Earthworms Ebooks Catalog

Worm Farming

Worm Farming

Do You Want To Learn More About Green Living That Can Save You Money? Discover How To Create A Worm Farm From Scratch! Recycling has caught on with a more people as the years go by. Well, now theres another way to recycle that may seem unconventional at first, but it can save you money down the road.

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Beginners Guide To Starting A Worm Farm

Now, you can learn the complex and nuanced skills that it takes to run a Great quality worm farm! Worm farming is not the simple task that all too many make it out to be; there is far more to it than just simply putting a bunch of worms in a box and leaving them to their own devices. Real, sustainable worm farming is an art form that few can master. This ebook teaches you the never-before-revealed secrets to great worm farming. You do not need to worry about ever having worm farmed before; you can get started with no previous experience! You can actually generate an income from worm farming You can also grow the best quality vegetables and fruits in the soil that the worms have turned. This ebook will teach you all of those skills and more Get started farming!

How to Start a Worm Farm Summary


4.6 stars out of 11 votes

Contents: Ebook
Author: Ed Van Eeden
Price: $17.00

My How to Start a Worm Farm Review

Highly Recommended

It is pricier than all the other books out there, but it is produced by a true expert and is full of proven practical tips.

All the modules inside this book are very detailed and explanatory, there is nothing as comprehensive as this guide.

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Worm Farming For Profit

Anyone can practice worm farming; it does not require any background knowledge or specific environment to make money in this farming. Of course, there are experts in society that can do this best but everyone has to start from scratch and make some mistakes. Just like in any industry, there are newbies, intermediate, and professionals in worm farming. Worm farming is practical; it is not a get rich quick scheme because it is a product necessary for farm produce. If you want to make an honest living either part time or full time, this is a suitable option; irrespective of your location and education level. The author is confident about worm farming; you can decide to invest all your time in this or do it part time. One thing is sure, you will make money. More here...

Worm Farming For Profit Summary

Contents: Ebook, Videos
Author: Kyle
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Lung books see book lung

Lymph gland 1. (ANN Oligochaeta) Organs on the anterior faces of septa associated with the dorsal blood vessel, in the intestinal regions of some earthworms, possibly functioning in production of phagocytes. 2. (ARTHRO Insecta) Organs that release free mesodermal cells into the hemo-lymph near pupation of Drosophila larvae.

Ankistroid see ancistroid

L. annulus, ring Gr. eidos, form A phylum of segmented or cylindrical ringed worms, encompassing the Polychaeta, mainly free-living and marine, the Oligochaeta, mainly free-living, either terrestrial (earthworms), fresh water, or marine, and the Hirudinoidea or leeches, that are ectoparasitic, fresh water, marine, or

A huge impact on the environment

Being tiny does not prevent a creature from having a substantial impact on its environment. This is certainly the case with ants, which, with their population of millions of billions, their nests holding thousands of individuals or many more, can make a real mark on the habitats they colonize. Just by building their nests, they displace such quantities of earth that, taken as a whole, they turn over almost as much as earthworms. In addition, they have so many mouths to feed that, when they mount raids on the plants or invertebrates in their vicinity, they can change the nature of the flora and fauna of some parts of the globe. This is why Patricia Folgarait of the Faculty of Agricultural Sciences at the University of Buenos Aires goes so far as to define ants as 'ecosystem engineers'. per hectare per year. According to the Australian geologist T. Ron Paton, the record in this activity is ten tons of earth per hectare per year, established by species...

Amphoterotoky see amphitoky

Gr. an, without aner, man (ANN Oligochaeta) Designating earthworms without testes. anarsenosomphic a. Gr. an, without arsen, male somphos, porous (ANN Oligochaeta) Designates earthworms without male terminalia, such as parthenogenetic morphs, cephalic regenerates, or abnormal individuals.

Internuncial neuron see association neuron

Intersegmental furrow (ANN Oligochaeta) In pigmented species of earthworms, the boundary between two consecutive segments where epidermis is thinnest and color is lacking. intersegmental groove (ANN Oligochaeta) In earthworms, a circumferential depression of strongly contracted specimens that contains the intersegmental furrow.

Endemic Taxa and Autochtonous Evolution in the Carpathian Basin

The level of endemism generally correlates with the geological age of the refugia where relict-like taxa have been evolved and or could survive. The Carpathian Basin belongs to the geologically young areas of Europe. Its relief developed under the influence of the Alpine orogenesis and by retreat of the Paratethys and the Pannonian inland sea. Moreover, the phylogeography of some freshwater invertebrates (e.g. Neritidae snails, see Bunje 2007 Feher et al. 2007) is clearly connected with the evolution of the Ponto-Pannonian water basin and of the Danube catchment area. In addition, there are several taxonomical groups with considerable proportion of endemic species, e.g. the land gastropods (Soos 1943) the earthworms (Lumbricidae Csuzdi and Pop 2007) or some soil arthropods (e.g. Opiliones, Diplopoda Korsos 1994 Collembola Danyi and Traser 2007). Their core areas clearly coincide with the younger tertiary land masses within and near the Carpathian Basin. Most endemic species are narrow...

