Ultimate Guide to Power Efficiency

Power Efficiency Guide

The Power Efficiency Guide is a step-by-step guide showing the users how to create their own Home Power Plant. The E-book was created just to explain and help people out of the problem they face because of the lack of electricity. The guide was made to help the users use about 90% of the tools they use regularly in their various houses for the creation of a power generator, which will beneficial to them and their family. The device uses the endless power principle used to make the electric cars constantly charge themselves from the wheels when not being accelerated. It is a unique concept that can be used in every home. It was created in such a way that it would be a quick fix for the users' electricity problem. In other words, when the users purchase it during the day, the users will be able to make use of it before night falls. The process is so easy that even a little child can fix it up. The guide is such that comes at a cheap price and would help in the reduction of the amount the users might have to pay for regular electricity bill due to the number of appliances used at home. Read more here...

Power Efficiency Guide Summary


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I usually find books written on this category hard to understand and full of jargon. But the writer was capable of presenting advanced techniques in an extremely easy to understand language.

This ebook served its purpose to the maximum level. I am glad that I purchased it. If you are interested in this field, this is a must have.

Optimized Energy Consumption for Protein Synthesis

The synthesis of new proteins is, as we mentioned above, an extremely energy demanding process. Adding up the energy required for (i) the synthesis of a codon, which is the nucleic acid information unit for an amino acid, (ii) the charging reaction of a tRNA by its synthetase with the correct (cognate) amino acid and (iii) the subsequent incorporation of this amino acid into the nascent peptide chain, a total of 10 energy-rich bonds need to be sacrificed. In this context an energy-rich bond means an acidic-anhydride bond of adjacent phosphate residues of ATP or GTP, each with an energy content ofabout AG'0 -6 kcal mol. This enormous energy requirement explains why the cell has developed intricate systems for controlling energy consumption. This is certainly the Achilles' heel of modern in vitro translation systems, where usually no more of 5 of the energy is used for actual protein synthesis, with the rest being wasted by uncontrolled and useless energy drains. In striking contrast, a...

The Path Forward Engineered Circuits in Medicine

The concept of DNA-based computation has existed for over a decade, since Adleman reported using DNA to solve combinatorial optimization problems such as a Hamiltonian path problem (Adleman 1994). Briefly, such DNA-based molecular computations depend on embedding variables or instructions in the DNA sequence and allowing such instructions to act upon themselves to produce an output based on Watson-Crick base pairing rules (Cox et al. 1999). These DNA circuits based purely on hybridization logic are highly parallel and energy efficient, but are computationally limited by high error rates. However, the computations that are typically required in biology are not known for their digital exactitude, but rather yield appropriate analog responses (such as a gradient of gene expression). Thus, DNA or RNA computations merely must be applied to the right sorts of problems the questions normally posed by cellular survival, development, and behavior.

Body Composition and Primate Metabolic Variation

Differences in body composition are important in influencing variation in metabolic energy requirements, given marked differences in mass-specific metabolic rates across tissues. Muscle mass, for example, varies from 24 to 61 of total body weight in mammals, with slow-moving arboreal mammals, such as sloths, occupying the low end and terrestrial carnivores, such as lions, occupying the high end (Calder, 1984 Grand, 1977 Muchlinski et al., 2003). McNab (1978) postulates that the depressed RMRs of arboreal mammals are partly the result of low levels of muscularity. Thus, variation in tissue size and concomitant variation in tissue metabolic rates contribute to the structuring of energy costs and provide a mechanism for deviations from predicted metabolic rates. and this has been suggested to help females cope with high maternal energy costs associated with reproduction (Richard and Dewar, 1991). The nature and origins of metabolic variation in strepsirrhines and hap-lorhines have...

Mars Exploration Rovers Spirit and Opportunity

Following the success of the Mars Pathfinder project in 1997, there was a resurgence of interest in the deployment of an untethered rover on the surface of Mars. The concept of a semi-autonomous and freely roving vehicle was mooted as a follow-on to the Viking missions of the late 1970s. Almost twenty years were to pass before a rover was to be operated on Mars. After the Mars Pathfinder mission, NASA had proposed to send a rover equipped with a geology chemistry payload, dubbed the 'Athena' suite, to Mars in 2001. Various constraints led to the redesign of the mission for a 2003 launch, although experiments of the payload were carried on the ill-fated Mars Polar Lander. In 2000 the Mars Exploration Rover mission was selected, with a launch-date flight three years later. This time, the Athena payload was to be duplicated, carried on two identical 174kg rovers. Designated MER-A and MER-B, the spacecraft carrying the rovers were launched to Mars on separate Delta 2 boosters, making use...

The Constitution of Stars

Over 90 of stars in the Universe are on or near the main sequence, like the Sun. Some are slightly more massive and some slightly less massive but looking at the Sun from the Earth is like looking at any typical star from the astronomically near distance of about 149 million kilometres (1 AU). Stars are long lasting sources of energy, often of great strength. They emit electromagnetic radiation over the full spectrum of frequencies from high energy X-rays and 7-rays through to very low energy radio waves. In fact, the spectrum bears the imprint of conditions deep inside which are very close to equilibrium. It must be remembered that recognising a state of thermodynamic equilibrium requires the thermodynamic variables to be measured so that the various critical relationships can be found and checked. All experimental measurements involve errors of some kind, and however small these may be, the equilibrium in a particular case can only be established within a certain error limit. A...

