Acknowledgments

Research into the evolution of photosynthesis is funded by a grant to REB from the NASA Exobiology Program. JRR is supported by a Lawrence Fellowship at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory.

References

Allen, J.F. (2005). A redox switch hypothesis for the origin of two light reactions in photosynthesis. FEBS Lett. 579: 963-968.

Anbar, A.D., and Knoll, A.H. (2002). Proterozoic ocean chemistry and evolution: a bioinorganic bridge? Science 297: 1137-1142.

Beale, S. (1999). Enzymes of chlorophyll biosynthesis. Photosynth. Res. 60: 43-73.

Blankenship, R.E. (1992). Origin and early evolution of photosynthesis. Photosynth. Res. 33: 91-111.

Blankenship, R.E. (1994). Protein-structure, electron-transfer and evolution of prokaryotic photosynthetic reaction centers. Antonie van Leeuwenhoek 65: 311-329.

Blankenship, R.E. (2002). Molecular Mechanisms of Photosynthesis. Oxford, Blackwell Science, Oxford.

Blankenship, R.E., and Hartman, H. (1998). The origin and evolution of oxygenic photosynthesis. Trends Biochem. Sci. 23: 94-97.

Brasier, M.D., Green, O.R., Jephcoat, A.P., Kleppe, A.K., van Kranendonk, M.J., Lindsay, J.F., Steele, A., and Grassineau, N.V. (2002). Questioning the evidence for Earth's oldest fossils. Nature 416: 76-81.

Brocks, J.J., Logan, G.A., Buick, R., and Summons, R.E. (1999). Archean molecular fossils and the early rise of eukaryotes. Science 285: 1033-1036.

Brocks, J.J., Love, G.D., Summons, R.E., Knoll, A.H. Logan, G.A., and Bowden, S.A. (2005). Biomarker evidence for green and purple sulphur bacteria in a stratified Palaeoproterozoic sea. Nature 437: 866-870.

Buick, R. (1992) The antiquity of oxygenic photosynthesis—evidence from stromatolites in sulfate-deficient Archean lakes. Science 255: 74-77.

Büttner, M., Xie, D.L., Nelson, H., Pinther, W., Hauska, G., and Nelson, N. (1992). Photosynthetic reaction center genes in green sulfur bacteria and in photosystem 1 are related. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U S A 89: 8135-8139.

Canfield, D.E. (1998). A new model for Proterozoic ocean chemistry. Nature 396: 450-453.

Chen, M., Telfer, A., Lin, S., Larkum, A.W.D., Barber, J., and Blankenship, R.E. (2005). The nature of the Photosystem II reaction centre in the chlorophyll d containing prokaryote, Acaryochloris marina. Photochem. Photobiol. Sci. 4: 1060-1064.

Des Marais, D.J. (2000). Evolution. When did photosynthesis emerge on Earth? Science 289: 1703-1705.

Dismukes, G.C., and Blankenship, R.E. (2005). The origin and evolution of photosynthetic oxygen production. Photosystem II: The Water/ Plastoquinone Oxido-Reductase in Photosynthesis. T. Wydryzynski and K. Satoh, eds. Dordrecht, Springer, pp. 683-695.

Dismukes, G.C., Klimov, V., Baranov, S.V., Kozlov, Y.N., DasGupta, J., and Tyryshkin, A. (2001). The origin of atmospheric oxygen on Earth: the innovation of oxygenic photosynthesis. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U S A 98: 2170-2175.

Doolittle, R.F. (1986). Of Urfs and Orfs: A Primer on How to Analyze Derived Amino Acid Sequences. Mill Valley, CA, University Science Books.

Fedo, C.M., and Whitehouse, M. J. (2002). Metasomatic origin of quartz-pyroxene rock, Akilia, Greenland, and implications for Earth's earliest life. Science 296: 1448-1452.

Ferreira, K., Iverson, T., Maghlaoui, K., Barber, J., and Iwata, S. (2004). Architecture of the photosynthetic oxygen-evolving center. Science 303: 1831-1838.

