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EMF Protection

This ebook is the complete guide to learning about electrical sensitivity and how to prevent getting it in your life. You will learn what electrical sensitivity is, and what causes it. Once you have started learning about it you will learn how to get rid of it and protect yourself from the dangers of electrical sensitivity. You will also learn how to heal yourself. This book is the product of careful research by the scientific and medical communities into the dangers and preventative measures of electrical sensitivity. ES is one of the most under-diagnosed conditions in the world right now, and this ebook is designed to education people as to how it works and how to prevent it. Do not let it take hold of your family; take control and prevent it now! Do not let yourself get any more hurt; learn about this condition and fight it! Read more...

How To Beat Electrical Sensitivity Summary


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Salinity acidity alkalinity ionizing radiation

One of several extremes not listed in Table 3.2 is heavy exposure to ionizing radiation. This comprises fast atomic particles, and ultraviolet, X-ray, and gamma radiation. Strong ionizing radiation at the Earth's surface is found near radioactive materials, naturally occurring and concentrated by human activity, such as in nuclear power stations. Some prokaryotes can live in levels of radiation that would quickly be lethal to us. Most notable is a bacterium called Deinococcus

Medical radiation exposure

Ionizing radiation for medical purposes, both in diagnosis and in treatment, is widely used. It must be noted that most of these procedures are carried out in countries where only one-quarter of the world population lives. World health care has been divided into four qualitative levels, depending on the number of physicians available.

The solar spectrum and electromagnetic radiation

To further lay a basis for later chapters, you need to know something about what is called the electromagnetic spectrum. The solar spectrum is a good way to introduce the essential ideas. When you look at the Sun, our human eyes are almost blinded by the light. However, the luminosity of the Sun does not consist only of light, but also of infrared radiation and other forms of radiation too, notably ultraviolet radiation. All these forms of radiation are examples of what is called electromagnetic radiation. As its name suggests, it has a magnetic and an electric component. It would take us too far afield to go into this in much detail. The essential points are that electromagnetic radiation consists of waves, oscillating around zero, and travelling through space at 299,792 km per second - the speed of light. It is the wavelength of these waves that distinguishes the different forms (Figure 2.8). FIGURE 2.9 The electromagnetic spectrum. A micrometer is a millionth of a meter. Figure 2.9...

Electromagnetic Radiation

Most of the energy in the Sun's electromagnetic spectrum is contained within wavelengths ranging from about 0.2 to 3 m (see Figure 6.2), ranging from short wavelength ultraviolet radiation, through visible light, to longer wavelength infrared (heat) radiation. The most obvious effect of this radiation on an orbiting spacecraft is the thermal heating that it causes. For an Earth-orbiting spacecraft, the solar power falling on every square meter of surface presented to the Sun is about 1.4 kilowatts, so that the heat input to the spacecraft surfaces is substantial. By contrast, a spacecraft in a LEO usually enters Earth's shadow on each orbit, and when this happens the vehicle's surface temperature drops drastically. Management of this thermal cycling is a critical job to be done by the thermal control subsystem engineer (see Chapter 9) to ensure that the equipment inside the spacecraft does not suffer a damaging level of temperature variation.

What sort of radiation

Though there are other types of radiation that travel across space (such as gravitational waves and cosmic rays), electromagnetic radiation seems best for interstellar communication. This is because The one problem with electromagnetic radiation is that it takes a long time for messages to travel over interstellar distances. It travels at the speed of light (denoted by c), and though by terrestrial standards this is an enormous 299,792 km per second, it still takes 4.22 years to reach us from the nearest star. The current laws of physics do not rule out faster-than-light travel (superluminal travel), so could we use speedier means FIGURE 14.1 The electromagnetic spectrum. (The same as Figure 2.9, except that the spectrum has been reversed. This is to facilitate comparison with Figure 14.3, which is usually plotted with frequency increasing to the right. Also, the wave frequencies have been added.) theoretical possibility. For practical purposes, electromagnetic waves offer the fastest...

Foundation of radiation theory

In this chapter we review the physical foundation of remote sensing. Except for possible gravitational effects, information accessible to a distant observer must be sensed as electromagnetic radiation, either in the form of reflected or refracted solar or stellar radiation, or in the form of thermal or nonthermal emission. We restrict the discussion to passive techniques. Active methods, involving the generation of electromagnetic radiation (radar, lidar), are not explicitly treated. However, the physical principles discussed in this text are equally applicable to passive and active methods. In either case a discussion of the measurement and interpretation of remotely sensed data must be based on electromagnetic theory. In Section 1.1 we begin with that theory by reviewing Maxwell's equations. The application of the principle of energy conservation to Maxwell's equations leads to the Poynting theorem with the Poynting vector describing radiative energy transport this is discussed in...

Some Features of Pseudoscience

Homeopaths are aware of the dilution problem and rely on an ad hoc hypothesis the water remembers what has been put into it. How Jacques Benveniste, a French medical doctor, says vaguely that some sort of electromagnetic radiation stays in the water (Lawren 1992, Friedlander 1995). He has, however, not measured this radiation and has apparently forgotten that electromagnetic radiation travels at the speed of light and would be gone from his solution in a few nanoseconds, at most.

Grating spectrometers

These disturbances propagate as an infinite number of spherical wavelets. Huygens viewed the forward envelope of all secondary disturbances as the primary propagating wave. Later, Fresnel (1816, 1819) postulated interference among those secondary waves and was highly successful in explaining phenomena that the corpuscular theory of light could not explain - for example, the penetration of light into the geometrical shadow behind an opaque disk. At that time (1818) the wave theory of light was fully accepted the corpuscular theory was dismissed and was not revived until the discussion of the photoelectric effect by Einstein (1905a). Today, both the wave and particle nature of light are accepted as complementary views of electromagnetic radiation light is sometimes better described as a wave, sometimes better as a particle.

Orbiting Solar Observatory OSO through

These early orbiting satellites were designed to look at the Sun through an entire sunspot cycle. The first of the eight OSO satellites was launched on March 7, 1962. OSO 1 orbited the Earth at about 360 miles (575 km) altitude. Its primary objectives were to measure the solar electromagnetic radiation in the ultraviolet, X-ray, and gamma-ray regions and to investigate dust particles in space. Data transmission ended on August 6, 1963, and the satellite reentered the Earth's atmosphere and burned on October 8, 1981. The final satellite, OSO 8, was launched on June 21, 1975, and ended its mission on October 1, 1978.

The Constitution of Stars

Over 90 of stars in the Universe are on or near the main sequence, like the Sun. Some are slightly more massive and some slightly less massive but looking at the Sun from the Earth is like looking at any typical star from the astronomically near distance of about 149 million kilometres (1 AU). Stars are long lasting sources of energy, often of great strength. They emit electromagnetic radiation over the full spectrum of frequencies from high energy X-rays and 7-rays through to very low energy radio waves. In fact, the spectrum bears the imprint of conditions deep inside which are very close to equilibrium. It must be remembered that recognising a state of thermodynamic equilibrium requires the thermodynamic variables to be measured so that the various critical relationships can be found and checked. All experimental measurements involve errors of some kind, and however small these may be, the equilibrium in a particular case can only be established within a certain error limit. A...

Implications of Parity Non Conserving Energy Differences

With all other sources of homochirality such as magnetochiral anisotropies or circularly polarized electromagnetic radiation, the sign of the handedness will be accidental. The same or the opposite chirality as on Earth would be equally possible on life-supporting planets in other Solar Systems (Borchers et al. 2004).

A guide to modern cosmology

Space between the stars and galaxies is filled with a sea of electromagnetic radiation with peak intensity at a few millimeters wavelength and with spectrum - the energy at each wavelength - characteristic of radiation that has relaxed to thermal equilibrium at a definite temperature, in this case T 2.725 K. This thermal radiation is much more smoothly distributed than the stars, but its temperature does vary slightly across the sky.2 (The temperature differs by a few parts in 100,000 at positions in the sky that are separated by a few degrees.) The evidence developed in this book is that the radiation is a fossil remnant from a time when our expanding universe was much denser and hotter, and that the slight temperature variations were caused by the gravitational pull on the radiation by the increasingly clumpy distribution of matter in galaxies and clusters of galaxies.

