V

VE. see Videoendoscope (VE) Vertebrae radiograph, 68 Vertebral abnormalities videoendoscopic images, 215 Videoendoscope (VE) advantages, 187, 202 archaeological data, 207 artifact identification, 216 biopsy channel, 201 dental attrition, 211 distal tip, 196 endoscopes, 189 external biopsy channel, 201 image-capturing capability, 193 imaging modalities, 203 interchangeable lenses, 197 light source, 226 mummy data collection, 208 paleopathological data, 207 proximal end, 198 remote operated vehicle image, 220 Videoendoscopy anthropological data collection, 186, 188 archaeological data collection, 188 brain removal entry point, 210 ceramic artifacts, 220 death determination, 211 detention features, 212 internal organ remnants, 209 techniques, 186 various burial practices, 208 view of shoulder region, 217 visualization, 217 Videoendoscopy anthropological and archaeological research, 185-222 age at time of death, 211 alternate light endoscopy, 226

anatomy, 193 ancient DNA, 219 anthropological applications, 207 archaeological applications, 219 artifact analysis, 220 artifact retrieval, 216 biomechanical stress, 213-215 biopsy and retrieval tools, 201 burial practices, 208 camera control unit, 198-199 chemical composition, 218-219 conservation preparation, 220 conventional radiography, 203 CT, 205

death mechanism, 216 dentition, 211

direct and computed radiography, 204 distal tip, 196

emerging applications, 221-224 endoscopic-guided light reflectance/absorption analysis, 221-224 endoscopic laboratory and field applications supporting imaging techniques, 203 experimental subject comparison, 224 fiber optics physics, 194-201 fluoroscopy, 204 future applications, 226 instrumentation, 188-192 instrumentation summary, 202-212 light source, 197

medical vs. industrial endoscopes, 189-192 methods complementary nature, 206 mummification methods, 209-210 New Kingdom period Egyptian mummy experiment, 224 North American Mummy experiment, 223 paleopathologies, 212 potential future applications, 226 preexcavation tomb evaluation, 219 preserved feline experiment, 221-222 proximal end, 197 quick look systems, 200 radiocarbon dating, 219 remote imaging and tomb sampling, 219 sampling, 216-217 soft and bony tissue biopsy, 217 technological disadvantages, 207 transluminescence for relative density among structures, 226 tube insertion, 193 Videoscope, 189, 190-194, 246, 256 Vitrea, 242

Weerdinge mummy study, 73 Wet processing tanks, 48

Wet reading, 33 Whistle pot, 303

case study, 302 WHO. see World Health Organization (WHO) Windowing, 127 Winged Victory constructed film holder, 320 ice pack method, 322 image, 320 radiographs, 322

x-ray tube placement photograph, 321 World Health Organization (WHO), 347 World War I, 30

Wurzburg Physical Medical Society, 20 X

Xeromammography, 32-33 Xeroradiography, 32 Xograph Healthcare, Ltd., 162 X-ray(s), xi ionizing radiation, 355

manipulation, 25

photons, 356, 357

properties, 356

radiation properties, 356

source to image receptor distance,

296 table, 76 X-Raying the Pharaohs, 22 X-ray tubes cold packs, 43 cooling-off, 80 detector rotation, 127 fastening, 38 film positioning, 321 linear tomography, 124 mummy lateral projection, 38 mummy positioning, 39 position, 80 PVC pipe, 70

Soap Lady multiple lateral images, 83 suspension, 37 window, 74

Color Figure 1.1 Photographs of regional environments that may impact the mummification and preservation of cultural artifacts and remains. Shown here is a dry desert environment (left) and modern agriculture near ancient burial tombs (right) that may impact the water table.

Color Figure 1.2 Photographic documentation of a subterranean tomb environment that may explain paleoimaging data.

Color Figure 1.4 Photographic documentation of Anga mummies placed on a cliff overlooking their village following mummification. The documentation helps explain the deterioration of the remains seen during paleoimaging research.

Color Figure 1.15 Macrophotography showing the details of anatomical anomaly also seen on radiograph. The correlational analysis of the radiograph and the macrophotograph enhance the understanding of the anomaly. Also shown here is the use of "raking," a lighting technique used to accentuate desired features.

Color Figure 1.17 Macrophotographic documentation of the metallic structures over the eyes of the mummified remains. The radiograph alerted the photographer to the existence of the unique metallic object, which could then be located and documented.

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Color Figure 4.13 A comparison of two views of the same internal thorax. On the left is a video-endoscopic image of thoracic contents using a forward view near-focus lens, while on the right the same thorax is imaged using a forward view far-focus lens.

Color Figure 4.22 Videoendoscopic images of various burial practices seen from inside the wrappings. Shown here are weaving tools, feather, cotton, and wool packing, and a metallic object seen with twine passing through.

Color Figure 4.25 Videoendoscopic images of the brain removal entry point in Pa-Ib (left panels). Coronal section CT scan showing the opening into the cranial vault and a 3D reconstruction further demonstrating the entry point (right panels).

Color Figure 4.42 Theoretical application of endoscope light used to assess relative flat bone densities.

Color Figure 7.1 Paleoimaging analysis of artifacts associated with a mummified infant from Pachacamac, which assisted in the determination of its sex.

Color Figure 7.9 Radiograph showing a ring on the finger of a crypt mummy from Popoli, Italy. The accompanying endoscopic image of the ring adds the characteristics of color and contour to the analysis.

Color Figure 7.11 Typical associated grave goods of the Chiribaya culture.

Color Figure 7.21 Several endoscopic images of the ceramic artifact within the thorax of El Viejo. The images complement the radiograph (D) in that they allow for the assessment of what was held within the ceramic (C), some of its construction features (B), and the presence of coca leaves adhering to the exterior surface (A).

Color Figure 8.6 Two internal endoscopic images of a ceramic pot showing a far-focus view (left) and near-focus view (right).

Color Figure 8.7 Endoscopic images of objects held within a ceramic pot.

Color Figure 8.8 Endoscopic image of linear discoloration left by a fluid level (arrow). The ceramic was likely to have held a form of Chicha.

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Color Figure 8.11 Endoscopic images of the whistle mechanism within the whistle pot pictured at top.

Color Figure 8.15 Endoscopic image using a far-focus lens showing the internal construction features of this Chiribaya tomb. Note the stone wall and its junction with the reed mat tomb ceiling.

Color Figure 8.16 Endoscopic image using a far-focus lens of wall construction details. Note apparent mud-type mortar between the stones holding the rocks in place as well as keeping shifting sands out of the tomb.

Color Figure 8.17 Endoscopic image using a far-focus lens showing a view of the sand that had entered the tomb following the seismic activity.

Color Figure 8.18 Endoscopic image using a far-focus lens looking upward providing a view of the construction details of the reed mat used as a tomb cap.

Color Figure 8.19 Endoscopic image showing the first evidence of remains within the tomb, a small section of textile (arrow).

Color Figure 8.20 Two endoscopic views of the mummified remains wearing a hat. Image on the right shows the location of the face of the individual and the sand level that had shifted into the tomb from the seismic activity (arrows).

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