The interior of the Earth

2.1 Earthquake seismology

2.1.1 Introduction

2.1.2 Earthquake descriptors

2.1.3 Seismic waves

2.1.4 Earthquake location

2.1.5 Mechanism of earthquakes

2.1.6 Focal mechanism solutions of earthquakes

2.1.7 Ambiguity in focal mechanism solutions

2.1.8 Seismic tomography

2.2 Velocity structure of the Earth

2.3 Composition of the Earth

2.4 The crust

2.4.1 The continental crust

2.4.2 Upper continental crust

2.4.3 Middle and lower continental crust

2.4.4 The oceanic crust

2.4.5 Oceanic layer 1

2.4.6 Oceanic layer 2

2.4.7 Oceanic layer 3 Ophiolites

Metamorphism of oceanic crust

Differences between continental and oceanic crust

10 10 10 10 11 12

14 17 19 21 22 22 23

28 29

2.8 The mantle

2.8.1 Introduction

2.8.2 Seismic structure of the mantle

2.8.3 Mantle composition

2.8.4 The mantle low velocity zone

2.8.5 The mantle transition zone

2.8.6 The lower mantle

2.9 The core

2.10 Rheology of the crust and mantle

2.10.1 Introduction

2.10.2 Brittle deformation

2.10.3 Ductile deformation

2.10.4 Lithospheric strength profiles

2.10.5 Measuring continental deformation

2.10.6 Deformation in the mantle

2.11 Isostasy

2.11.1 Introduction

2.11.2 Airy's hypothesis

2.11.3 Pratt's hypothesis

2.11.4 Flexure of the lithosphere

2.11.5 Isostatic rebound

2.11.6 Tests of isostasy

2.12 Lithosphere and asthenosphere

2.13 Terrestrial heat flow

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