The Effects of the Solar Emissions

The solar radiation heats the surface of the Earth and the atmosphere giving them a temperature a little above the freezing point of water. Without the atmosphere the mean temperature of the surface would be 256 K whereas with the atmosphere it is about 290 K. The full range of the electromagnetic spectrum enters the atmosphere including the ultra-violet components which ionise the atoms of the upper atmosphere. These effects change with depth into the atmosphere. At the outer reaches the number of atoms is low so there is little interaction with solar photons. This means that little ionisation can occur. The level increases with depth at first because the number of atoms increases and there are still plenty of photons. The number of photons of appropriate energy decreases with depth as atoms are ionised and ultimately very few photons are left. The result of these interactions is a shell of ionisation in the upper atmosphere centred a little below 100 km above the surface. This...

The Escape of Radiation from a Star

It is necessary to say a few words about the escape of the energy from the star once it has been released in the thermonuclear reactions at the centre. The energy is in the form of photons of electromagnetic radiation. For a temperature T, E hv kT where u is the frequency of the radiation, h 6.67 x 10-34 Js is the Planck constant and k 1.38 x 10 23 J K is the Boltzmann constant. If T 107 K, then it follows that u 1018 s_1 which is in the X-ray region of the spectrum. The central region of the star contains X-ray photons.

Atmospheric Effects And Their Reduction

First, it absorbs radiation from space thus reducing the quantity reaching the ground. Most of the absorption is due to atmospheric gases. The atmosphere is fairly transparent at visible wavelengths, but it is completely opaque in much of the UV, due largely to O2 and ozone (O3). It is transparent in the infrared only over certain wavelength ranges over other ranges it is less transparent, even opaque, due largely to absorption by water vapor in the lower atmosphere. It becomes transparent again at radio wavelengths, except at very long wavelengths where, high in the atmosphere, in what is called the ionosphere, most radiation from space is reflected back to space. Figure 8.3 shows the wavelength regions in the UV, visible, and infrared, in which the Earth's atmosphere is fairly transparent to electromagnetic radiation from space, and those where it is much less transparent, even opaque (100 absorption).

A Solid and liquid phases

The study of the interaction of electromagnetic radiation with solid or liquid matter requires some understanding of these phases. In the discussion of the interaction of radiation with gases it is generally sufficient to consider the energy levels of an individual molecule of a particular gas. Collision-induced phenomena, where at least two gas molecules are involved in a transition, provide an important exception to this rule (Subsection 3.3.d). However, in most cases the interaction of radiation with a gas can be adequately understood by considering quantum processes involving only one molecule. Such is not the case in interactions of radiation with solids or liquids.

Introduction to first edition

Emitted and reflected radiation fields can be regarded as coded descriptions of planetary atmospheres and surfaces. Radiative transfer theory provides a means of transforming the codes into intelligible terms. This approach requires an understanding of electromagnetic radiation and its interaction with matter. Chapters 1 through 3 are directed towards these ends. A review of Maxwell's equations, wave propagation, polarization, reflection, refraction, and the Planck function is undertaken in Chapter 1. In Chapter 2 the equation of radiative transfer is derived in a form suitable for remote sensing from space, and various solutions of the transfer equation are obtained. In Chapter 3 we examine the interaction of radiation with matter. Quantum mechanical concepts, the principles of vibrational and rotational spectra, and other tools necessary to understand planetary spectra are developed. Investigation of matter in condensed phases - solid surfaces, ice crystals, and liquid droplets -...

A Formation of the Solar System

Taking the known mass and radius as boundary conditions permits numerical integration of the appropriate equations from the surface towards the center. Only models that yield the measured solar luminosity are accepted. At the center of the Sun, all of these models yield a temperature of approximately 15 x 106 K and a density of about 1.6 x 105 kg m 3, roughly 160 times that of water. A blackbody of 15 x 106 K has an intensity maximum near 3 x 107 cm-1, that is, at approximately 0.3 nm (3 angstroms). Most recent models require a helium mass fraction, Y, between 0.27 and 0.28 (Van den Berg, 1983 Noels etal., 1984 Lebreton & Maeder, 1986 Cahen, 1986) this is important for the discussions of the helium to hydrogen ratios in the outer planets. The models also show the nuclear reactions in the Sun to be confined to a relatively small, probably convective core. This core is surrounded by a large zone in radiative equilibrium occupying a substantial fraction of the solar volume. Energy...

On the Living Nature of the

The prime cause of the solar cycle is a quasi-periodic oscillation of the solar magnetic field (Ossendrijver and Hoyng, 2001). Electromagnetic field has an unlimited potential to represent complex forms. Electromagnetic fields can vary from place to place both spatially and temporally, and their complete description may require an astronomically large amount of data. In stars like the Sun, these complex structures are related to filamentary structures, current sheets, plasmoids, etc. Remarkably, all these structures can form spontaneously within stellar interiors (Grandpierre, 2004 Grandpierre and Agoston, 2005).

Effective dose E Sv

Consequences of radiation on the human body depend on the particular organ or tissue hit by radiation, as different organs have different responses to radiation exposure. This is the reason why another weighting factor (wT) must be introduced (see Figure A.3 ICRP, 1990 .

Problems specific to spacecraft

Once launched, a planetary spacecraft encounters environments that are generally inimical to terrestrial life. The spacecraft's bioburden will experience sterilization to some degree, with the aforementioned stresses of desiccation and radiation exposure being the most critical. In general, the bulk of a spacecraft's material does not experience prolonged temperature extremes, as spacecraft frequently need to keep electronic and mechanical systems at modest temperatures. Landers present special problems as it is possible that the craft may enter regions that raise the revival likelihood for spores. In the case of Martian landers, this could be a landing site at which water ice may be contacted (either directly by drills for buried ice, or traversing exposed ice deposits). Missions to distant ice-rich satellites of the outer planets face similar problems - potentially, a mission could require a remote device to be entirely immersed in liquid water. Clearly in such cases extreme...

Equivalent dose H Sv

Biological effects caused by radiation are dependent not only upon the dose absorbed (Gy) but also, and above all, upon the kind of radiation. Sparsely ionizing radiations such as gamma-rays, X-rays or beta-rays are less effective in damaging then densely ionizing radiation such as alpha particles or fission fragments. In order to take into account this difference, a corrective weighting factor dependent on the kind of radiation and energy has been introduced. Weighting factors range from 1 (for photons or electrons) up to 20 (for alpha particles), and is dimensionless (see Figure A.1). Those specific for neutrons are given in Figure A.2. IRCP, 1990 .

Star formation and evolution at high metallicities

WC WN ratio) a powerful metallicity indicator, meaning iron metallicity according to Gotz Grafener. Paul Crowther described the effects observed in the inner Galaxy, M31 and M83 late WC stars, for instance, are seen only in environments with supersolar metallicity, with a combination of high mass loss and resulting relatively soft ionizing radiation. Francisco Najarro derived a Solar-like abundance in the Arches cluster from the incidence of WNL stars. In low-metallicity environments the binary channel is the predominant source of WR stars. However, many details are unclear, and Joachim Puls in a lively presentation drew attention to serious reservations about the actual mass-loss rates. Georges Meynet described the complications that could be introduced by rotation and magnetic fields.

Box Telomeres and tandem repeats

Minisatellites proved valuable as biomarkers for the effects of ionizing radiation after it was associated with increased minisatellite mutation rates in mice (Dubrova et al. 1993). Following the explosion at the Chernobyl nuclear power station in 1986, a two-fold increase in frequency of mutant alleles at hypermutable minisatellite loci was found in the exposed versus the control populations with a dose effect apparent (Dubrova et al. 1996, 1997).