Clarks Fork Basin Fossiliferous Freshwater Limestones

Fossiliferous freshwater limestones record a complex depositional and diage-netic history, with precipitation of micritic low-Mg calcite and accumulation of bone probably having occurred in low-energy, ponded water (Bloch and Bowen, 2001 Bowen and Bloch, 2002). The fossil assemblages contained within the limestones likely represent faunas derived from rarely sampled floodplain microenvironments (Bloch, 2001 Bloch and Bowen, 2001 Bloch and Boyer, 2001 Bowen and Bloch, 2002). Skeletal element frequencies and occasional preservation of articulated skeletons indicate that mammals likely entered the limestone assemblage as complete skeletons that were subsequently partially disarticulated by bioturbation. It is likely that predation and scavenging, pit-trapping, and normal attritional processes all contributed to the concentration of bone (Bloch, 2001 Bloch and Boyer, 2001).

Biological Information Transfer Beyond the Genetic Code The Sugar Code

Abstract In the era of genetic engineering, cloning, and genome sequencing, the focus of research on the genetic code has received an even further accentuation in the public eye. When, however, aspiring to understand intra- and intercellular recognition processes comprehensively, the two biochemical dimensions established by nucleic acids and proteins are not sufficient to satisfactorily explain all molecular events in, e.g. cell adhesion or routing. To bridge this gap consideration of further code systems is essential. A third biochemical alphabet forming code words with an information storage capacity second to no other substance class in rather small units (words, sentences) is established by monosaccharides (letters). As hardware oligosaccharides surpass peptides by more than seven orders of magnitude in the theoretical ability to build isomers, then the total of conceivable hexamers is calculated. Beyond the sequence complexity application of nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR)...

Solar Terrestrial Effects

Because charged particles follow magnetic fields, corpuscular radiation is not observed from all big flares but only from those favourably situated in the Sun's western hemisphere. The solar rotation makes the lines of force from the western side of the Sun (as seen from Earth) lead back to Earth, guiding the flare particles there. These particles are mostly protons because hydrogen is the dominant constituent of the Sun. Many of the particles are trapped in a great shock front that blows out from the Sun at 1,000 km sec (600 miles sec). The flux of low-energy particles in big flares is so intense that it endangers the lives of astronauts outside the terrestrial magnetic field.

Traffic Into And Out Of The Cell Nucleus

One important difference between the chemistry of the nucleus and the cytoplasm has to do with the activity of a protein called Ran. This molecule comes in two forms a high-energy mode in which it is bound to GTP and a low-energy form bound to GDP. (This energy system was described in chapter 3 in the section Molecular Amplifiers and Vision. )

Space Missions to Comets

Among the first proposals for a space mission to a comet was a big NASA ESA mission sending a probe to a rendezvous with comet Tempel-2 and another probe to flyby Halley's comet, the first comet proven to fly on a closed orbit. While NASA had to drop out of the common project, ESA picked up their end and made it her own flyby mission Giotto to 540 km sunward of the comet Halley nucleus. Soon after, a decision was reached to redirect two Venus missions of Interkosmos to Halley's comet too, as VEGA 1 and 2. The fly-by speeds were near 70-80 km s. When it was found that the Venus missions could be retargeted in a way to intercept comet p Halley, many dust-related instruments were hastily added to the payload. Among them were dust counters and the impact mass spectrometers PUMA, many of the instruments developed in close cooperation with those flown on Giotto. Since no dust protection could be added to the space crafts, they had to stay away from the nucleus quite a bit more than Giotto...

Total System Thermal Integration

When discussing propulsion, hypersonic flight or atmospheric entry the question of cooling must be examined in the context of the total energy management or integration. In the case of the SR-71 the aerodynamic heating was mostly absorbed by the structure, and the surface ran at radiative equilibrium temperature. So the SR-71 was a hot structure vehicle and therefore it required a material that maintained its strength at high temperature (i.e., in the 660 C range) and that was beta-titanium. The thermal energy had to be removed from the crew compartment and equipment bays. That thermal energy plus the thermal energy rejected by the engine was transferred to the fuel. Discussions of the SR-71 design state that the fuel temperature entering the engine was over 600 C. In this case all of the thermal energy was discarded as hot fuel and that hot fuel provided no useful work or engine thrust. With a high-temperature hydrocarbon as fuel this was a rational approach as there was hardly any...

Foundation of radiation theory

In this chapter we review the physical foundation of remote sensing. Except for possible gravitational effects, information accessible to a distant observer must be sensed as electromagnetic radiation, either in the form of reflected or refracted solar or stellar radiation, or in the form of thermal or nonthermal emission. We restrict the discussion to passive techniques. Active methods, involving the generation of electromagnetic radiation (radar, lidar), are not explicitly treated. However, the physical principles discussed in this text are equally applicable to passive and active methods. In either case a discussion of the measurement and interpretation of remotely sensed data must be based on electromagnetic theory. In Section 1.1 we begin with that theory by reviewing Maxwell's equations. The application of the principle of energy conservation to Maxwell's equations leads to the Poynting theorem with the Poynting vector describing radiative energy transport this is discussed in...

Life History And Reproduction

In terms of infant development, Godfrey et al. (2004) showed that indriids have a slow somatic growth rate relative to other lemurs. This is contrary to the expected pressures of seasonal reproduction, as well as the predictions of the risk aversion hypothesis of Janson and van Schaik (1993). This hypothesis suggests that more folivorous taxa should have rapid development, because the relative lack of food competition lessens the starvation risks associated with rapid growth. However, the slow body growth seen in Propithecus and other indriids is paired with an unusually fast rate of dental development (this family is unusual in the extent to which somatic and dental development rates are decoupled). Godfrey et al. (2004) suggest that accelerating the development of adult dentition at the expense of other body tissues may get infants to independence as soon as possible (the high-fiber diet of Propithecus requires more dental competence than the softer diet of frugivores). By achieving...