The Pernicious Legacy Of The Great Chain Of Being

So glibly do the phrases 'higher animals' and 'lower animals' trip off our tongues that it comes as a shock to realize that, far from effortlessly slotting into evolutionary thinking as one might suppose, they were - and are - deeply antithetical to it. We think we know that chimpanzees are higher animals and earthworms are lower, we think we've always known what that means, and we think evolution makes it even clearer. But it doesn't. It is by no means clear that it means anything at all. Or if it means anything, it means so many different things as to be misleading, even pernicious. 1 'Monkeys evolved from earthworms.' This is false, just as it is false that humans evolved from chimpanzees. Monkeys and earthworms share a common ancestor. 2 'The common ancestor of monkeys and earthworms was more like an earthworm than like a monkey.' Well, that potentially makes more sense. You can even use the word 'primitive' in a semiprecise way, if you define it as 'resembling ancestors', and it...

Articulated apex see clasp filament

Gr. an, without L. seta, bristle (ANN Oligochaeta) Pertaining to being without setae as in the peristomium and pygomere of earthworms. astomate a. Gr. a, without stoma, mouth 1. Lacking a mouth. 2. (ANN Oligochaeta) In earthworms, a closed nephridium, without a nephrostome. 3. (NEMATA) Referring to a stoma lacking the cheilostome, but retaining an unex-panded esophastome.

Box Undertracks of the emu

One of the major advances in trace fossil studies was Seilacher's (1967a) classification of behavioral categories. He divided trace fossils into seven behavioral types, depending on the activities represented (Fig. 19.10). Tracks and trails representing movement from A to B, such as worm trails or dinosaur trackways, are termed repichnia (repere, to creep ichnos, trace). Grazing trails that involve movement and feeding at the same time are called pascichnia (pascere, to feed). These are typically coiled or tightly meandering trails found in deep oceanic sediments, where the regular pattern is an adaptation to feeding on restricted patches of food. Some unusual deep-sea horizontal burrow systems appear to have been maintained for trapping food particles, or for growing algae. These are termed agrichnia (agricola, farmer). Feeding burrows, such as those produced by earthworms, as well as many marine examples, are called fodinichnia (foda, food). Living burrows and borings are termed...

Box Fossil annelids and their jaws

The annelids are segmented protostomes that are represented today by animals such as the earthworms and leaches. Recent species are important, widely distributed, benthic predators and occur from intertidal to abyssal depths. Modern molecular studies suggest they form a sister group to the mollusks and, in fact, share a number of morphological characters such as the possession of chaetae. In general the group has a fairly sparse fossil record, appearing fleetingly in Lagerst tte deposits such as the Burgess Shale and Mazon Creek fauna. However many residues of acid-etched Paleozoic limestones contain scolecodonts (Fig. 13.28). These were the jaws of ancient annelids and are abundant and diverse at many horizons. They were similar to conodonts (see p. 429), forming multielement apparatuses with similar functions but were composed of collagen fibers and various minerals such as zinc. The group first appeared in the Lower Ordovician and diversified rapidly to become common in Upper...

Impact of Fallopia on Soil Fauna

Moreover, faunistic assemblage was more homogenous in invaded than in uninvaded plots accordingly to the reduction of plant and litter diversity that contributed to decrease microhabitats diversity and resources heterogeneity (Dennis et al, 1998 Hassan, 2000 Oliver et al, 2000, Haddad et al, 2001). Despite a lower total density of soil fauna in invaded plots, we found an increase for some groups such as woodlice, millipedes and earthworms that play an important role in litter decomposition. The impact of Fallopia japonica on epigeic fauna has also been studied by Kappes et al. (2007) who found less herbivores and more carnivores (opilones) in invaded stands but an equivalent detritivorous fauna. In our study, some groups with affinity for shadow and humid environments (e.g., Isopods or diplopods) were more abundant under Fallopia while thermophilous organisms such as the ant Lasius flavus and the associated aphids were totally absent from invaded plots. Another interesting result...

