Introduction

Sedimentary basins that either form or evolve in response to regional compression are common in oro-genic belts. Among the most recurrent types are foreland basins (Section 10.3.2), which form as a direct result of the crustal thickening and topographic uplift that accompany orogenesis, and basins that initially form during a period of extension or transtension and later evolve during a period of subsequent compression. This latter process, called basin inversion (Section 10.3.3), also occurs in association with strike-slip faulting (Fig. 8.10) and is the mechanism by which old passive margin sequences deform during continental collision (Section 10.4.6). Any sedimentary basin in compression may develop a fold and thrust belt (Section 10.3.4) whose characteristics reflect the strength of the continental lithosphere and the effects of pre-existing stratigraphic and structural heterogeneities.

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