Index

diversity of, 148

early versus late reproduction, 156-162 iteroparity versus semelparity, 154-156 life-span, 149-153

offspring number versus size, 163-165 life span elephant, 40 evolution of, 149-153 fruit fly, 28

Methuselah flies, 150-153 trade-offs and risks, 149-150 linkage, 78-79, 104 Linnaeus, Carolus (taxonomist), 126 lions, infanticide in, 193-194 lipid, 284

Lively, Curt (biologist), 198-199 locomotion, bipedal, 256, 258 locus description, 47-48 epistatic interactions, 100-101 Lucy (Australopithecus afarensis), 258-259

macroevolution, 12 malaria, 19, 270 male-female conflict, 192-195 male-male competition, 189-192 mammoths, Wrangle Island, 320 manatee, 330, 331 map, fitness, 95-98

mapping, quantitative loci (QTL mapping),

103-104 marker gene, 104 mate choice, 117, 185 mating, nonrandom, 70 Matrix protein, influenza, 313-314 Matthews, Crystal (biologist), 200 maximum likelihood, 139 maximum parsimony analysis, 139-142 Medawar, Peter Brian (biologist), 151 medicine multigenetic traits, 101 role of evolutionary biology in, 21 meiotic drive, 173-174

memory, immune, 299

Mendel, Gregor ("Father of Genetics"), 53

mental illness, 102-103

messenger RNA (mRNA), 44

Messenger, Sharon (biologist), 217

metabolic thriftiness, 222

metabolic trade-offs, 151, 153

metamorphic rocks, 32

meteor impact theory, 318

methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus

(MRSA), 276 Methuselah flies, 150-153 Mexican salamander, 227-228 mice, selection for fast, 82 microevolution, 12 microfossils, 325-326 milk production, quantitative genetics of, 100

Miller, Stanley L. (chemist), 37 mineralization, 34 missing link, 338-339 mistletoe, seed dispersal, 214 mitochondria endosymbiosis theory, 333 function, 52 mitochondrial DNA, 52, 264 Mitochondrial Eve, 262-264 moa, 138

molecular clock, 244-247 molecular evolution coding DNA, 240-242 genome size, 234-236 molecular clock, 244-247 neutral theory of, 243 non-coding DNA, 237-240 molecular genetics, 40 Molineux, Ian (biologist), 217 Moller, Andres (biologist), 189 monophyletic group, 132-133, 140 mRNA (messenger RNA), 44 MRSA (methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus), 276 Muir, William (biologist), 173 Muller, Hermann Joseph (geneticist), 199 Muller's Ratchet, 199-200

Mullins, James (biologist), 295 multicellularity, 181-182 multigenic traits, 99-102 mutagen, 63 mutation antibiotic resistance, 273-274, 275 back, 279 cancer causing, 64 causes of, 63, 67 combining rare beneficial, 197 compensatory, 278-279 deletions, 66-67 description, 63-64 in development genes, 223-224 during DNA replication, 63 effects of, 13 fixation, 90-91, 200, 243 in gametes, 63 heritable, 64 influenza, 300 insertions, 66 in mitochondrial DNA, 264 molecular clock, 244-245 molecular genetics, 40 neutral, 18, 90, 91, 243 point, 65, 66

preventing deleterious, 67-68 as random process, 337 selectively advantageous, 64-65, 68 mutation rate HIV, 286, 288, 292, 295 natural selection and, 67-68 trade-offs associated with, 67-68 mutualism, 205-207, 209, 212-215 myxoma virus, 216-217

narrow-sense heritability, 106-107 Native Americans, 94 natural selection action upon phenotype, not genotype, 55, 61-62

adaptations resulting from, 75-76 artificial selection compared, 74

balancing, 75 constraints, 80 Darwin and, 14-16 description, 73 directional, 75

fitness consequences of variation, 62 Galapagos finches, 82-83 genetic drift compared to, 90-91 on human populations, 266-267 island populations, 119 kin selection, 167, 169, 179-180 limits of, 77

mutation rate and, 67-68 mutations, selectively advantageous,

64-65,68 preadaptation (exaptation), 77 runaway-selection hypothesis, 186-187 sexual selection as subcategory of, 184-185