Of Ferns Bears and Slime Molds

Educators formed a nonprofit organization called Discover Life in America, Inc. to direct a 10- to 15-year effort called an All Taxa Biodiversity Inventory (ATBI) under a cooperative agreement with the park.5 (Taxa are groups of related organisms.) The effort is funded by private donations and grants. Some 200 participating scientists and hundreds more lay volunteers join in organized sampling forays that involve literally beating the bushes for spiders searching deep caves for millipedes, daddy longlegs, and rare amphipods picking fleas, lice, and other parasites off netted birds trapping bats, shrews, and voles dissecting biting flies to search their innards for symbiotic viruses, bacteria, protozoa, and parasites pawing through forest leaf litter for tiny fungus beetles bagging up thousands of soil samples to be screened for unseen life forms such as nematodes and springtails and searching under rotten logs for signs of leeches reputed to feed on earthworms. Taxonomists team up...

From the underworld to the top of the world

In eating habits, too, ants have had to adapt to the local diets on offer. Depending on where they live, they will eat anything and everything. Some, like wood ants, are omnivorous, and will consume indiscriminately whatever meets their mandibles. Others are more particular in matters of diet, such as the carnivores, which include the army ants of Africa and Latin America, well known for their aggressiveness and ready to eat anything that moves, such as insects, earthworms, and even small mammals which happen to get trapped under branches, where they are killed, dismembered, and devoured. Or there are those which, like the southern wood ants, are fond of honeydew, which is made of vegetable sap ingested then excreted by aphids. Harvester ants eat seeds collected in the fields. Ants of the genera Acromyrmex and Atta, among the most abundant in tropical America, go one better than that, by actually growing their own fungus, their staple diet, in humus or on fresh leaves, which they then...

The Power of Ecosystem Engineers

Earthworm Mucus Composition

After 5 years exploring the world aboard the H.M.S. Beagle, English naturalist Charles Darwin retreated to a country home in Kent to ponder all that he had observed and to develop what would become his theory of evolution. Oddly enough, he also began then a lifetime study of earthworms. In 1837, only a year after stepping off the Beagle, Darwin appeared before the Geological Society of London and asserted that all the vegetable mould over the whole country has passed many times through, and will again pass many times through, the intestinal canals of worms. 1 By vegetable mould, Darwin meant what we call humus, the dark, rotting organic matter that harbors much of the nutrient wealth of soil. worms, confirming the power wielded by large numbers of little things working over time. Although he did not label the work of worms good or bad, his writings helped burnish the positive image that earthworms enjoy today. It wasn't always so. Earthworms have endured great swings in reputation...

Summary and Conclusions

The level of endemism generally correlates with the geological age of the refugia where relict-like taxa have been evolved and or could survive. The Carpathian Basin belongs to the geologically youngest areas of Europe. Its relief developed under the influence of the Alpine orogenesis and by retreat of the Paratethys and the Pannonian inland sea. There are, however, some taxonomical groups which show considerable proportion of endemic species (land gastropods, earthworms or some soil arthropods). Most endemic species are narrow specialists inhabiting extreme habitats, e.g. thermal springs, karstic caves and karstic springs. A bulk of these endemic taxa is confined to the Eastern and Southern Carpathians, to the Apuseni Mts. and to the mountains of Banat, which could preserve relict species or some narrow endemics in refugia without permafrost phenomena during the last glaciations. Since the Carpathian Basin occupied a transitional position between the Balkanic refugia and the...

Recognition of paleosols

Sentation Bodenarten

Soil horizons develop through thousands of years whereas sedimentary beds are deposited in days. Unlike sedimentary beds, which have sharp bottoms and usually sharp tops as well, paleosols have a sharp top, representing the ancient land surface, but gradational lower contacts (Retallack 2001a). Sedimentary beds also include a variety of sedimentary structures, such as lamination, cross bedding, and ripple marks (as in Tek pedotype of O Figure 13.2), whereas soil horizons develop with obliteration of these original features (Tut pedotype of O Figure 13.2). Similarly, soil formation progressively destroys the original crystalline structure of volcanic or granitic parent materials (Retallack 1991a). In dry climate soils (Aridisols), primary sedimentary or volcanic structures are obscured at first by filaments and soft, small carbonate masses, then large, hard, carbonate nodules (calcic or Bk horizon of Chogo pedotype in O Figure 13.2), and finally thick carbonate layers (petrocalcic or K...

Formation of Soil and Ground Cover

Trace evidence of microbiotic crusts goes back to Precambrian times. The development of a true soil, or humus, to underlie this crust required many more millions of years. Nutrient-rich humus consists of a mixture of minerals and organic compounds left by dead and decaying organisms. Burrowing creatures such as earthworms, ants, centipedes, and millipedes are instrumental in mixing these elements to create a rich substrate capable of encouraging the spread of plant life. The first evidence of burrowing creatures in the terrestrial fossil record occurs in the Late Ordovician Epoch. The fossil evidence suggests that ancestral centipedes and millipedes may have made these early burrows. Fossil spores found in terrestrial rocks dating from the end of the Ordovician Period indicate that by that time, the first plants had successfully begun to take root on land.

