The proximal end of the VE has various components and is the command center of the scope. Directional controls, which are manual or electronic depending on the scope type, can manipulate the direction of the tip of the VE in four directions while it is within an object. The tip of some scopes can be manipulated greater than 90° in any direction. This allows the operator to seek out targets without having to have a direct path. Coupled with the lens options at the tip, the VE becomes an extremely flexible imaging tool. The proximal end also houses the command controls for the functions of the camera control unit (CCU). Depending on the options available on the CCU, the proximal tip can command such functions as freeze frame, digital zoom, image capture and storage, brightness control, white balance, and field of view manipulation (Figure 4.14). If equipped, the proximal end command center can also control digital measurement applications. This allows for measurement of objects within the subject of analysis.
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