Phylogenetic Influences on Strepsirrhine Hypometabolism Implications for Subfossil Lemurs

The RMR predictions for 16 species of subfossil lemur are presented in Figure 4 and are based on body masses reconstructed for subfossil taxa (Table 4). For a given body mass, we calculated RMR based on the Kleiber scaling relationship (70M0 75) and a strepsirrhine-only regression from this study (36.3M0 56), which assumes that the subfossil lemurs were hypometa-bolic (based on the retention of the primitive condition). Assuming metabolic rates similar to those seen in living strepsirrhines, there would have been considerable energy savings in all species, which would have been amplified at larger body sizes. For example, in the largest of the subfossil lemurs, A. fontoynontii, with an estimated body mass of 200 kg, would have had an RMR (using the strepsirrhine-only regression) of only about 20 of that predicted by Kleiber scaling relationship. This energy savings likely would have been further amplified through low-total energy costs, as is likely based on morphological evidence,...

Spectrum Of Airbreathing Operation

As the speed increases, the engine performance becomes characterized by energy conservation rather than by combustion energy conservation is far more important than chemistry Ahern, 1992 . The result is a spectrum of operation over the speed regime developed by Czysz and Murthy 1991 and shown in Figure 4.7. This figure illustrates the extent to which the kinetic energy of free stream air entering the vehicle inlet capture area and the fuel mass and internal energy become gradually more significant and critical as the flight speed increases. Thus the operating limits of the airbreather can be clearly identified. flow engine (scramjet). The shaded area between 5 and 7kft s is the transition region defined by Builder for hydrogen and hydrocarbon fuels as the region where kinetic compression to subsonic speeds ahead of the combustor alone yields optimum enthalpy compression ratio Builder, 1964 . To the left of this area mechanical compression is required to reach the optimum enthalpy...

Box The nine ichnofacies

Repichnia Cubichnia

The Glossifungites ichnofacies (Fig. 19.13g) is characterized by domichnia such as Glossifungites and Thalassinoides and sometimes plant root penetration structures, but other behavioral trace fossil types are rare. The sediments are firm, but not lithified, and may occur in firm compacted muds and silts in marine intertidal and shallow subtidal zones. The firmgrounds may develop in low-energy situations such as salt marshes, mud bars or high intertidal flats, or in shallow marine environments where erosion has stripped off superficial unconsolidated layers of sediment, exposing firmer beds beneath.

Red Deer Valley K-t Boundary

Fossil Data Before After Boundary

Palynomorph taxa were recorded from a suite of 17 samples, of which ten were known to be restricted to the Cretaceous. The stratigraphic relations of the extinction horizon and the boundary claystone indicate clearly that the emplacement of the boundary layer took place just after the extinction event. However, the boundary claystone contains a fern-spore spike of 93 in which a species of Cyathidites is dominant. The uppermost layer of the claystone layer (2-3 mm thick), which yielded iridium and shocked quartz, has a low-diversity assemblage including 63.5 fern spores. A more diverse assemblage in which fern spores are a minor component is present 4-7 cm above the K-T boundary, indicating the return of angiosperm-dominated vegetation. The presence of abundant fern spores within the boundary claystone at the Dogie Creek locality rather than above it was observed and reported by Bohor et al. (1987a), but no special significance was attached to it. Local transport and minor,...

Particle Bed Reactor

Following the end of the NERVA work, USAF took over research in nuclear propulsion Lawrence, 2008 , one of its priorities being a nuclear-powered reusable space tug (more formally, the Orbital Transfer Vehicle (OTV)). With all the safety caveats, a space tug is a striking alternative to orbit raising chemical stages for commercial satellites. USAF started in the mid-1970s by modifying the NERVA I reactor, recognizing it rightly as the critical element of the entire propulsion system. The NERVA family of reactors was still too massive (and too powerful) for the type of missions USAF had in mind, and that was what started the particle bed reactor (PBR) concept. The PBR has a configuration taking advantage of advances in fuel manufacturing. The structure of all NERVA-Kiwi family was based on long fuel bars, or rods. Cold hydrogen flowed inside multiple channels present in each rod, the entire assembly exhausting hot hydrogen inside a conventional nozzle. This geometry is essentially...

Graphical Representations Of The Equation Of State Of Water

Pvt Surfaces Thermodynamics

The equations of state of water, both volumetric and thermal, exhibit features of the-gas equations of state described in Sections 2.2 to 2.4 the condensed substances EOS of Section 2.5. However, because water vapor is often used at high pressures in many processes (e.g., a steam power plant), and because the water molecule is inherently fairly nonideal, the ideal gas law is usually a poor approximation of the EOS of steam. Similarly, liquid water is quite compressible compared to most solids (see Table 2.1), so the simple condensed-phase EOS of Equation (2.18b) is of marginal use when applied to water.