Grotzinger, J.P., and Knoll, A.H. (1999). Stromatolites in Precambrian carbonates: evolutionary mileposts or environmental dipsticks? Annu. Rev. Earth Planetary Sci. 27: 313-358.

Guda, C., Lu, S., Scheeff, E.D., Bourne, P.E., and Shindy-alov, I.N. (2004). CE-MC: a multiple protein structure alignment server. Nucleic Acids Res. 32: W100-103.

Knoll, A.H. (2003). The geological consequences of evolution. Geobiology 1: 3-14.

Knoll, A.H., Summons, R.E., Waldbauer, J.R., and Zumberge, J.E. (2007). The geological sucession of primary producers in the oceans. Evolution of Primary Producers in the sea. P.G. Falkowski and A.H. Knoll, eds. Boston, Elsevier, pp. 133-163.

Kopp, R.E., Kirschvink, J.L., Hilburn, I.A., and Nash, C.Z. (2005). The paleoproterozoic snowball Earth: a climate disaster triggered by the evolution of oxygenic photosynthesis. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. US A 102: 11131-11136.

Lepland, A., van Zuilen, M.A., Arrhenius, G., White-house, M.J., and Fedo, C.M. (2005). Questioning the evidence for Earth's earliest life—Akilia revisited. Geology 33: 77-79.

Liebl, U., Mockensturm-Wilson, M., Trost, J.T., Brune, D.C., Blankenship, R.E., and Vermaas, W. (1993). Single core polypeptide in the reaction center of the photosynthetic bacterium Heliobacillus mobilis: structural implications and relations to other photosystems. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U S A 90: 7124-7128.

Lockhart, P., Steel, M., and Larkum A. (1996). Gene duplication and the evolution of photosynthetic reaction center proteins. FEBS Lett. 385: 193-196.

Mathis, P. (1990). Compared structure of plant and bacterial photosynthetic reaction centers—evolutionary implications. Biochim. Biophys. Acta 1018: 163-167.

Mauzerall, D. (1992). The Granick hypothesis— porphyrin biosynthesis and the evolution of photosynthesis. Photosynth. Res. 33: 163-170.

Mauzerall, D. (2007). Oceanic Photochemistry and evolution of elements and cofactors in the early stages of the evolution of like. Evolution of Primary Producers in the Sea. P.G. Falkowski and A.H. Knoll, eds. Boston, Elsevier, pp. 7-19.

McEvoy, J.P., Gascon, J.A., Batista, V.S., and Brudvig, G.W. (2005). The mechanism of photosynthetic water splitting. Photochem. Photobiol. Sci. 4: 940-949.

Michaelis, W., Seifert, R., Nauhaus, K., Thiel, V., Blumenberg, M., Knittel, K., Gieseke, A., Peterknecht, K., Pape, T., Boetius, A., Amann, R., Jorgensen, B.B.,

Widdel, F., Peckmann, J.R., Pimenov, N.V., and Gulin, M.B. (2002). Microbial reefs in the Black Sea fueled by anaerobic oxidation of methane. Science 297: 1013-1015.

Mojzsis, S.J., Arrhenius, G., McKeegan, K.D., Harrison, T.M., Nutman, A.P., and Friend, C.R.L. (1996). Evidence for life on Earth before 3,800 million years ago. Nature 384: 55-59.

Olson, J.M. (2006). Photosynthesis in the Archean Era. Photosynth. Res. 88: 109-117.

Olson, J.M., and Blankenship, R.E. (2004). Thinking about the evolution of photosynthesis. Photosynth. Res. 80: 373-386.

Olson, J.M., and Pierson, B.K. (1987). Evolution of reaction centers in photosynthetic prokaryotes. Int. Rev. Cytol. 108: 209-248.

Rappaport, F., Guergova-Kuras, M., Nixon, P.J., Diner, B.A., and Lavergne, J. (2002). Kinetics and pathways of charge recombination in photosystem II. Biochemistry 41: 8518-8527.

Raymond, J., and Blankenship, R.E. (2004a). Biosyn-thetic pathways, gene replacement, and the antiquity of life. Geobiology 2: 199-201.

