units within an imaging facility, and accessibility to scanning equipment can be problematic. Since CT scanners were designed to diagnose injury and disease in living people, patient imaging takes precedence over the examination of mummified remains. Getting time to use a scanner often necessitates working late at night or during a period...

A

Figure 3.50 The parallel protons will align with B0, but will be out of phase. Figure 3.51A The protons will all be in phase, forming a net magnetic vector (NMV). they are aggregately termed the net magnetic vector (NMV) (Figure 3.51A). Then, the NMV will be pushed from a low-energy parallel alignment to a higher-energy transverse alignment (Figure 3.51B). They will remain in this state as long as external RF energy is applied. Once the external RF energy is terminated, the NMV will begin to...

L g

Figure 9.1A A Polaroid image of Jeremy Bentham's left hand, demonstrating the pins, plates, and wire used to articulate the skeleton. Note the broken plate (arrow) that formed the joint between the proximal and middle phalange of the fifth digit. Figure 9.1B an AP projection of the left foot, showing that most of the wires (arrows) across the metatarsal phalangeal joints were broken. Figure 9.1B an AP projection of the left foot, showing that most of the wires (arrows) across the metatarsal...

Appendix D Expedition Kit List Papua New Guinea

T-shirt shorts Comfortable underwear Fleece Bandana Small day sack Light gloves Sunglasses Rain coat Light sleeping bag Silk liner erm-a-rest Head torch Travel towel 50 Deet Antimalarials Personal medical kit Lightweight full-length x 2. Lightweight x 2. To relax sleep in. Lightweight, nonchafing. Evening wear to stop the mosquitoes and resist the cold in the evenings. Breathable wool x 3 (essential), lightweight liners x 2 (optional). Suitable for jungle trekking. Open, fixed strap not...

Artifact Associations

Once the location of the object and quite possibly the general identification of what the object might be are established, the next procedural step is to determine its association, if any, with the remains as a whole. Other anthropological and paleopathological data collected via field radiography should be considered in association with the artifacts being analyzed. It is imperative that other anthropological data such as sex, age at time of death, dentition, and dental status be compared to...

Evolution of Conventional Radiography in Anthropology and Archaeology

Mummy mania found its way into Western European culture in the mid- to late 1800s. Mummies or mummy parts from Egypt were purchased from mummy vendors on the streets of Cairo by European travelers and scientists. Ancient artifacts were brought back to America or Europe and became family heirlooms. These heirlooms eventually found their way into museums. However, a major problem associated with this type of mummy commerce and collection became apparent. A traveler or scientist could purchase a...

A a fx e e e s

Figure 2.41B The resulting radiograph of the vertebrae positioned for the SI (superior-inferior) projection. Figure 2.42 A wastebasket (A) can serve as a satisfactorily cassette (B) support for a cross-table radiograph where the x-ray (C) is directed horizontally. Figure 2.42 A wastebasket (A) can serve as a satisfactorily cassette (B) support for a cross-table radiograph where the x-ray (C) is directed horizontally. in this study were 45 kVp, 10 mA, and 1 2 s. Even at the lowest settings, the...

F i

Figure 3.34A A prebiopsy axial image through the chest of Marie O'Day. The tip of the biopsy needle (A) was located just above the target (B), a calcification in the chest. Figure 3.34B Following the biopsy attempt, the target (arrow) was still in place. Figure 3.35 Percutaneous transthoracic needle biopsy with ct guidance on George Fred. Figure 3.35 Percutaneous transthoracic needle biopsy with ct guidance on George Fred. Figure 3.36 coaxial needle tip bent after biopsy attempt. Figure 3.36...

Instant Film

At this point it should be clear that conventional film has a number of disadvantages in a field application. Even though large quantities of film may be easily acquired as a donation, the need for a darkroom, chemistry, and water make it tremendously problematic. In addition, even if automatic processing is available, the occasional need to repeat films will result in the examination of fewer specimens. Because x-ray and visible light are both forms of electromagnetic radiation, photographic...

Documenting Context

The first role of photography as it relates to paleoimaging is to document the physical setting where the research will be conducted. The general environment associated with the study at hand should be photographed with respect to those environmental features that may impact the work to be done. In addition, the context from where the cultural remains or artifacts came is critical, as it may assist in the interpretation of paleoimag-ing data. The environmental conditions may help explain...

Appendix C Example of Risk Assessment Documentation

Bioanthropology Research Institute at Quinnipiac University (BRIQ) _LOCATION RISK ASSESSMENT (including fire risk assessment)_ Project Manager Office telephone Mobile Project Director Phone E-mail Health and Safety Office telephone E-mail Written description of action covered by this RA This project will explore the culture of the Kukukuku people of Koke and Angabena villages in Papua New Guinea. It will focus on local traditions of mummifying the dead. Before every work day and specific...

Image Receptor Film and screens

In 1895, the image receptors for photography included glass plates, flexible films, and papers coated with a light-sensitive emulsion. However, in Rontgen's initial communication to the Wurzburg Physical Medical Society, he stressed the importance of using photographic plates (Gagliardi 1996a). The plates were manufactured in standardized sizes, including 14 x 17, 11 x 14, 10 x 12, 8 x 10, and 5 x 7 in. Prior to being exposed, the lightsensitive plate was placed into a light-tight envelope. A...