Biological Impact of Radiation

In the second interaction, termed photoelectric effect, the photon interacts with an inner shell electron of the atom and is completely absorbed. If the photon has sufficient energy, greater than the binding energy of the inner shell electron, the electron will be knocked out of orbit, resulting in ionization of the atom. Since a majority of the low-energy photons are absorbed by dense material, such as bone, the photoelectric effect is the predominant interaction at low-kV settings, and is responsible for high-contrast images. High-contrast images are composed primarily of black and white with few shades of gray. If the photon passes through the mummified remains or skeletal material unchanged but is absorbed by the phosphors comprising the intensifying screen within the cassette, the screens will fluoresce, exposing the film. Photoelectric effect is also responsible for the formation of the image in CR and DR. In the third interaction, termed Compton effect, the incident photon...

Saturn Orbit Insertion

Saturns Ring

Region.168 Data taken by the Magnetospheric Imaging Instrument during the Saturn Orbit Insertion period revealed the presence of a hitherto unsuspected radiation belt between the 'D' ring and top of the planet's atmosphere. Although the spacecraft did not fly through this region, the instrument was able to make the discovery because it sensed charged particles by their electromagnetic emissions rather than by directly sampling them.169 The Ultraviolet Imaging Spectrograph documented compositional differences in the 'A', 'B' and 'C' rings.170 The 'A' ring was 'dirty' near the inside and icier outside. The Encke Division was also dirty. There was no ice in Cassini's Division, the 4,700-kilometre-wide gap that separates the 'A' and 'B' rings. The 'B' ring was mainly ice. The 'C' ring was dirty towards the inside. There were also thin ringlets of dirt embedded throughout the system. Similar indications were noted by the Visual and Infrared Mapping Spectrometer.171 It found Cassini's...

Radiocarbon Dating And Quaternary Extinctions

All living (organic) matter contains carbon, as does the Earth's atmosphere. Radioactive carbon, or radiocarbon (14C), is a low-energy radioactive isotope, or variant, of carbon that is continuously being formed in the upper atmosphere by the action of cosmic radiation on nitrogen-14 (14N). As do all radioactive molecules, the molecules of 14C subsequently decay at a characteristic rate. The ratio of 14C to nonradioactive carbon (12C ) in the atmosphere is very small.

Of Ferns Bears and Slime Molds

Trees but by power plant and automobile exhaust generated throughout the eastern half of the United States. The pall of airborne sulfates, nitrates, and ground-level ozone is at its worst on summer days like this.1 The National Parks Conservation Association has consistently included the Great Smoky Mountains on its list of America's 10 most endangered national parks, and in 2002 declared it the most polluted national park in the nation.2 Even more worrisome than the loss of mountain views are the unseen effects of the park's deteriorating air.

Asymmetric Radiolysis by Polarized Electrons

As mentioned before, polarized electrons (or positrons) emitted through the radioactive P-decay are highly energetic their kinetic energy is not adapted to the range of excitation energies within molecules. Best results for the enantioselec-tive interaction of polarized electrons with organic molecules were thus expected in the examination of relatively slow polarized electrons showing kinetic energies of some electron volt (eV) only. If we expect some enantioselective electron-molecule interaction, then it should be in this energy range. Production and handling of spin-polarized electrons in the low energy range is not particularly difficult and experiments of this kind have indeed been performed

Formal Education Products and Programs

Jochen Kiesel

Designing Craters is a two-to-three week inquiry-based module addressing the question How do you make a 7-15 stories deep, football stadium-sized crater in a comet The lessons are designed for students in grades 9-12 and provide them with experience in conducting scientific inquiries, making measurements, displaying data and analyzing it to gain a greater understanding of scientific modeling while involving students in the excitement of a NASA mission in development. This unit was designed as part of a Masters degree in Science Education at University of Maryland. After studying the physics of crater formation based on the work of Melosh (1996), the graduate student then developed guidelines for student-designed experiments. The activities are designed to model one path that a scientific inquiry might take. The students begin by brainstorming what factors might influence crater size and doing some initial experimentation and exploration. They evaluate each other's suggestions and...

Approaches For Computational Protein Design

Numerous search algorithms have been developed to search the energy landscape for low energy sequences and their preferred amino acids at each position. These algorithms are divided into two classes stochastic and deterministic. Stochastic algorithms use probabilistic trajectories, where the resulting sequence depends on initial conditions and a random number generator. Stochastic algorithms do not guarantee finding the GMEC sequence, but they can always find an approximate solution or a set of solutions. This may be sufficient, considering that simplifying assumptions in the energy function and in modeling protein flexibility inevitably result in uncertainty in defining the best protein sequence. In contrast, deterministic algorithms always produce the same solution given the same parameters. Many, but not all, of the deterministic algorithms are guaranteed to find the GMEC sequence if they converge. However, convergence is not guaranteed and the frequency of convergence is reduced...

Meteorology Of Neptune General circulation and zonal structure

The atmosphere of Neptune is powered by extremely low energy fluxes. Internal heat energy flux is estimated to be 0.45 Wm-2 (Table 3.2) while the absorbed solar flux is estimated to be 0.27Wm-2, compared with values of 0Wm-2 and 205.5Wm-2, respectively, for the Earth. However, the cloud top zonal winds on Neptune are found to be very high with an extremely fast westward retrograde equatorial jet reaching speeds of 400 ms-1, gradually decreasing in the poleward direction and becoming eastward and prograde at latitudes poleward of 50 . It has been postulated that such high winds are allowed because the atmosphere of Neptune has low turbulence and thus low eddy viscosity. The general zonal wind structure is similar to that of Uranus, as we saw in Section 5.2.2, and why the equatorial jets of both planets should be blowing in the opposite direction to that of Jupiter and Saturn is unclear. In some ways it is easier to see how a retrograde equatorial jet is driven than a prograde,