The Debate About The Pristine Nature Of Comets

It has been recognized that many processes contribute to the evolution of material in those bodies (Strazzulla and Moroz, 2005). Energy sources include particles, ions, and photons (interstellar radiation field) ionizing radiation mainly includes cosmic rays (mostly H+ and He+), solar wind particles and magnetospheric particles, and gamma rays (Johnson, 1990). The processes that result from those interactions are thermal, collisional and radiation processing (Stern, 2003). Almost all of these processes have been modeled in the laboratory. Besides that, comets may undergo modifications such as stratification, resulting from the phase change of the icy component produced by solar heating (Henrique et al., 1999 Capria et al., 2003). Actually, the nucleus is a structure with stratified ice, not only in terms of density, but also in temperature and porosity (Ehrenfreund et al., 2002).

Radioactivity Of Selected Objects And Materials

The X-rays and gamma rays from decaying atoms are identical to those from other natural sources. Like other ionizing radiation, they can damage living tissue but can be blocked by lead sheets or by thick concrete. Alpha particles are much larger and can be blocked more quickly by other material a sheet of paper or the outer layer of skin on your hand will stop them. If the atom that produces them is taken inside the body, however, such as when a person breathes in radon gas, the alpha particle can do damage to the lungs. Beta particles are more energetic and smaller and can penetrate a couple of centimeters into a person's body.

Common Uses For Radio Waves

Cosmic rays, gamma rays, and X-rays, the three highest-energy radiations, are known as ionizing radiation because they contain enough energy that, when they hit an atom, they may knock an electron off of it or otherwise change the atom's weight or structure. These ionizing radiations, then, are particularly dangerous to living things for example, they can damage DNA molecules (though good use is made of them as well, to see into bodies with X-rays and to kill cancer cells with gamma rays). Luckily the atmosphere stops most ionizing radiation, but not all of it. Cosmic rays created by the Sun in solar flares, or sent off as a part of the solar wind, are relatively low

Partial analogues on Earth

Chroococcidiopis is not only desiccation and ultraviolet tolerant, but somewhat similar to Deinococcus, it is also able to repair extensive DNA damage following ionizing radiation, which ability is linked to its desiccation tolerance (Billi et al., 2000). In contrast, the genome of the Nostoc commune is protected against oxidation and damage by a different strategy after decades of desiccation, aided by the non-reducing disaccharide trehalose (Shirkey et al., 2003).

The Formation of Terrestrial Planets

Swirling accretion disks have been observed around many young stars, and so, too, have the spin-axis-aligned jets that squirt away excess material (and angular momentum) in order to stop the disk from flying apart (Figure 5.15). The Sun took perhaps 10 million years to form in this fashion. Where planets enter into the picture is in the relatively short interval between the accretion onto the proto-star essentially stopping and the disruption of the disk through the strong wind and highly ionizing radiation produced by a newly forming low-mass star.

Earth orbit onorbit operations in nearEarth orbit a necessary second step

Chapter 4 shows there are propulsion systems with which we can effectively build reduced oxidizer-to-fuel ratio launchers that are lighter and smaller than conventional expendable rockets. In fact, the remotely powered, directed electromagnetic energy system of Professor Leik Myrabo requires even less carried onboard propellants, a huge advantage in resource-absent space. As long as the principal launchers are expendable launchers for military and commercial needs, the available payloads will be those suitable for infrequent, expendable rocket launches. In the context of Chapter 2, the payloads will remain consistent with Conestoga wagons until there is an operational railroad. Until a sustained-use launch system is operational, the payloads that warrant a high launch rate system will remain the subject of design studies only. Until sustained-use launch system is operational the flight rate is insufficient to build the global space infrastructure needed to support space operations. If...

Glossary of Technical Terms

Electromagnetic spectrum The wavelength region corresponding to the longest wavelength radio waves, through to the microwaves, the infrared, visible light, ultraviolet light, X-ray radiation, and the shortest wavelength gamma rays. ESA The European Space Agency. Greenhouse gas A molecular gas that is efficient at absorbing energy in the infrared part of the electromagnetic spectrum. Flux The amount of energy flowing through a given area in a given time. Luminosity The total amount of electromagnetic energy radiated into space per unit time.

Productive Albeit Short Flight

As with its first flight on IML-2, TEMPUS provided the means for physically manipulating samples, controlling rotations and oscillations and even 'squeezing' them through the application of an electromagnetic field. The experiments involving zirconium, in particular, were expected to help determine the behaviour of this

Section Scientific advances

Nature of light, electromagnetic waves By a careful analysis of his equations, Maxwell probably the most brilliant theoretical scientist of the entire century deduced that it was possible to produce electromagnetic waves, and that such waves should travel at the speed of light. From this, he concluded that ordinary light consists of electromagnetic waves. Furthermore, he predicted, there should be other electromagnetic waves, with wavelengths too long or too short to be seen by the human eye. Maxwell's surprising hypothesis was derived from highly abstract mathematical analysis but in 1888, Heinrich Hertz produced waves in his laboratory that had exactly the properties predicted by Maxwell. The waves produced by Hertz (which are today called microwaves) are much longer than those of visible light. A few years later, the Italian inventor Guglielmo Marconi used even longer electromagnetic waves (now called radio waves) for signaling purposes.

Cluster and Image Wave Instrumentation

- The Spatio-Temporal Analysis of Field Fluctuations (STAFF) instrument measures the magnetic field between 8 Hz and 4 kHz with a three axis search coil magnetometer. Its spectrum analyzer performs auto- and cross-correlations between the three magnetic components estimated by the search coil and the two electric components measured by the Electric Field and Wave (EFW) experiment (Gustafsson et al. 2001). From autocorrelations, the energy densities of electric and magnetic components are inferred, together with the electrostatic electromagnetic nature of the observed waves. The cross-power spectra are needed to estimate the polarization characteristics of electromagnetic waves. The time resolution varies between 0.125 s and 4 s. For a complete description of STAFF, see Cornilleau-Wehrlin et al. (2003).

Oast A Technology Testbed

Conducting surfaces, whose electrical potential is highly negative with regard to this plasma, are prone to 'arcing' that severely damages solar cells and causes major electromagnetic interference. Intermittent power loss can also be a problem. Before STS-62, engineers had used ground-based plasma chambers to simulate temperatures and conditions in low-Earth orbit, but were unable to replicate them accurately because of differences in pressure, plasma flow, electron temperature and ion species. During the mission, SAMPIE exposed four different types of solar cells to the space environment, with Columbia's payload bay alternately facing the direction of travel (the 'ram side') and away (the 'wake side').

The Database and Methods of Data Acquisition

The intention here is to summarize aspects of observational astronomy relevant to light curve acquisition and modeling. Thus, we discuss passband1 profiles of observational data because some codes no longer consider the observations to be monochromatic fluxes. Passbands are fixed finite wavelength-width stretches of the electromagnetic spectrum. Sources of errors in the observational data are discussed because light curve analysis codes can have weighting which is light-level dependent. Such errors depend to a large extent on observational techniques, so these too need to be described. The incorporation of Doppler profile analysis techniques in light curve codes requires high-resolution spectrophotometric data with excellent signal-to-noise ratios to extract profile information. The same can be said for mag-netometry. Polarization data require another dimension of information in the form of a series of position angle measurements.

Physical Properties Of The Ring Particles

The Uranus ring data from Voyager 2 span the electromagnetic spectrum from ultraviolet to radio wavelengths. The data also cover a range of viewing and illumination geometries. Intercomparison of the data sets provides information relevant to studies of the physical properties of individual ring particles, even though the particles themselves are too small to be resolved in the data sets. Voyager results are also descriptive of the environment experienced by the ring particles and are therefore

Success From Failure

It was part of a project entitled 'Assignment The Stars', intended to spark students' enthusiasm for science, maths and engineering. On 7 December, the four astronomers gathered on Columbia's flight deck and, speaking over a two-way televised link with school pupils in Huntsville, Alabama, and Greenbelt, Maryland, told them all about the electromagnetic spectrum and its central role in ASTRO-1's mission. At one stage, Durrance played two taped versions of the same musical theme the first, he explained, was unrecognisable because the high and low notes had been removed. The second, however, proved to be the theme from 'Star Wars'.

