Diseases can leave their traces on the bony structures or in organ remnants within mummified remains. Videoendoscopy can be used to directly visualize the impact of disease on the individual under investigation. Pulmonary diseases (Beckett et al. 2003) that can be seen in the remains include pulmonary adhesions (Figure 4.28), emphysema, and pulmonary fibrotic changes (Figure 4.29). Additionally, peritracheal lymphadenopathies (Beckett et al. 1999b) can be seen if they impose on the inner lumen of a preserved pulmonary airway (Figure 4.30). If an individual had meningitis, the meningeal grooves on the inner table of the cranium become deep, which can be seen via the VE (Figure 4.31). Additional endocranial lesions can also be visualized, such as those of the dorsal sella turcica, indicating a potential pituitary lesion. Calcifications seen on x-ray may be difficult to visualize with

Figure 4.28 Videoendoscopic images of pulmonary adhesions. Image at bottom right is from a Chachapoya mummy from Leymebamba, Peru, whereas the other images are from a late 19 th century historic mummy.

VE due to their position within the pulmonary matrix. However, on occasion, pulmonary lymph node lesions (Conlogue et al. 2008b) can be imaged endoscopically (Figure 4.32) and, if desired, extracted for paleopathological analysis. Renal stones have also been visualized and retrieved under VE guidance (Figure 4.33).

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