Contents

Introduction 186

Evolution of Endoscopy in Anthropology 187

Instrumentation 188

Medical versus Industrial Endoscopes 189

Anatomy of a VE 193

The Insertion Tube 193

The Physics of Fiber Optics 194

The Distal Tip 196

The Proximal End 197

Light Source 197

Camera Control Unit/Monitoring/Data Recording and Storage 198

Quick Look Systems 200

Biopsy and Retrieval Tools 201

Instrumentation Summary 202

Endoscopic Laboratory and Field Applications 202

Supporting Imaging Techniques 203

Conventional Radiography 203

Direct and Computed Radiography 204

Fluoroscopy 204

Computed Tomography (CT Scan) 205

Complementary Nature among Methods 206

Technological Disadvantages of Videoendoscopy 207

Anthropological Applications of Videoendoscopy 207

Burial Practices 208

Mummification Methods 209

Age at Time of Death 211

Dentition 211

Paleopathologies 212

Biomechanical Stress 213

Mechanism of Death 216

Sampling 216

Artifact Retrieval 216

Soft and Bony Tissue Biopsy: Histology and Pathology 217

Chemical Composition 218

Ancient DNA 219

Radiocarbon Dating 219

Archaeological Applications of Videoendoscopy 219

Preexcavation Tomb Evaluation 219

Remote Imaging and Tomb Sampling 219

Conservation Preparation 220

Artifact Analysis 220 Emerging Applications: Endoscopic-Guided Light Reflectance/Absorption

Analysis 221

Experiment 1: Subject #1, Preserved Feline 223

Experiment 2: Subject #2, North American Mummy (circa 1900) 223 Experiment 3: Subject #3, Pa-Ib (2000-1500 BC) New Kingdom Period

Egyptian Mummy 224

Experiment 4: Comparisons between Experimental Subjects 224 Potential Future Applications of Videoendoscopy: Transluminescence for Relative Density among Structures 226

Alternate Light Endoscopy 226

Endoscopy Summary and Future Applications 227

References 227

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