Evolution and composition of the Solar System

The present composition of planetary atmospheres and interiors is of great interest not only in its own right, but also for studies of the history of the Solar System. All evolution theories must start from an interstellar cloud of matter and end at the present conditions. Precise measurements of the composition of planets, their satellites, asteroids, comets, and meteorites are, therefore, of vital importance for any understanding of the evolution of the Solar System. Many remote sensing investigations have been carried out to gain composition information on planetary objects. Wide segments of the electromagnetic spectrum have been used for that purpose from the extreme ultraviolet to radio frequencies. On the Moon even gamma rays have been employed to study the spatial distribution of several radioactive elements (Adler et al., 1973). As we have seen in Chapters 6 and 8, the infrared part of the spectrum is particularly well suited to discover the presence and determine the...

Atomic Constraints Binding Energies

This energy is small enough to fall in the optical and infrared regions of the electromagnetic spectrum. In terms of living materials, radiation of such energies can raise the temperature of fluids associated with cells. Again the skin or hide acts as a general barrier.

Chemical Evolution of Cometary Nuclei

Comet Hale-Bopp and Hyakutake have been observed extensively over a large range of the electromagnetic spectrum. For a most recent discussion on cometary volatiles and coma chemistry the readers are referred to Irvine et al. (2000), Crovisier (2004), Bockelee-Morvan et al. (2004), and Rodgers

Encounter With The Giant

Over the next few days, the engineers subjected the sluggish reaction wheel to a programme of tests. At first it continued to misbehave, but then, several days later, resumed normal operation. It was concluded that an irregular distribution of the lubricant in the motor might have caused the problem. ''That's our leading theory, but we may never know for sure,'' Mitchell admitted. The wheels were commanded back on-line on 21 December, and monitored for a week while they maintained the Earth-pointing attitude. ''Everything has been working smoothly,'' reported Mitchell after the trial, ''so we'll resume all scientific observations.'' A few hours later, the spacecraft slewed around to aim its remote-sensing instruments towards Jupiter. On 29 December, the Galileo spacecraft continued its exploration of the Jovian system by making a fly-by of Ganymede while the moon was in Jupiter's shadow, providing an opportunity to measure how it cooled down in eclipse to determine the thermal...

Vasimr Variable Specific Impulse Magnetoplasmadynamic Rocket

Asymmetrical Magnetic Propulsion

VASIMR is a high power, electrothermal plasma rocket concept currently under development at its NASA Johnson Space Center in Houston by a team headed by astronaut Dr Franklin Chang Diaz Musser and Alpert, 2000 Chang Diaz, 2000 . VASIMR technology borrows heavily from US fusion R&D, and especially from the vast experience in plasma heating by radio-frequency electromagnetic waves, or RF heating for short. A recent survey of the status of VASIMR can be found in Negrotti, 2008 .

Nucleosynthesis in a hot big bang

Big Bang Nuclear Synthesis

Gamow's (1946) proposal was that the heavy elements were built by the coagulation of neutrons followed by nuclear beta decays that convert neutrons to protons (the decays being accompanied by the emission of electrons, or what is known as beta or ft radiation). Ralph Alpher, who was Gamow's graduate student, made the coagulation idea more specific. In his doctoral dissertation (at The George Washington University, Alpher 1948a) the proposal is that the elements were built up by sequences of radiative captures of neutrons (that is, neutron capture accompanied by the emission of a photon, a quantum of electromagnetic radiation) and nuclear beta decays. In a preliminary report of this building-up idea, by Alpher, Bethe and Gamow (1948), Hans Bethe's name was added to produce an approximation to the first three letters of the Greek alphabet. Gamow's argument begins with the thermal blackbody radiation present in a hot big bang. There would be a time, early enough in the expansion, when...

Martin Harwit An attempt at detecting the cosmic background radiation in the early s

I had come across the recently discovered Hanbury Brown-Twiss effect, and read the controversy surrounding it that aired in the journal Nature at the time. Edward M. Purcell's clean resolution of that controversy was particularly illuminating. I thought that the techniques developed for detecting the HB-T effect might provide a first opportunity to directly detect Bose-Einstein fluctuations in electromagnetic radiation from a source in thermal equilibrium. None of the experimentalists in the MIT Physics Department was particularly interested in my making these measurements, but Professor William P. Allis, a leading plasma theorist, said he would be willing to supervise the thesis if I could find the means to build the requisite apparatus.

Black Holes And Galactic Travel

Are there such rotating or charged black holes As said, none has been ''observed''. An inference shared by many astrophysicists, however, is that quasars may be such objects they are indeed massive, a fact that can be deduced by their enormous rate of electromagnetic energy release, and they rotate. If this is indeed so, quasars are natural connections to other regions of space-time.

Detection Methods for Small Molecules and Advantages of Aptamers

Different and versatile techniques have been developed for the detection of small molecules. Classic detection methods are based on optical spectroscopic techniques. In these, electromagnetic radiation with a particular wavelength and intensity is applied to an object by which it is adsorbed, dispersed or emitted. Techniques like X-ray, ultraviolet-visible (UV VIS), infrared (IR), electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) and nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy are used for small-molecule detection as well as for the structural analysis of molecules (Lottspeich and Zorbos 1998).

Emerging Propulsion System Concepts In Development

Current, with minimal aerodynamic diffusion Tretyakov, 1995 . This reduces the energy lost through the shock waves in conventional inlet aerodynamic deceleration. If that electrical power is transmitted to the equivalent of an induction motor (a Lorentz force accelerator) then electromagnetic interaction with the plasma can add energy (velocity) back to the flow. The motivation for the MHD system is the realization that the electromagnetic energy transfer suffers less of an entropy rise (irreversible energy loss) than aerodynamic diffusion and expansion, so the net thrust is greater. If the flow field around the aircraft is a plasma, flow Gorelov et al., 1995 energy can be removed at the nose by an MHD generator that alters the shock wave structure around the vehicle, reducing the total drag Batenin et al, 1997 . Again, because the flow is ionized, the flow in the propulsion inlet system can be turned by MHD Lorentz forces instead of physical inlet ramps (a form of morphing). That may...

Circularly Polarized Bremsstrahlung in the VU Process

It is known that if electrons pass matter they are decelerated, due to which they emit electromagnetic radiation that is called Bremsstrahlung (indeed, this German term describes the particular kind of electromagnetic radiation also in English language). In the context of the VU process it is important to note that Bremsstrahlung produced by spin-polarized electrons is equally polarized (Goldhaber et al. 1957) 3 The helicity of the spin-polarized electron is transferred to the helicity of the Bremsstrahlung, which is nothing else than circularly polarized electromagnetic radiation. The interaction of circularly polarized electromagnetic radiation with racemic or prochiral organic molecules was - even to that time - known to induce enantiomeric excesses. 'Chiral photons' can be used for asymmetric photochemical reactions such as asymmetric photolysis and asymmetric synthesis (we will develop a deeper understanding of asymmetric photochemistry in the next chapter). Ulbricht and Vester...

Electrostatic Tethers

Pain Perception Image

It would be nice to be able to flush the Van Allen belts of charged particles, and it may be especially important to be able to get rid of any artificially created radiation belts as soon and as fast as possible. This could be done by employing electrically conducting tethers of several tens of kilometers in length into orbits that bring them into the radiation belts. When these are charged to very high voltage levels, the electromagnetic fields thus generated can scatter the energetic radiation particles, over time sending many of them out of the radiation belts (into the atmosphere or further into space) and thereby lowering the radiation levels.

Magnetic Fields and Technology Destruction in Space

Soda Bottle Magnetometer

Geomagnetic storms are natural magnetic field changes caused by processes that start on the Sun. An onrush of high-energy charged solar particles and fields temporarily disrupts the magnetosphere region of man-made Earth satellites (Figure 2.19). In March 2000, NASA launched a special IMAGE (Imager for Magnetopause-to-Aurora Global Exploration) spacecraft to explore and monitor this region. Space weather forecasting has become a major program for modern nations. We defer our detailed look at these special solar-terrestrial disturbances until Chapter 4. For now, consider the fact that during major magnetic storms, man-made satellites suffer a number of damaging radiation exposure effects in the following ways.