Magnetic Resonance Imaging MRI

Normally, these protons are randomly aligned throughout the body (Figure 3.49A). When a strong external magnetic field is applied (B0), the protons are forced into alignment with the overwhelmingly more powerful external field. They tend to align either parallel (low energy) or antiparallel (higher energy) to the field (Figure 3.49B). Parallel and antiparallel pairs cancel each other out. Since nature favors a lower-energy state, there will be a greater number of parallel protons. This imbalance leaves a remainder of protons available for imaging (Figure 3.49C), and aligned with B0, but out of phase (Figure 3.50). In a 1.5 T magnetic field, approximately 7 out of every 1 x 105 hydrogen protons will remain. That may not seem like many, but since humans are made up of 70 -80 water and there are 1 x 1023 hydrogen atoms per cubic centimeter, there are literally millions of individual hydrogen protons available for imaging, though the overall number is dependent...

Box Old Red Sandstone Fishes Of Scotland

Fossil fishes occur in the Scottish Old Red Sandstone both as scattered fragments and in great concentrations within 'fish beds'. Mortality horizons, single layers containing high concentrations of fish carcasses, seem to have formed during deoxy-genation events that may have occurred every 10 years or so when the lake was deepest. Repeated mortality events of this kind occurred over thousands of years, and built up major fish beds in several places. These could have either followed an algal bloom, when decaying algae removed oxygen from the water, or a severe storm that stirred up deep anoxic waters to the surface. Other likely causes of fish kills in the Old Red Sandstone lakes include rapid changes in salinity and cold shock. The carcasses floated for some time near the surface, buoyed up by gases of decay. After a few days the gas escaped, possibly by rupturing the body walls, and the carcasses fell to the anoxic lake-floor where they were buried by fine sediments. This process...

Nuclear Propulsion Current Scenarios

Had this roadmap indeed been implemented in the US (and the publicity given to nuclear propulsion seemed to indicate it would have) US investment in nuclear propulsion would have grown rapidly. In juxtaposition, it should be noted that, with the exception of the Atomic Energy Agency in the UK, and CEA in France, the EU has no prior expertise in this area, and this state of affairs will be a major consideration when and if the EU starts looking at the nuclear option for future space mission architectures. For the time being, aside from some studies, ESA has decided to investigate the issue of NP in the context of manned Mars missions, where architectures based on chemical rockets show all their shortcomings. At the same time ESA still favors chemical propulsion for the Mars probes planned under its Aurora program Gilles, 2004 . The US were interested instead in several different concepts based on NP, among them a reusable nuclear space tug'' to quickly raise satellites from LEO to GEO....

Atlas Ii

In May 1988 the Air Force issued Martin Marietta a contract to launch 10 DSCS-III satellites, starting in 1992. However, as the Atlas-Centaur could put only 2.3 tonnes into geosynchronous transfer orbit this required the development of an upgraded vehicle. This Atlas II had the uprated MA-5A power plant on which the auxiliary chambers were replaced by RS-27 engines, a stretched tankage, and a longer Centaur to increase the capacity to 2.8 tonnes, sufficient for a DSCS-III with an Integrated Apogee Boost Subsystem. The inaugural launch of the Atlas II on 7 December 1991 deployed Eutelsat 2F3, and the first DSCS-III went up on 11 February 1992.


Oxygen offers an additional advantage to organisms not mentioned in the text. The easy availability of oxygen lifted constraints on maximum metabolic rate that limit the metabolism of aquatic animals. A speeded up metabolism, along with an ability now to refrigerate the body, made possible the metabolic life style of endothermy or warm-bloodedness. A large portion of an endother-mic animal's energy consumption is devoted strictly to the production of heat. Having an internal source of heat enabled animals to elevate and begin to regulate body temperature at the high and steady levels that characterize mammals and birds.


In air, obviously, the buoyant forces are much weaker and structures capable of supporting the organism's weight are essential. These structures do not come free. Cellulose, which is the principal supporting structure of plants, is essentially glucose, which must be manufactured by photosynthesis. The chitins that support the bodies of arthropods likewise are largely made of sugars. The production of mineralized supporting structures, like bones or shells, also incurs energy costs in the gathering and transport of the minerals. Finally, the bodies of some organisms, like earthworms, are supported by the internal pressure of fluids, which forms a so-called hydrostatic skeleton. Maintaining the high internal pressures needed to operate a hydrostatic skeleton incurs the costs of powering the heart muscles.


To select the computational protein design method to be applied to a particular problem, the final goal must be kept in mind. If one is interested in obtaining a small set of low energy protein sequences, as is typically the case, then all methods except for self-consistent mean field (SCMF) can be readily applied. On the other hand, for combinatorial library design, only the SCMF and BP algorithms were originally

Gamma rays

There are different mechanisms responsible for exciting nuclei and leading to gamma radiation. Quite commonly, alpha and beta decays can leave the nucleus in an excited state. An alpha decay is usually followed by the emission of low-energy 7 quanta ( 0.5 MeV), while after a beta decay higher 7 quanta are emitted (energy up to 2-2.5 MeV) Mukhin, 1987 .

Galileo probe

The low energy of the launcher then required Galileo to make one Venus and two Earth flybys to reach Jupiter. Although this trajectory afforded two asteroid flybys, the thermal design reworking needed to protect the spacecraft in the inner solar system led inadvertently to the failure of the high-gain antenna deployment mechanism, which drastically reduced the downlink performance during the scientific mission.

