Making out heritable traits just requires knowing a little bit about DNA, genes, and the genetic code — topics covered in more detail in Chapter 3. This knowledge of genetics allows researchers to measure gene frequencies. Today, scientists can do more than just observe that evolution has happened; instead, they can determine the specific genes involved and measure the rates at which the genes' frequencies change in populations where different selective forces are at play. Scientists' knowledge of exactly what is going on gives them a much richer understanding of the process and allows them to ask far more detailed questions than Darwin could.
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