Conventional Radiography The Basics

Cultural Ray

Figure 2.3 The characteristic curve graphical representation of the relationship between the intensity of the radiation exposure and the resulting density on the processed film. Figure 2.3 The characteristic curve graphical representation of the relationship between the intensity of the radiation exposure and the resulting density on the processed film. The study of the relationship between the intensity of the radiation exposure and the resulting density, or blackness, on the film is known as sensitometry (Bushong 2008b). Although a thorough understanding of this complex topic is beyond the scope of this text, it will serve as a reference point later in the discussion of digital radiography. The graphical representation of sensitometry is known as a characteristic curve, or a Hurter and Driffield (H & D) curve (Figure 2.3). The graph is divided into three sections the toe, straight line, and shoulder. Film exposures in the region of the toe would be considered grossly underexposed,...

Biological Impact of Radiation

The biological hazards of radiation exposure are discussed in depth by Bushberg et al. (2002b). The effects can be divided into two categories, stochastic and deterministic. Stochastic effects are random or chance occurrences, but the probability of an effect increases with dose. It is associated with low radiation dose exposures, and Bushberg et al. indicate that radiation-induced cancers and genetic effects are examples of these stochastic effects. The deterministic effects are linked with much higher doses of radiation than would normally be received in a routine medical radiographic examination. The severity of the effect also increases with the dose. Bushberg et al. state that the formation of cataracts, erythema, and hematopoietic damage are all examples of deterministic effects. X-ray photons are high-energy forms of electromagnetic radiation that will always transfer some form of energy to whatever material it interacts with. We are most familiar with the photon's capability...

Cleaning Up the Belts

Instability Belt Radiation

Less trapped energetic particles in the Van Allen radiation belts surrounding Earth thus means increased safety for crewed missions and a higher reliability and lifetime for spacecraft in Earth orbit, as well as increased potential for solar electric propulsion. TUI is studying a tether concept for cleaning up the Van Allen belts it is called Electrostatic Radiation Belt Remediation (earlier it was called the High-Voltage Orbiting Long Tether HiVOLT System). It utilizes lightweight conducting tethers, each many tens of kilometers in length, that are deployed into orbits that bring them into the radiation belts. The tethers automatically assume a vertical orientation due to the gravity-gradient forces, and thus align themselves perpendicular to Earth's magnetic field lines (imaginary lines along which the magnetic field strength is the same, and which run from pole to pole). Trapped radiation particles spiral along geomagnetic field lines, so with the tethers being perpendicular to...

Saturn Orbit Insertion

Saturns Ring

Region.168 Data taken by the Magnetospheric Imaging Instrument during the Saturn Orbit Insertion period revealed the presence of a hitherto unsuspected radiation belt between the 'D' ring and top of the planet's atmosphere. Although the spacecraft did not fly through this region, the instrument was able to make the discovery because it sensed charged particles by their electromagnetic emissions rather than by directly sampling them.169 The Ultraviolet Imaging Spectrograph documented compositional differences in the 'A', 'B' and 'C' rings.170 The 'A' ring was 'dirty' near the inside and icier outside. The Encke Division was also dirty. There was no ice in Cassini's Division, the 4,700-kilometre-wide gap that separates the 'A' and 'B' rings. The 'B' ring was mainly ice. The 'C' ring was dirty towards the inside. There were also thin ringlets of dirt embedded throughout the system. Similar indications were noted by the Visual and Infrared Mapping Spectrometer.171 It found Cassini's...

Space Astrophysics Day Friday June

In effect, the Salyut crew were the first space astronomers. Gamma-ray astronomy had only recently become feasible, and was giving insights into the structure of the universe. Gamma rays are the most energetic form of light. They are produced by fusion reactions in the cores of stars, but are soon absorbed and so stars appear dark in this part of the electromagnetic spectrum. However, they are emitted by violent events such as a supernovas (when a massive star 'explodes') and by the much less dramatic decay of radioactive elements in space. Objects like supernova remnants, black holes, neutron stars and pulsars are all sources of celestial gamma rays. In addition, there are powerful 'flashes' known as gamma-ray bursts which can release more energy in a few seconds than the Sun will emit during its entire 10-billion-year lifetime The exact cause of such bursts is disputed, and there may in fact be several causes. Thus far it would seem that all of the bursts originate from outside

Communications Frequencies

Information on a satellite communications link is carried by electromagnetic (EM) waves Figure 6.2 in Chapter 6 illustrated the various parts of the EM spectrum. As a consequence, the speed of communication is the speed of light, which is around 300,000 km per sec (186,000 miles per second), so that communication with spacecraft in LEO is effectively instantaneous. However, for a communication satellite in GEO, the altitude of the satellite is around 38,000 km, so that EM waves take just over a tenth of a second to travel from the ground to the spacecraft. This may not seem a lot, but bear in mind that for me (in the United Kingdom) to hold a telephone conversation with someone in the United States requires four such trips for the EM waves my voice needs to travel up to the satellite, and then down to a ground station in the U.S. My friend's response then needs to make the same return trip, requiring about half a second of travel time. If I talk with someone in Australia, the...

Stereochemistry for the Study of the Origin of Life

We will establish the phenomenon that not only molecules and macroscopic structures can be chiral but also electromagnetic waves in form of circularly polarized electromagnetic radiation. We will learn how to characterize chiral light with the help of the Stokes parameters I, Q, U, and V . Finally, the chromatographic resolution of enantiomers on chiral stationary phases will be summarized, as their use is common practice in numerous analytical laboratories today. Molecular structures of the most important chiral selectors will be given. Chapter 2 will thus provide a sound basis in order to meet and fully understand the stereochemical vocabulary, the experiments' design, and the measurement strategies, which we will encounter in the upcoming chapters.

The Discovery Of Exoplanetary Systems

In 1992, after decades of disappointment and false hope, the first exoplanets were discovered. The US astronomers Alex Wolszczan and Dale Frail announced that they had detected two planets in orbit around a rare type of star called a pulsar. Each planet had a mass just a few times that of the Earth. The claim that a pulsar had planets was greeted with considerable surprise by other astronomers, but it has withstood further investigation. The surprise stems from the way that a pulsar is formed, as the remnant of a massive star after it explodes in a supernova (Section 7.2). The remnant can either be a black hole or a neutron star. A pulsar is a neutron star that we observe by the beacon of electromagnetic radiation that it sweeps across us as it rotates, giving us a series of regular pulses. The planets were detected through the periodic changes in pulse spacing resulting from the Doppler effect as the pulsar orbited the center of mass of the system. The discovery was thus, like...

Miscellaneous Techniques

Here, CD signals can be obtained in the infrared region of the electromagnetic spectrum. vCD techniques are particularly useful for the study of the conformational characteristics of proteins and nucleic acids but also smaller molecules like chiral pharmaceuticals. vCD spectroscopy can be used together with ab-initio calculations to determine the absolute configuration of chiral organic molecules. 9 Rayleigh scattering is the scattering of electromagnetic radiation by particles that are much smaller than the wavelength of the electromagnetic radiation.

Light Wavelength and Radiation

Polarization Waves

Electromagnetic radiation is energy given off by matter, traveling in the form of waves or particles. Electromagnetic energy exists in a wide range of energy values, of which visible light is one small part of the total spectrum. The source of radiation may be the hot and therefore highly energized atoms of the Sun, pouring out radiation across a wide range of energy values, including of course visible light, and they may also be unstable (radioactive) elements giving off radiation as they decay. Radiation is called electromagnetic because it moves as interlocked waves of electrical and magnetic fields. A wave is a disturbance traveling through space, transferring energy from one point to the next. In a vacuum, all electromagnetic radiation travels at the speed of light, 983,319,262 feet per second (299,792,458 m sec, often approximated as 300,000,000 m sec). Depending on the type of radiation, the waves have different wavelengths, energies, and frequencies (see the following figure)....

