Contents

Introduction 20

Evolution of Conventional Radiography in Anthropology and Archaeology 21

Background: Mummy Mania Begins 21

Early Radiographic Applications: Exploring Possibilities 21

Modern Radiographic Applications: Refinement and Technological Progress 22

Conventional Radiography: The Basics 23

Exposure Variables 23

X-Ray Penetration 23

Focal Spot 27

Source-to-Image Distance 28

Image Distortion 28

Beam Collimation 29

Image Receptor: Film and Screens 29

Darkroom: Film Processing 33

Field Radiography Applications: Considerations and Challenges 34

General Considerations 34

Field Imaging: Specific Considerations 35

The Radiographic Unit 35

Utilities 36

X-Ray Tube Support System 37

Image Receptors 39

Darkrooms 42

Film Drying and Viewing 49

Instant Film 50

Positioning 56

Devices to Maintain the Position of the Remains 62

Devices for Holding the Image Receptor 64

Unique Technical Challenges 65

Summary of Unique Technical Challenges 88

Technical Advantages and Disadvantages of Conventional Radiography 89

Technical Advantages 89

Technical Disadvantages 90

Complementary Data Acquisition 90 Anthropological Applications: Laboratory and Field Objectives for Conventional Radiography 91

Fundamental Objectives 91

Assess Condition of the Remains or Artifact Age at the Time of Death

Determination of Sex in Absence of Direct Observation Dentition

95 95 99

108 118 119 119 119

Refinement Objectives

Detection of Pathologies (Paleopathology) Target Identification for Biopsy and Retrieval Cultural Practices Temporal Context

Mechanism of Death

Summary and Future Applications References

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