Evolution of Endoscopy in Anthropology

Not long after the inception of the flexible fiber-optic endoscope in the early 1970s and its subsequent use in medicine, the technology was applied to mummified remains. The early reports, starting in about 1978, applied the technology following the medical model. The endoscope was used to biopsy target tissue from within a body cavity of mummified remains (Tapp et al. 1984). Later reports demonstrate the adoption of the bioarchaeological model in that the technology has increasingly been...

Field Radiography Applications Considerations and Challenges General Considerations

Field radiography may be defined as a radiographic examination outside of an established imaging center. Contextual examples for field radiography include remote research facilities, tombs, caves, and museums. Considerations regarding field radiography instrumentation and technique are determined by two primary factors the proposed location of the study and the specific research goals. Each of these factors in turn produces a wide variety of additional considerations to be addressed while...

Biological Impact of Radiation

The biological hazards of radiation exposure are discussed in depth by Bushberg et al. (2002b). The effects can be divided into two categories, stochastic and deterministic. Stochastic effects are random or chance occurrences, but the probability of an effect increases with dose. It is associated with low radiation dose exposures, and Bushberg et al. indicate that radiation-induced cancers and genetic effects are examples of these stochastic effects. The deterministic effects are linked with...

Target Identification for Biopsy and Retrieval

In many cases, radiography reveals an area of interest that warrants closer study. Typically, this is a particular pathological anomaly or an artifact either within the mummy or among the mummy wrappings. If it is within the research protocols and the target is to be biopsied or removed, conventional radiography can be employed to pinpoint the spatial relationship Figure 2.80 A PA projection on a Guanajuato mummy, MH2. Figure 2.80 A PA projection on a Guanajuato mummy, MH2. Figure 2.81 a chest...

The Paleoimaging TeamA Brief Discourse

Bioanthropological and bioarchaeological research naturally calls upon the skills of various scientists from many disciplines. Among those disciplines are those individuals skilled in paleoimaging. When considering the data attainable from the varied imaging studies applied to the anthropological and archaeological setting, several variables need to be considered the data collection or paleoimaging process, recalibration of those processes for additional data collection, and the interpretation...

Conventional Radiography The Basics

Conventional radiography is still the method most frequently used to initially examine artifacts, victims for forensic examination, and mummified and skeletal remains. Since Rontgen's 1895 discovery, many modifications have changed the design of x-ray equipment. However, the basic principles of x-ray production have remained unchanged. That is, within the x-ray tube, electrons are accelerated from the filament within the negative electrode, or cathode, to the target within the positive...

Two unusual Associated Artifacts in the Internal Context

The first unusual case is that of Andy the Blockhead, a sideshow mummy who is displayed at Ripley's Believe it or Not Museum in New Orleans, Louisiana. We conducted a paleoimaging study on Andy prior to his debut Carnival Mummies 2003 . The initial AP and lateral skull radiographs showed that there appeared to be a common nail in the nasal passage of the mummy Figure 7.30 . A popular sideshow act was having an individual place objects deep into the nasopharynx giving the appearance that the...

MDCT in Paleoimaging

Sylvester The Mummy

Although the newest equipment can produce remarkable images on living patients, it is not necessarily well suited for the examination of mummified or skeletal remains. The first obstacle would be access to the equipment. Few imaging facilities can provide repeated access to the extremely expensive equipment. Therefore, specific imaging questions must be defined before an examination is undertaken. If the entire length of a 60 in. 152 cm mummy was going to be scanned at 0.5-mm-thick slices, that...

Cultural Practices

Ancient Medical Practices Ancient cultures appear to be fairly sophisticated in their medical practices. In the case of the Inca and other populations as well, trephinations were performed with great skill and with a remarkable success rate. It has been determined that among the Inca, based on new bone growth at the procedure site, trephination survival approached an 80 success rate Verano 2003 . Conventional radiography can be used to demonstrate not only the frequency of the medical practice...

Paleoimaging Interpreters

Initially, it would seem that since much of the data collected is radiographic, a radiologist would be the logical individual to make the interpretations. While this may be true, there are very few true paleoradiologists available. In fact, there are no specialized training programs in this area of expertise. Too often a radiologist becomes a paleoradiologist as soon as she he interprets her his first mummy x-ray. Sadly, this oversimplifies the challenges faced in the interpretation of images...

Devices to Maintain the Position of the Remains

Canthomeatal Line

As previously stated, proper positioning is required to obtain the most information from a radiographic image. However, to acquire that image, both the remains and the image receptor must maintain the precise position during the duration of the x-ray exposure. Cardboard and other solid materials are radiopaque, impeding the passage of x-rays and causing the material to be visible on the processed radiograph. The positioning aid must be radiolucent, or nearly invisible, to x-rays. There are...

Frauds Fakes and surprises

Fake Cat Mummies

Throughout history, clever artists have attempted to pass off or sell an object that was not authentic, a fake artifact. In some cases, these objects were sold to private collectors, but museums too have been duped. In ancient Egypt, there were superb copy makers of Egyptian artifacts. Even the reputable sellers of animal mummies in ancient Egypt would, at times, dupe the buyer. Early in the 20th century, seemingly authentic artifacts were sold for a grand price to museums across the world....