A lesson in meteoritics and investing in metals

A meteoroid's spectacular entry into the atmosphere is accompanied by an equally spectacular sonic boom. Because sound travels quite slowly, at only about 1,200 kilometres per hour, it takes from 30 seconds to several minutes after the appearance of the fireball before any sonic boom can be heard. However, many witnesses have claimed that they heard strange noises as a meteorite streaked across the sky. Known as electrophonic sounds, these range from hissing static to the sound of an express train travelling at high speed. Electrophonic sounds have not yet been validated scientifically, but scientists suspect that light given off by a meteorite must be accompanied by invisible electromagnetic radiation in the form of VLF (very low frequency) radio waves at frequencies from 10 hertz to 30 kilohertz. These waves could reach the observer as soon as the meteorite approached, but you wouldn't hear them. Often, the witness of such sound is located near metal objects. It is possible that...

Electron spin resonance

The ESR phenomenon is caused by paramagnetic centers in the crystal lattice. Radiation-induced trapped electrons, mentioned already in the context of luminescence dating, form such centers and give rise to characteristic ESR signals. The intensity of the ESR signal is a function of the number of trapped electrons and, therefore, of the accumulated energy dose AD that has been absorbed from the ionizing radiation in the course of time. In order to calculate the ESR age, the value of AD, obtained from the ESR measurement, is divided by the dose rate DR, in the same manner as already discussed for luminescence (O Eq. 7).

Image Receptor Film and screens

In medical radiography, there has always been a trade-off between producing a diagnostic image and reducing the radiation exposure to the patient. To achieve this goal, films were developed with emulsions that were more sensitive to the light emitted by the intensifying screen. Similar to photography, one method to produce faster films was to increase the size of the light-sensitive crystals embedded in the emulsion. With an increase in crystal size, the exposure to the patient was decreased, but there was a corresponding decrease in detail or resolution on the processed film.

The Curse Of Steve Hawley

Although the Pacman cradle closely resembled those flown on STS-5, its content on STS-61C was somewhat different. The satellite, for starters, was a different shape. Unlike SBS-3 and ANIK-C3, which were both cylindrical 'drums', Satcom was cube-shaped and was part of a network of three satellites that would provide commercial communications services in the Ku-band of the electromagnetic spectrum. Owned by RCA - which had paid NASA 14.2 million to launch the satellite - the Satcoms were equipped with 16 transponders to cover the 48 members of the 'continental' United States or the eastern and western 'halves' of the nation.

Chiral Light and the Stokes Parameters

Light is electromagnetic radiation which can be interpreted as wave of an electrical field vector E and a magnetic field vector B, each of them oscillating and perpendicular to the axis of translation and E.LB. For unpolarized light, the electrical field vector has an infinite number of orientations. If one restricts its oscillations to one plane, for example by a linearly polarizing filter, we speak of linearly polarized light. Also here, E L B is valid. This light is used in a polarimeter for the measurement of the optical rotation of a chiral molecule in solution. Electromagnetic radiation can moreover consist of asymmetric light, called circularly polarized light. The photons then have angular momentum, called helicity, spinning either to the left or the right. Circularly polarized electromagnetic radiation can be produced in a laboratory using a light source and a X 4-plate. If tunable energy and a higher photon's energy of up to 12 eV are required, vacuum ultraviolet CPL can be...

The Big Bang At Time Zero

However, when James Clerk Maxwell completed the main development of classical electrodynamics with his famous four equations describing static and changing electric and magnetic fields, and it was found that exactly one speed for the electromagnetic radiation that we call light fell out of these equations, an impasse in the fitting together of classical electromagnetics with classical mechanics began to be noticed. The impasse was this Maxwell's equations predicted a single precise speed of light independently of the state of motion of the inertial reference frame in which the measurement of the speed of light might be taken. This fact was in distinct contradiction to Newtonian mechanics where the speeds of material objects depended very much on the state of motion of the inertial reference frame in which the measurement of the speed of such material objects might be taken.

Interactions Between Saturns Rings And Magnetic Field

Another important electromagnetic effect within Saturn's rings is known as Poynting-Robertson drag. Technically, this is an effect that is due to the absorption and re-emission of sunlight by dust-sized particles, but because light is an electromagnetic radiation, Poynting-Robertson drag is included in this section. Tiny ring particles orbiting Saturn absorb sunlight from one direction and re-emit that energy in

Through the Eye of a Chromophore CD Spectroscopy

By definition, a chiral molecule does not show a plane of symmetry. Therefore, the excitation of electrons in a chiral molecule into an electronically excited state will not occur in a symmetric matter. The pushing of electron density from a starting state to a higher energy final state triggered by electromagnetic radiation proceeds in an asymmetric manner by some kind of helical electron movement. This helical b. an optical device that produces monochromatic electromagnetic radiation that is alternatively left- and right-circularly polarized. This is performed by a series of mirrors and prisms creating linearly-polarized light, connected to a photo-elastic modulator (PEM) or a Pockels cell, transforming linearly- into circularly polarized light, typically switching between right- and left-circular polarizations light with a frequency v 50 kHz by applying an AC voltage. Besides the above outlined experimental approach, one may attempt to theoretically predict the interaction of...

Radiation environment

'Radiation' in the spacecraft environment context generally refers to subatomic particles in space. Of course, the Sun and other astrophysical sources yield electromagnetic radiation (hard UV, X-rays and gamma rays) that are somewhat damaging to materials and living things, but these effects are generally small. In this chapter we discuss briefly the sources of energetic particles and their effects on spacecraft systems (Trainor, 1994) effects on living things are discussed in Section 14.3

Diatomic homonuclear molecules

Diatomic homonuclear molecules do not interact with electromagnetic radiation via electric dipole transitions at all since no vibrational or rotational change of state may induce an electric dipole in the molecule. Although such molecules may interact weakly with electromagnetic radiation in other ways, they are usually effectively considered to be radiatively inactive in terrestrial atmospheres since their weak absorptions are totally dominated by the electric dipole transitions of other molecules. However, the atmospheres of the giant planets are dominated by molecular hydrogen, which is just such a diatomic homonuclear molecule and in certain parts of the spectrum the more familiar electric dipole transitions of other molecules are themselves so negligible that it becomes necessary to consider in detail how such diatomic molecules may interact with electromagnetic radiation.

Scientific and Technical Requirements

Null Geodesic Black Holes

An electrical charge of e+ and the down quark has a charge. These quarks are bound to each other by the intermediary bosons of the Quantum ChromoDynamic (QCD) gauge field. The analogue of charges for this force are called colors. The QCD force is likely unified with the electromagnetic field and the weak interaction field, responsible for 3 decay in nuclei, so that at high energy these three forces become embedded into a single gauge field. At high energy a quark and a lepton, which carries a unit charge for the weak interaction, can transform into each other. This is similar to the transformations or symmetries discussed with Newtonian mechanics and relativity. This transformation can convert an up quark and a down quark into a positron. Hence a proton may be converted into pure energy by the process

Building Blocks of Matter

Neutrino A lepton with no electric charge neutrinos participate only in weak and gravitational interactions and are therefore very difficult to detect there are three known types of neutrinos, all of which are very light and could possibly have zero mass neutron A subatomic particle with no electric charge, made of two down quarks and one up quark (held together by gluons) the neutral component of an atomic nucleus is made from neutrons different isotopes of the same element are distinguished by having different numbers of neutrons in their nucleus photon The fundamental particle that is the carrier particle of electromagnetic radiation proton The most common subatomic particle, with electric charge of +1 protons are made of two up quarks and one down quark, bound together by gluons the nucleus of a hydrogen atom is a proton. A nucleus with atomic number Z contains Z protons therefore the number of protons is what distinguishes the different chemical elements

Astro Four Powerful Eyes On The Universe

This region of the electromagnetic spectrum was inaccessible from Earth and even to the instruments on the forthcoming Hubble Space Telescope. To achieve far- and extreme-ultraviolet sensitivity HUT's mirrors were coated with iridium. When the ultraviolet spectrograph returned to KSC in the spring of 1989, it failed its first acceptance test and was again changed then an ageing television camera had to be removed and replaced.

Life on a Dwarf Planet Ceres World

Before its category change to dwarf planet status, astronomers classified Ceres as a C-type asteroid, meaning that it shows distinct absorption features associated with hydrated minerals in the infrared part of the electromagnetic spectrum. In a recent study by astronomer Peter Thomas (Cornell University) and co-workers, it has been estimated that the ice-rich mantle that surrounds the inner dense (nickel-iron) core of Ceres is perhaps 140-km thick and may contain as much as 200 million cubic kilometers of water-ice. The surface area of Ceres is about 12 million square kilometers, which is about 8 of Earth's land area, and accordingly it could conceivably support a large population of many tens of millions of people.