Battery technology

So-called primary batteries, where chemical energy is irreversibly converted into electrical power, typically have much higher energy densities than rechargeable or secondary batteries. For low-energy missions, such as planetary atmosphere probes, primary batteries are often the system of choice. They are convenient in that they impose few ancillary requirements such as attitude, and are robust.

Especially Bears

During winter, the giant panda's survival in its cold, wet mountainous habitat is enhanced by the superb insulation provided by short, thick fur. It has no tolerance for heat, in part because of its lack of capacity for passive heat loss or evaporative cooling (Lumpkin & Seidensticker, 2002). Unlike its bear counterparts, the giant panda does not hibernate, probably because of the need to forage throughout the year for its low-energy diet of bamboo. One of its most unique features is its adaptation from carnivory to herbivory while amazingly retaining the digestive system of the former. The result is the need to spend 14 hours of each day searching, selecting and consuming bamboo (Lumpkin & Seidensticker, 2002).

Off to the Moon

For a few minutes, as they raced away at about 10 kilometres per second, the crew passed through the van Allen belts, where they received a small dose of radiation. The Apollo flights represent the only example of human spaceflight through and beyond the van Allen radiation belts into interplanetary space. These belts consist of diffuse volumes around Earth within which radiation levels are elevated by the planet's magnetic field trapping energetic particles from the Sun. There is an inner torus populated by energetic protons, which the spacecraft passed through in a matter of minutes, and which was largely shielded against by the spacecraft's skin. The spacecraft took about an hour and a half to traverse the more extensive outer torus, but because this region has mainly low-energy electrons, it was less of a worry to mission planners. Over a complete mission, including exposure to very energetic particles encountered in the solar wind environment beyond Earth's magnetosphere, crews...

F ring New satellite

It had been predicted that charged particles flowing back and forth along Saturn's magnetic field lines would be absorbed where the lines were intersected by the main ring system. The peak intensity for low-energy magnetospheric electrons had been encountered at about 7 radii, mid-way between the orbits of Rhea and Dione.12 The predictions were accurate as Pioneer 11 continued to close on the planet after passing through the ring plane, the counts of charged particles of all energies fell to zero at 2.292 radii, as it passed into the 'magnetic shadow' of the 'A' ring, and for a while it documented the most benign radiation environment in the Solar System.13

Backbone flexibility

Deviated from the parent backbone and concluded that the protein design method is robust enough to tolerate significant amount of perturbation to the backbone. However, the nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) structure of a design with a large translational perturbation of the helix along the sheet axis had backbone that was closer to the parent backbone than the designed. A recent study by Fu and cowork-ers used normal mode calculations for helices to parameterize the backbone of Bcl-xL (Fu et al. 2007). Based on a study that shows that backbone movement on a helix can be mostly captured by three low energy modes, they generated multiple backbones using normal mode analysis. Self-consistent mean field method was used to prune the rotamer library and then sequences were designed onto the Despite many significant achievements in the past incorporating backbone flexibility into protein design, myriad challenges lie ahead. The infinite complexity of the sequence and structural space and the...


In addition to dietary shifts, all lemur species appear to be able to deal with the season of scarce resources by conserving energy (Ganzhorn, 1993 Morland, 1993b Wright and Martin, 1995 Schmid and Ganzhorn, 1996 Warren and Crompton, 1997 Nash, 1998 Schmid, 1998a,b Thalmann, 2001). Extreme responses to winter season are seen in small-bodied lemurs. Cheirogaleus spp. go into hibernation for 4-6 months every year (Wright and Martin, 1995 Schmid, 1998a Fietz and Ganzhorn, 1999 Dausmann et al., 2004) and Microcebus also enter torpor for several days at a time (Fietz, 1998 Schmid, 1998b Atsalis, 1999). Lepilemur ruficaudatus has the lowest basal metabolic rate recorded for any folivorous mammal (Schmid and Ganzhorn, 1996). Additional lemur traits that can promote energy conservation are thick insulating fur, increased resting behavior, maintenance of small group size, birth of low-weight infants, and relatively small brain size (Wright, 1999).


Perfected the recipe for getting E. coli to do all three things as fast as possible. The warm, oxygen-rich, overfed life E. coli enjoys in the lab favors individual microbes that can breed quickly. But it bears little resemblance to E. coli's normal existence. Although each person eats about sixty tons of food in a lifetime, E. coli may starve for hours or days. When it does get the chance to eat, it may be presented with a low-energy sugar barely worth the effort it takes to break down. E. coli may have to compete with other microbes for every molecule. At the same time, it must withstand assaults from viruses, predators, and man-made dangers such as antibiotics. Its host may become ill, devastating its entire habitat. One of the best ways to withstand all these catastrophes is to join forces with other E. coli.

The Lugworm Feedlot

It is worth asking just how the worm benefits from this enormous mobilization of energy. After all, the worm does all this work to construct a burrow and then pump oxidant into the sediment. Most of the energy that is mobilized in fact goes to benefit other organisms, not the worm. This is evident from a comparison or the energy consumed in respiration by the worm and by the various organisms in its surroundings. In feeding burrows of Nereis, another polychaete worm, the worm itself accounts for only about 10 percent of the total energy consumption. The rest is consumed by the vast community of other things mooching off the oxidant introduced by the worm roughly 30 percent goes to things living in the lining of the burrow (mostly nitrogen fixers and sulfide oxidizers) and roughly 60 percent goes to things living in the sediments surrounding it (sulfate reducers mostly). So, what's in it for the worm So lugworms essentially are using the redox potential gradient in an anaerobic mud to...


