The paleozoic era ended with a mass extinction that seems to have wiped out 70 percent of life on Earth. It took the Triassic world about 10 million years to recover from the catastrophe, and by that time the surviving reptiles were evolving into new forms. They included the therapsids, mammal-like reptiles that gave rise to the first true mammals at the end of the Triassic. They also included marine reptiles, such as the nothosaurs and ichthyosaurs, the first of the flying pterosaurs, and—appearing some 230 million years ago—the earliest dinosaurs.
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