Sources of amphiphilic molecules

The discovery of biologically relevant compounds in meteorites also indicated that organic synthesis can occur in the interstellar medium, which immediately leads to the question of sources and synthetic pathways. The most important biogenic elements (C, N, O, S, and P) form in the interiors of stars, then are ejected into the surrounding interstellar medium (ISM) at the end of the star's lifetime during red giant, nova, and supernova phases. Following ejection, much of this material becomes concentrated into dense molecular clouds from which new stars and planetary systems are formed (Ehrenfreund and Charnley, 2000 Sandford, 1996). At the low temperatures in these dark molecular clouds, mixtures of molecules condense to form ice mantles on the surfaces of dust grains where they can participate in additional chemical reactions. Comparison of infrared spectra of low-temperature laboratory ices with absorption spectra of molecular clouds indicates that interstellar ices are mainly...

Stsc The End Of Innocence

EML examined material flow during the solidification of melted materials. Six samples were suspended in the electromagnetic field of a cusp coil and melted by induction heating from its electromagnetic field. ADSF used four furnaces to melt and solidify several materials. Lastly, 3AAL carried 12 liquids suspended in sound pressure waves, which were rotated and oscillated to study bubble behaviour in microgravity. All three were up and running by the end of 12 January and 3AAL activities were completed the next day. The other two experiments encountered problems, however they did not power-up properly and were terminated earlier than intended.

Onorbit operations in nearEarth orbit a necessary second step

As discussed in Chapter 1, achieving much higher space speeds than are offered by practical rockets requires high-energy, high-specific-impulse propulsion systems. Chapter 7 presents some specific systems that are under development or in conceptual formulation. Researchers at the high-energy particle research facilities speak of space-available energy in a different way than chemical propulsion engineers. If developments continue in our understanding of energy, we may actually be able to traverse the Solar System nearly as quickly as the Earth-Moon system. If someone had told Donald Douglas Sr that just 30 years after the first DC-3 flew a prototype supersonic transport would cross the Atlantic at Mach 2.0, he would have laughed in disbelief. In fact he delayed the development of the DC-8 because he believed turboprops would hold the commercial market for over a decade before turbojets were commercially and economically practical. Nikolai Tesla, before 1930, stated that with his...

Orfeusspas A Freeflying Observatory

The scientific objectives of the second ORFEUS-SPAS mission were to closely examine the evolution of stars, the structure of distant galaxies and the nature of the 'interstellar medium' - the almost-empty region between stars - in two rarely explored, very-short-wavelength areas of the electromagnetic spectrum. These particular regions are obscured by Earth's atmosphere, thus precluding ground-based observations nor are they within the Hubble Space Telescope's capabilities. During its maiden flight in the autumn of 1993, ORFEUS-SPAS provided invaluable data on the structure and dynamics of interstellar gas clouds, as well as insights into how molecular hydrogen was created in interstellar space.

Making Superman Jealous

In fact, Chandra was the third of a quartet of 'Great Observatories' that NASA had been planning for more than two decades to explore the Universe using sensors that covered virtually the entire electromagnetic spectrum. The first two observatories -Hubble and the Compton Gamma-Ray Observatory - had been orbited by two Shuttle crews in the early 1990s and focused on visible and ultraviolet studies, as well as measurements of high-energy gamma rays. Two others would then cover X-ray (Chandra) and infrared (the 2003-launched Spitzer Space Telescope) wavelengths.

Increased CO Abundance

As described in Chapter 5 (see also the Appendix of this book), carbon dioxide is a greenhouse gas. This, we recall, means that it has absorption bands situated in the infrared part of the electromagnetic spectrum. These absorption bands will intercept the energy radiated into space from the surface of Mars, and accordingly the planet's CO2-rich atmosphere is warmed. As we shall see later, CO2 is neither the only nor the strongest greenhouse gas of interest when it comes to terraforming the Red Planet, but for the moment the effect of simply increasing the carbon dioxide abundance in the Martian atmosphere is illustrated in Figure 6.14. The increasing abundance of CO2 in the atmosphere is expressed in terms of the pressure that it provides at the planet's surface (recall Chapter 5). The present surface pressure due to CO2 on Mars is about 6 microbars (600 Pa), and this provides about 4 worth of greenhouse heating. At surface pressures of 10, 100, and 200 millibars, the...

Bad simulation run

Several of these experiments were mounted on the MPESS two were designed to investigate the dynamics of the tether during its deployment phase, another provided theoretical support in the area of electrodynamics, a couple more employed ground-based equipment to measure electromagnetic emissions from the satellite and seven others stimulated or monitored the entire assembly as it reeled its way out of the payload bay. Nearly 22 km of cable was in the deployment mechanism for STS-75, although 'only' 20.5 km of that would actually be unravelled.

Remote Sensing

For remote sensing of solar system objects, each wavelength of radiation can yield different information. Scientists frequently find it necessary to send detectors into space rather than making measurements from Earth, first because not all types of electromagnetic radiation can pass through the Earth's atmosphere (see figure, opposite page), and second, because some electromagnetic emissions must be measured close to their sources, because they are weak, or in order to make detailed maps of the surface being measured. Below are examples of the uses of a number of types of electromagnetic radiation in remote sensing. Gamma rays are a form of electromagnetic radiation they have the shortest wavelength and highest energy. High-energy radiation such as X-rays and gamma rays are absorbed to a great degree by the Earth's atmosphere, so it is not possible to measure their production by solar system bodies without sending measuring devices into space. These high-energy radiations are created...


Even outside the solar system, space is not truly empty but is filled with waves of electromagnetic radiation and with the interstellar wind. Scientists have theorized for years that the solar wind will reach a point, far past Pluto, where it is so cool and weak that it can no longer expand against the pressure of the interstellar wind. The surface that bounds the solar wind is called the heliopause.

The Suns Output

Light is one form of electromagnetic radiation. All forms of EM radiation travel at the speed of light (see above), and are distinguished from each other by the wavelength of the radiation. Figure 6.2 shows different types of EM radiation, from short wavelength gamma rays to long wavelength radio

Radiative Zone

From the top of the core to about 71 percent of the radius of the Sun is the area called the radiative zone.When the gamma rays produced by hydrogen burning in the core pass through the radiative zone, they are so energetic that rather than heating the plasma of the Sun in this region they simply collide and are reemitted over and over. The repeated collisions slowly remove energy from the gamma rays, lengthening their wavelengths and lowering their frequencies. Energy transfer in the radiative zone, therefore, is by continuous absorption and reemission of electromagnetic waves, which bounce ever closer to the surface of the Sun. Despite the intense electromagnetic radiation bouncing around in the radiative zone, the matter is relatively calm and stationary, especially when compared to the convective zone above it. From the temperature of the core, 28,080,000 F (15,600,000 C), it takes 170,000 years for the colliding and rebounding gamma rays to pass upward and gradually drop to a...

Gamma rays

Gamma rays are a form of electromagnetic radiation they have the shortest wavelength and highest energy. High-energy radiation such as X-rays and gamma rays are absorbed to a great degree by the Earth's atmosphere, so it is not possible to measure their production by solar system bodies without sending measuring devices into space. These high-energy radiations are created only by high-energy events, such as matter heated to millions of degrees, high-speed collisions, or cosmic explosions. These wavelengths, then, are used to investigate the hottest regions of the Sun. The effects of gamma rays on other

Convective Zone

By the time it reaches the top of the radiative zone, the electromagnetic radiation from the Sun's core has lost enough energy that matter in the convective zone can absorb the waves and become hotter itself. This hot matter circulates upward in a process called convection, and in this way energy is passed through the convective zone by hot matter. Convection is mixing due to temperature or density differences in a liquid or gas. One example of convection is boiling oatmeal in a pot Heat put in at the bottom of the pot causes the water and oatmeal at the bottom to expand. Almost every material expands when it is heated, and since it retains its original mass, it becomes less dense. Lowering the density of the material at the bottom makes it buoyant, and it rises to the top. Cooler material from the top sinks to the bottom to take its place, and the cycle continues. Convection can create cells, regular patterns of circulation with material moving up and down.