shifting-balance hypothesis, 95, 97-98 speciation, 36-37 stabilizing, 75

strength of, 91, 107-110, 244 survival of the fittest, 16 trade-offs, 80 Neanderthal. See Homo neanderthalensis Neisseria meningitides, 124 neoteny, 227 neuraminidase, 301-302 neutral theory of molecular evolution, 243 Nickle, David (biologist), 295 node, phylogenetic tree, 129-130 nonrandom mating, 70 northern elephant seal, 93 nucleoprotein gene, 301, 302 nucleotide, 41, 44, 66, 234 nucleus, 51

oak tree, reproductive strategy of, 164 offspring clutch size, 163-165 helpers at the nest, 175-176 parental care, 163, 164-165

sterile, 118 variable, 29, 196-197 On the Origin of Species by Means of Natural Selection, or the Preservation of Favoured Races in the Struggle for Life (Darwin), 14, 74, 319, 338 ontogeny recapitulates phylogeny, 225-226 orchid, pollination of, 211, 213 order, 127 origin of life, 37 outgroup analysis, 136 overfishing, effects of, 160-162

pandemic, flu, 305-308 parallelism, 138 parapatric speciation, 119-121 paraphyletic group, 132, 133-134 parasite co-evolution, 208, 213-217 insect parasites of flowers, 213-214 loss of functions in, 22 obligate, 284

offspring-resistance to, 196-197, 198-199 parasitic DNA, 239 parental care, 163, 164-165 parsimony, 139

PCBs (polychlorinated biphenyls), breakdown of, 341 peacocks, sexual selection in, 185-187, 189 peas broad-and narrow-sense heritability in, 107 flower color, 53-54 Mendel's work with, 53-54 penguin clutch size, 165 life history, 148 penicillin, 65, 76, 271, 273 Penicillium chrysogenum, 76, 273 periodic selection, 124 Pfennig, David (biologist), 169 phenotype broad- and narrow-sense heritability,

106-107 definition, 54

environmental effects on, 54, 221 natural selection acting upon, 55, 61-62 relationship to genotype, 48, 54-55, 61 thrifty phenotype hypothesis, 222-223 phenotypic variation, 105-106 pheromone, 191 phi-6 virus, 199-200, 201 photosynthesis, 332 phylogenetic classification, 126 phylogenetic hypothesis, 129 phylogenetic reconstruction description, 251 human evolution, 252-254 phylogenetic tree character states, 135-137 description, 128-129 grouping species, 136-138, 140-142 HIV, 290

maximum parsimony analysis, 139-142 monophyletic group, 132-133, 140 nodes, 139-140 outgroup, 136

paraphyletic group, 132, 133-134 reading, 129-134 reconstructing, 134-142 testing, 138-139 tree length, 141 uses, examples of, 142-144 phylogenetics fruit flies, 246-247 usefulness of, 125-127 phylogeny, 129 phylum, 127 plants acacia, mutualism in, 215

agave, blue, 155-156

Arabidopsis, genome size of, 234, 237

co-evolution with animals, 81, 210-215

competition for sunlight, 207-208

flowering time, 116-117, 120

fruit, 81

genome size, 49 hybrid, 120 junk DNA, 50

oak tree, reproductive strategy of, 164 orchid, pollination of, 211, 213 parapatric speciation, 120

plants (continued) peas, broad-and narrow-sense heritability in, 107

peas, Mendel's work with, 53-54 photosynthesis, 332 pollination, 116, 211-214 seed dispersal, 81, 214 semelparous, 155-156 snapdragons, flower color in, 53 squash, epistasis in, 101 plasmid, 275 plasticity, 181, 223 plate tectonics, 34 pleural cavity, 331 pluripotent cells, 221 point mutations, 65, 66 polarity, character, 135, 136, 139, 140 pollen, microfossil, 325-326 pollination, 116, 211-214 pollinator, 156

polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), breakdown of, 341 polymerase, DNA, 42 population gene flow, 60, 63, 69 genetic drift in small, 89, 92-93 Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium, 69-71 variation within, 60 variations between, 60-61 population bottleneck, 92-93 population genetics, 40 postzygotic isolating mechanisms, 117, 118 potassium-argon dating, 31 potato famine, Irish, 20 preadaptation, 77 preferences, pre-existing, 187-188 prezygotic isolating mechanisms, 117 pronghorn antelope, 208 proofreading, of DNA, 67 protein amino acids, 45 in fossils, 34

function, determining, 51

functions of, 43

point mutations, effect of, 66

pseudo-genes, 242 pterosaurs (pterodactyls), 320-321, 333-334

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