Diatomite Structure Valves Girdle

Rare coccoliths first appeared in the Late Tri-assic and increased in numbers during the Jurassic and Cretaceous the group peaked in the Late Cretaceous, and chalk from that interval is almost entirely composed of these nannofossils. Only a few species survived the end-Cretaceous extinction event but they radiated again during the Cenozoic, recovering their numbers and abundance. However, in the last 4-5 myr there has been a marked decline in the abundance of larger coccoliths and, as a result, they have become less abundant in oceanic sediments, typically forming only 10-30 of modern calcareous oozes. Biostratigraphic zonal schemes using cocco-lithophores have been established from the Jurassic to the present day, and these are widely applied because they are reliable and operate over great distances. Moreover, basic biostratigraphic analyses of coccolithophore samples can be carried out rapidly, typically requiring less than an hour per sample. This is because nannofossils are...


Micraster Fossil Aboral And Oral View

Strates and in caves and crevices on the sea-floor these sea urchins may have been omnivores, carnivores or herbivores. Irregular forms display a range of adaptations appropriate to an infaunal mode of life where burrows were carefully constructed in low-energy environments. Extreme morphologies were developed in the sand dollars or Clypeasteroidea, permitting rapid burial just below the sediment-water interface in shifting sands. Echi-noids generally lived in shallow seawaters, but some went deeper the timing of this move offshore has been controversial (Box 15.6).

Ayaks Hypersonic

Ajax Mhd Hypersonic

For a cruise system the total heat load can be an order of magnitude greater than for an atmosphere-exit trajectory, so some form of continuous energy management is required to prevent the airframe thermal capacitor from absorbing excess energy Anon., 1970 . The heat capacity of some of the reformed hydrocarbon fuels can be greater than hydrogen. From the Szames article the heat of formation is given as 62,900 kJ kg or 59,620 Btu lb for the case of reformed methane. In the case of Ajax the thermal energy is not discarded but used to create thrust. As indicated in the Introduction, the Ajax system is an energy management system that minimizes the shock losses (entropy rise of the total aircraft system in hypersonic flight) and makes converted kinetic energy available for applications. The fraction of the thrust energy provided by the recovered aerodynamic heating reported in the Russian references, 30 , is in agreement with prior analyses Czysz, 1992 Ahern, 1992 .


Not only is oxygen in water scarce, it is expensive to extract. Whenever an animal extracts oxygen from either water or air, it must move the fluid past a gas exchange organ, either a gill or lung. This means doing work on the fluid to pump it past the gas exchanger obviously, the less fluid that has to be pumped, the lower the energy costs for pumping will be. Air is the clear winner here, because only about 3 percent as much of it must be pumped to extract the same quantity of oxygen from water. Air is also easier to pump, because it is about a thousand times less dense than water, and less viscous. The bottom line is that the costs of breathing are considerably less for animals that breathe air (roughly 0.5-0.8 percent of total energy expenditure) than it is for animals that breathe water (5-20 percent of total energy expenditures). The much lower overhead means that air breathers have more energy left over to make babies.


Analysis in the Cleveland-Lloyd Quarry tested this hypothesis by plotting bone orientations to determine the energy level in the environment. For example, a low-energy environment, such as a watering hole, may have caused a random orientation of bones. In contrast, a higher-energy environment, such as a river, should show preferred orientations of the long bones, such as limb bones (Chapter 7). The result of the analysis was that the bones show a weak orientation along a preferred direction, which is evidence supporting some current orientation. These data thus may mean that at least some allosaurid body parts in the Cleveland-Lloyd deposit are allochthonous and represent an assemblage that was averaged over time and crossed multiple generations of allosaurids.


The Low-Energy Charged Particle (LECP) experiment had two instruments on a rotating mount. The low-energy magnetospheric particle analyser incorporated eight solid-state detectors that could discriminate electrons from ions and, between them, were sensitive to charged particles with energies from 10 eV to 15 keV. It was to investigate the composition of the plasmas in interplanetary space and in planetary magnetospheres.9 Its name notwithstanding, the Low-Energy Particle Telescope was to investigate the solar wind by extending the energy range to several millions of electron volts (the top end of the PLS range was several thousands of electron volts).

Atlas Agena

The decommissioned Atlas-D missiles were fitted with Agena upper stages for use as space launchers. As the Agena was stretched to carry more propellant, and its engine was made both more powerful and capable of being restarted in space, it became available in A, B and D models (the planned C model was cancelled). The Atlas-Agena-A employed the MA-2 power plant.14 Two of four launches failed. On the first launch, on 26 February 1960, the Agena with the first satellite for the Missile Defense Alarm System (MIDAS) failed to separate from its booster, but the second was inserted into orbit on 24 May. On 11 October the Agena with the first of the Satellite and Missile Observation System (SAMOS) satellites failed, but the second was launched on 31 January 1961. The Atlas-Agena-B had the MA-3 power plant.15 Of 28 launches between 12 July 1961 and 21 March 1965, eight suffered problems. On 23 August 1961, on the second mission, the Agena attained low 'parking orbit' and then failed to restart...