Lets Stay Together

Another important benefit of larger telescopes is that they are able to achieve better angular resolutions. The resolution of a telescope is the minimum angular distance at which two objects can still be seen as individual sources of light objects separated by an angle smaller than the instrument's angular resolution cannot be resolved. For example, through a small telescope the two components of a double star may appear like one single dot of light, but a large telescope enables distinguishing the two individual stars. The resolution of a telescope is a function of its diameter, or, to be precise, is proportional to the wavelength of the collected radiation divided by the diameter of its primary lens or mirror. The larger the diameter, the better the resolution and thus the better the telescope is able to distinguish individual objects. This is true for any type of telescope, whether it is designed to detect visible light, infrared radiation, radio waves, or any other sort of...

Union in the s

Not long before the end of my postgraduate term, I was attracted to the following problem. We know how different types of galaxies produce electromagnetic radiation in different ranges of wavelength. With certain assumptions about the evolution of galaxies in the past, and having taken into account the reddening of light from remote galaxies owing to the expansion of the universe, one can calculate the present distribution of the integrated galactic emission as a function of wavelength. In this calculation, one has to remember that stars are not the only sources of radiation, and that many galaxies are extremely powerful sources of radio waves in the meter and decimeter wavelength ranges. All calculations were carried out jointly with A. Doroshkevich, who I met when I joined Zel'dovich's group. We obtained the calculated spectrum of galactic radiation, that is, of the radiation that must fill today's universe if one takes into account only the radiation produced since galaxies were...

Summary and Outlook

Various aspects of plasmaspheric electric fields and magnetic fields have been reviewed in this paper. Ground-based measurements of lightning-generated whistlers and signals from transmitters made it possible to derive electric fields inside the plasmasphere by probing the movement of density ducts. Since the 1960s these whistler studies have provided a context and motivation for later work. Modern observation (e.g., by Cluster Image) of quiet-time, substorm, and SAPS-generated electric fields are entirely consistent with the earlier whistler observations. The CLUSTER and Image missions (launched in 2000) have both improved substantially our capabilities in measuring electromagnetic fields in the plasma-sphere. In particular, multiple spacecraft analysis, improved electric field measurements, and tracking the motion of global boundaries were not possible with data from previous missions. The following four points are major achievements from these new satellite measurements.

Computed Radiography

Because of the inherent characteristics of the system, the kVp needs to be increased to a minimum of 70 if CR is employed. To provide adequate coverage of the image receptor, the same SID as described earlier would be required. Although it is frequently stated in the literature that when using CR the mAs should be reduced by 50 from the conventional radiographic technique, this has not been our experience. Even though the kVp is increased over the setting noted previously, the initial mAs value should be at least that used for a conventional screen film system. A good starting point for mummified remains at a 40 in. (100 cm) SID would be 70 kVp at 10 mAs. There are two principal advantages of CR. The first is the elimination of wet processing and everything associated with the need to handle and transport the chemicals. The second is the ability to postprocess the image without having to take additional exposures. The latter not only reduces the amount of time required to complete the...

Radiation Protection

Shielding is material that will absorb radiation by the photoelectric effect. The traditional shielding material is lead (Pb). In a medical imaging facility, the department walls and doors are lined with lead. Leaded acrylic windows permit the radiographer to directly observe the patient during a radiation exposure. Mobile leaded partitions with a leaded acrylic window have been employed in the operating room during fluoroscopic procedures. In addition, during fluoroscopy, leaded aprons, gloves, and thyroid shields are available to protect radiologist, radiographers, and other individuals required to be in the room with the patient during the examination. Shielding, such as a lead apron, can also be placed under the image receptor to absorb scatter radiation. Time refers to limiting the amount of time that an individual is exposed to radiation. When working with live patients, limiting the number of repeat images would minimize the number of times that a patient would be exposed. Also...


Organisms are exposed to a variety of types of radiation on Earth. Some types of radiation have been constant for organisms over geological time, such as those from naturally occurring radioactive substances, while ultraviolet radiation received by organisms has varied as the Sun has aged and atmospheric oxygen has risen. Solar radiation exposure also varies seasonally and diurnally. Throughout the history of Earth, ultraviolet radiation below 200 nm has been blocked from reaching the surface by atmospheric CO2. Since the rise of atmospheric oxygen and ozone over 2 billion years ago (see Chapter 11), much of the radiation below 300 nm has been attenuated as well. This is particularly important because the peak absorption for nucleic acids is 260 nm and that for proteins is, on average, 280 nm.

The human target

Astronauts on Apollo missions were exposed to radiation from the Van Allen belts (trapped particles) and the galactic cosmic ray (GCR) background. There were no solar particle events of any significance during these missions hence, there were no dose accumulations from them. Radiation exposures for the transits through the trapped belts were kept very low by transiting quickly through them. Since the Apollo mission lengths were only a week or two, there were also no significant accumulations of radiation dose from the GCR background. Thus doses were well below thresholds for any measurable radiation effects, including lethality. Other commentators are less sanguine. For example, a study conducted for the World Health Organization concluded that airline crew members receive radiation doses greater than that of a typical nuclear energy worker, and recommended the wearing of dosimeters.40 European Union legislation introduced in 2000 is more permissive and requires the member States to...

Hereditary effects

No radiation-induced hereditary disease has been demonstrated in humans so far. However ionizing radiation is recognized as mutagenic and experiments on plants and animals have clearly shown that radiation may cause genetic effects, and there is no reason to believe that humans are an exception.

Stochastic effects

If a cell is not directly killed by radiation but somehow modified, the outcome will be different from those included among deterministic effects. In vitro cellular researches show that damage from radiation to deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) gives rise to most of the detrimental effects. There are two mechanisms by which radiation may damage DNA direct or indirect interaction. In the first case ionizing radiation directly damages a gene, in the second case radiation produces active chemical radicals near the DNA. The diffusing radicals may interact with DNA and induce chemical changes. Very efficient mechanisms exist (enzyme actions) to repair DNA, whatever the cause of harm. If only one of the two symmetric strands forming the DNA is damaged, the use of information on the other strand makes the repair process highly probable and successful, though it is not always error-free. If both strands are damaged at the same location, information is lost forever the repair process is more...

Mars Odyssey Mission

NASA launched the Mars Odyssey 2001 spacecraft to the Red Planet from Cape Canaveral Air Force Station on April 7, 2001. The robot spacecraft, previously called the Mars Surveyor 2001 Orbiter, was designed to determine the composition of the planet's surface, to detect water and shallow buried ice, and to study the ionizing radiation environment in the vicinity of Mars. The spacecraft arrived at the planet on October 24, 2001, successfully entered orbit, and then performed a series of aerobrake maneuvers to trim itself into the polar orbit around Mars for scientific data collection. The scientific mission began in January 2002.


Even on a solar-system scale, the survival of such microorganisms, spores, or bacteria would be difficult. For example, life seeds wandering from the vicinity of Earth to Mars would be exposed to both ultraviolet radiation from the Sun and ionizing radiation in the form of solar-flare particles and cosmic rays. The interplanetary migration of spores might take several hundred thousand years in the airless, hostile environmental conditions of outer space.

Top View

Unlike all MCF concepts seen so far, this approach to MCF is unsteady. The basic working principle of the DPF rocket is shown on the left of Figure 8.14. The fuel, DT or other, is injected inside the reactor chamber and is compressed by pulsed electromagnetic waves. Their effect on the newly formed and longitudinally accelerated plasma is to constrict the B field lines in the tangential direction (in cylindrical coordinates the tangential angle is 0). This unsteady plasma effect is called ''0 pinch'' it can compress plasma to very high density, although for short times, corresponding to the duration of the electromagnetic pulse. There is some experimental evidence hinting that in this unsteady mode plasma ignition may be achieved with DPF devices much smaller than steady-state MCF reactors.

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