Raymond, J., and Blankenship, R.E. (2004b). The evolutionary development of the protein complement of Photosystem 2. Biochim. Biophys. Acta 1655: 133-139.

Raymond, J., Zhaxybayeva, O., Gogarten, J.P., Gerdes, S.Y., and Blankenship, R.E. (2002). Whole-genome analysis of photosynthetic prokaryotes. Science 298: 1616-1620.

Raymond, J., Siefert, J.L., Staples, C.R., and Blankenship, R.E. (2004). The natural history of nitrogen fixation. Mol. Biol. Evol. 21: 541-554.

Rosing, M.T. (1999). 13C-Depleted carbon microparti-cles in >3700-Ma sea-floor sedimentary rocks from west Greenland. Science 283: 674-676.

Rosing, M.T., and Frei, R. (2004). U-rich Archean sea-floor sediments from Greenland—indications of >3700 Ma oxygenic photosynthesis. Earth Planet. Sci. Lett. 217: 237-244.

Rost, B. (1999). Twilight zone of protein sequence alignments. Protein Eng. 12: 85-94.

Russell, M.J., and Arndt, N.T. (2005). Geodynamic and metabolic cycles in the Hadean. Biogeosciences 2: 97-111.

Sadekar, S., Raymond, J., and Blankenship, R.E. (2006). Conservation of distantly related membrane proteins: photosynthetic reaction centers share a common structural core. Mol. Biol. Evol. 23: 2001-2007.

Sauer, K., and Yachandra, V. (2002). A possible evolutionary origin for the Mn-4 cluster of the photosyn-thetic water oxidation complex from natural MnO2 precipitates in the early ocean. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U S A 99: 8631-8636.

Schidlowski, M. (1988). A 3,800-million-year isotopic record of life from carbon in sedimentary-rocks. Nature 333: 313-318.

Schidlowski, M., Appel, P.W.U., Eichmann, R., and Junge, C.E. (1979). Carbon isotope geochemistry of the 3.7 x 109-yr-old Isua sediments, west Greenland—implications for the Archaean carbon and oxygen cycles. Geochim. Cosmochim. Acta 43: 189199.

Schopf, J.W. (1993). Microfossils of the early Archean apex chert—new evidence of the antiquity of life. Science 260: 640-646.

Schubert, W.D., Klukas, O., Saenger, W., Witt, H.T., Fromme, P., and Krauss, N. (1998). A common ancestor for oxygenic and anoxygenic photosynthetic systems: a comparison based on the structural model of photosystem I. J. Mol. Biol. 280: 297-314.

Summons, R.E., Jahnke, L.L., Hope, J.M., and Logan, G.A. (1999). 2-Methylhopanoids as biomar-kers for cyanobacterial oxygenic photosynthesis. Nature 400: 554-557.

Tian, F., Toon, O.B., Pavlov, A.A., and De Sterck, H. (2005). A hydrogen-rich early Earth atmosphere. Science 308: 1014-1017.

Tice, M.M., and Lowe, D.R. (2004). Photosynthetic microbial mats in the 3,416-Myr-old ocean. Nature 431: 549-552.

Tice, M.M., and Lowe, D.R. (2006). Hydrogen-based carbon fixation in the earliest known photosynthetic organisms. Geology 34: 37-40.

van Zuilen, M.A., Lepland, A., and Arrhenius, G. (2002). Reassessing the evidence for the earliest traces of life. Nature 418: 627-630.

Xiong, J., Fischer, W.M., Inoue, K., Nakahara, M., and Bauer, C.E. (2000). Molecular evidence for the early evolution of photosynthesis. Science 289: 1724-1730.

Yanyushin, M., del Rosario, M., Brune, D., and Blankenship, R.E. (2005). A new class of bacterial membrane oxidoreductases. Biochemistry 44: 10037-10045.

Zerkle, A.L., House, C.H., and Brantley, S.L. (2005). Biogeochemical signatures through time as inferred from whole microbial genomes. Am. J. Sci. 305: 467-502.

This page intentionally left blank

+1 0

Post a comment