Died of other causes

Some of the particles have as much energy as a tennis ball moving at 300 kilometres per hour - they travel nearly as fast as light. Scientists divide cosmic rays into two groups low-energy and high-energy rays. Low-energy rays are produced in supernovas, the giant exploding stars. Scientists are not yet sure of the source of high-energy rays they think some of them come from neutron stars. Wherever they come from, how could they kill the dinosaurs

Box Turbidite timing

Child Naked

One clear distinction in the Welsh Basin ichnofaunas was probably the result of minor turbidite activity at the toe of spreading fans. Pre-turbidite and post-turbidite assemblages have been identified, representing the trace fossils that are formed in normal background times, and those that were formed after a turbidity flow event. Before the flow, Orr (1995) identified an assemblage of surface trails and shallow burrows. After the passage of a low-energy turbidite flow, the top layers of the existing sediment were stripped off, casting the deeper pre-turbidite burrows as convex hyporeliefs on the sole of the turbidite sand. After the flow had waned, a post-turbidite trace fossil assemblage was developed within the turbidite sand (Fig. 19.6e).

Th Floor Space

The problem with tracks is that they wear out relatively quickly because they need to be thin enough to be able to bend around the rollers. Also there is a lot of friction involved in track systems, making them much less energy-efficient than wheels for high-speed travel. A more practical design may therefore use wheels instead of tracks. A promising concept is the capstan design, which wedges a cable between a series of wheels (Fig. 6.5).

Modern Animals

The largest avenue of water efflux in amphibians is evaporative water loss across the moist and permeable skin. It can range from 3 to 160 of body mass per day (Tracy, 1975), depending on body size, ambient conditions of temperature, wind, and insolation, and on exposure of the animal to these conditions. Water evaporation via lungs and eyes is small relative to skin evaporation. Fecal water losses are determined by the dehydrating capability of the large intestine, which is moderate, and by food consumption, which depends on energy needs. Because amphibians have relatively low energy and food needs, fecal water losses are small relative to evaporative losses. Similarly, water losses via glandular secretions are typically small, but may be large on occasion (Lillywhite, 1971). Water lost as urine can be substantial, ranging from zero to 60 of body mass per day, depending on species and hydration state (Shoemaker and Nagy, 1977). The majority of nitrogenous wastes are excreted via this...

The Origin of Mass

The discovery of E mc2 marked a turning point in the way physicists viewed energy, for it taught us to appreciate that there is a vast latent energy store locked away inside mass itself. It is a store of energy much greater than anyone had previously dared imagine The energy locked away in the mass of a single proton is approaching 1 billion times what is liberated in a typical chemical reaction. At first sight it seems we have the solution to the world's energy problems, and to a degree that may well be the case in the long term. But there is a fly in the ointment, and a big one too It is very hard to destroy mass completely. In the case of a nuclear fission power plant, only a very tiny fraction of the original fuel is actually destroyed the rest is converted into lighter elements, some of which may be highly toxic waste products. Even within the sun, fusion processes are remarkably ineffective at converting mass into energy, and this is not only because the fraction of mass that is...

More examples of K

Imagenes Pircen

In the early Cenozoic times, forests of the extinct tree Pinus succinifera flourished on a landmass south of the Samland region. During the Oligocene the area was flooded and the resin from the trees was washed out and redeposited in marine sediments in the Samland area. These sediments have been reworked and the amber was subsequently redeposited in areas along the shores of the Baltic Sea. As amber has a low density it can be carried by water and is generally deposited in low energy environments such as lakes, submarine basins, and estuaries.

Ptw Energy Mail

Activity cycle of, 135-137 and climatic variability, 140-141 evolution of, 148-151 and interspecific competition, 144-145 in lemuridae, 134 meaning of, 133 in other mammals, 145-148 predatory behavior in, 143-144 primates with, 135 Cebus spp., 70 Cebus albifrons, 125 Cebus apella, 50-51, 125 Cebus olivaceus, 404 Ceiba pentandra (plant), 142 Cephalostachyum cf. perrieri (plant), 373 Cephalostachyum spp. (plant), 373 Cercocebus albigena, 125 Cercopithecus ascanius, 125 Cercopithecus ascanius schmidti, 359 Cercopithecus mitis, 125 Cercopithecus mitis stuhlmanni, 359 Cheirogaleidae, see Lemurs, families of Cheirogaleid-lorisid synapomorphies, 8 Cheirogaleus major, 85, 113 Cheirogaleus medius, 29, 85, 99 biological rhythms of, 106 ectothermic pattern of body temperature in, 102-104 energy conservation, during

The Fluid Approach

In addition to the EUV-DGCPM comparisons conducted in the earlier studies, Liemohn et al. (2006) also included comparisons against in-situ plasmaspheric observations. Specifically, densities and velocities were calculated from the low-energy ion population as measured by the Magnetospheric Plasma Analyzer (MPA) instruments onboard the geosynchronous LANL satellites.

Chapter Solar Energy

The only significant non-solar sources of energy are the tides (the Sun, though undoubtedly much larger than the Moon, is so distant that its pull is only half as strong as the Moon's), geothermal heat - heat from the Earth's interior - and nuclear power. An estimate by the International Energy Agency put their respective contributions to global energy consumption in 2006 at a pathetic 0.0004 for tidal power, 0.06 for wind and a thousand times more but still only 0.4 for geothermal. Nuclear accounted for 6.5 . Fig. 8.1 Area required to meet electricity needs of the EU and the World in 2007 using solar thermal power plants (after www.desertec.org fullneed.html) Fig. 8.1 Area required to meet electricity needs of the EU and the World in 2007 using solar thermal power plants (after www.desertec.org fullneed.html)

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