Copulatory bursa see bursa copulatrix bursa

Copulatory pouches (ANN Oligochaeta) The spermathecae of earthworms in older publications. copulatory setae chaetae (ANN Oligochaeta) Those that appear near or in the same segment as the spermathecae in earthworms sometimes referring to similar setae in an adjacent, but athecal segment.

The Triassic Period

The Triassic period (250-205 mya) during which the dinosaurs originated,was a time of comparative aridity, of xerophytic vegetation and abundant reptiles. About 200 mya, during the Late Triassic and Early Jurassic, the continental plates of Laurasia and Gondwanaland were united. Some portions of what are now central Asia and China may have remained as separate islands, but most of the landmass of the world was concentrated into the single supercontinent, Pangaea, as we have seen. Consequently,both plants and animals were remarkably similar everywhere. The main vegetation types consisted of seed ferns and conifers which were adapted to the dry climate, while massive horsetails dominated the damper regions. The terrestrial fauna comprised mainly earthworms, again in moister places, snails, arachnids, insects, and reptiles, which either captured earthworms and arthropods in the undergrowth, or else chewed the tough vegetation. Crustaceans, molluscs and fishes populated the lakes and...


In air, obviously, the buoyant forces are much weaker and structures capable of supporting the organism's weight are essential. These structures do not come free. Cellulose, which is the principal supporting structure of plants, is essentially glucose, which must be manufactured by photosynthesis. The chitins that support the bodies of arthropods likewise are largely made of sugars. The production of mineralized supporting structures, like bones or shells, also incurs energy costs in the gathering and transport of the minerals. Finally, the bodies of some organisms, like earthworms, are supported by the internal pressure of fluids, which forms a so-called hydrostatic skeleton. Maintaining the high internal pressures needed to operate a hydrostatic skeleton incurs the costs of powering the heart muscles.


Earthworms, and live largely in soil and leaf litter in tropical lands. The oldest fossil form, with reduced limbs, is Jurassic in age. All living amphibians appear to be closely related, forming a clade, the Lissamphibia (Box 16.8), characterized by the structure of their tiny teeth.


The annelids, or segmented worms, are among the most familiar invertebrates, and they principally comprise the polychaetes and the clitellates. The polychaetes encompass a great diversity of forms, and molecular phylogenetic evidence suggests that they probably also include the vestimentiferans and pogonophores (now united as Siboglinidae), and the echiurans. Clitellates include the oligochaetes, including earthworms, and the parasitic hirudi-neans, or leeches.

The Rare Earthworm

Earthworms are annelid, or segmented, worms that have ventured onto land. Earthworms are so familiar to us that it is surprising to learn what a rare thing a terrestrial annelid is. Of the 15,000 or so species in the phylum Annelida, about 10,000 are polychaete worms inhabiting marine environments, like the lugworms discussed in Chapter 5. Another 4,000 or so are polychaete and oligochaete worms and leeches inhabiting fresh water. Less than a thousand species of oligo-chaetes (the earthworms) and a few species of leeches have moved out of water and onto land. So, despite their almost banal familiarity, there actually is something rare and wonderful about an earthworm. But are they really earth-worms, that is, truly terrestrial annelids Well, it depends upon how you look at it. One could argue, for example, that anything that does not live in water is terrestrial, and by that criterion earthworms are unequivocally terrestrial. Just as walking catfish are terrestrial, and diving spiders...


Filtration occurs in one step, when the filtrate is formed from blood at high pressure in the glomerulus (Fig. 2.2). Filtration in earthworms, in contrast, is a two-step process. First, coelomic fluid is produced by filtration directly from the blood, analogously to the deposition of filtrate in the glomerulus. Then coelomic fluid is filtered across the nephridiostome into the tubule. Both filtration steps are pressure driven.2 The first step is driven by the worm's blood pressure. The annelid heart can sustain blood pressures that, while modest compared with ours (roughly 20-50 percent of the average systolic pressure of humans), are high by invertebrate standards. The second step is driven by What about the nephridia of earthworms They, in fact, have much in common with the nephridia of freshwater oligochaetes, and very little in the way of the structural adaptations one would expect to see in an animal living on land. Functionally, earthworms produce urine as if they were...

Propus see propodite

Prostate prostatic glands 1. (ANN Oligochaeta) In earthworms, atrial glands of unknown function. 2. (MOLL) An elaboration of the sperm canal that secretes a prostatic solution. 3. (NEMATA Secernentea) A gland emitting an adhesive secretion at the distal end of the ejaculatory duct. 4. (PLATY Turbellaria) The spermiducal glands.