Ndex

good-gene hypothesis, 188 Gould, Stephen Jay (evolutionary biologist), 79 gradualism, 29-30 Grand Canyon, formation of, 30 Grant, Peter and Rosemary (ecologists), 83 gravity, 24-25 group selection, 170-173 guanine, 41

guppy, life-history studies of, 157-160

Haeckel, Ernst (evolutionary theorist), 225, 226

Haemophilus influenzae, 235, 237 half-life, 31 hallucigenia, 324 handicap hypothesis, 189 haploid organism, 234 Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium deviations from, 69-70 equations, 71 using, 70-71 Harriet (giant tortoise), 149 Hawaiian Islands fruit fly biogeography, 246-247 as speciation hot-spot, 123 hawthorn, 121 heavy water, 31 height as continuous quantitative character, 102 heritability of, 105-106 measuring strength of selection, 107-110 helper T cell, 287 hemagglutinin, 301-302 hemoglobin, 19 hemophilia, 103 herbivory, defenses against, 81 heritability broad-sense, 106-107 narrow-sense, 106-107 of quantitative trait, 104-107 heritable characters, 14 heritable variation, 59-63, 69 hermaphrodites, 201, 203

heterochrony, 226-227 heterozygous, 48 Hillis, David (biologist), 138-139 hitchhiking, 78-79

HIV. See human immunodeficiency virus HMS Beagle (Darwin's ship), 14 Holland, Brett (biologist), 194 hominid definition, 254 fossils, 254-260 migration patterns, 261-263 Homo erectus, 256, 257, 259 Homo floresienses, 260 Homo habilis, 256, 257 Homo neanderthalensis, 252, 260-261 Homo sapiens. See human evolution homologous characters, 225-226 homology, 137 homoplasy, 137-138, 142 homozygous, 48 Hong Kong flu, 307 horizontal transfer, 217, 274 horses, seed dispersal by, 81 host-specificity, 301 Hox genes, 229-231 human evolution African origin, 261-264 Australopithecus afarensis, 258-259 bipedal locomotion, 256, 258, 259 brain size, 256, 258, 259 cultural, 267-268 dentition, 257, 258 fossils, 254-260 founder effects, 94 Homo erectus, 256, 257, 259 Homo floresienses, 260 Homo habilis, 256, 257 Homo neanderthalensis, 252, 260, 261 junk DNA, 50, 51, 253 Mitochondrial Eve, 262-264 natural selection within Homo sapiens, 265-267

phylogenetic reconstructions, 252-254 reconstructing history of, 257-260 species, distinguishing between, 256-257 Human Genome Project, 50

human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) disease course, 291-293 drug resistance, 21 evolution in the patient, 292-295 evolutionary history of, 21 general description, 286-287 history of epidemic, 288-291 integration into host chromosome, 287 mutations, 286, 288, 295-296 origin of, 289-291 phylogenetic studies, 143-144 receptors, 287, 294 recombination, 295 resistance to, 294 T cells as targets, 287, 292 vaccine development, 295-296 X4 variants, 293 Huxley, Thomas (evolutionary biologist), 320

hybrid embryos, 118 Hymenoptera species, eusociality in,

179-180 hypothesis definition, 26 falsifiable, 27 formulation of, 26 testing, 26-27

icons, used in text, 6 ID (intelligent design), 339-342 igneous rocks, 32 immune system, 298-299 inbreeding, 70

inclusive fitness, 167, 168, 175-176 infanticide, 193-194 influenza Asian flu, 306 evolution of, 300-305 genetic reassortment, 300-301 hemagglutinin, 301-302 Hong Kong flu, 307 host-specificity, 301, 302, 303 immune system and, 298-299 matrix protein, 313-314

neuraminidase, 301-302 nucleoprotein gene, 301, 302 pandemics, 305-308 Russian flu, 307 Spanish flu, 306, 307 types, 299-300 vaccines, 30-314 waterfowl strains, 302-305 Inherit the Wind (film), 3 insects. See also specific types eusociality in, 179-181 plant pollination, 211-214 insertion, 66

intelligent design (ID), 339-342 ionizing radiation, 63 iridium, 318 Irish potato famine, 20 irreproducible complexity, 328 isotopes, 30-31 iteroparity, 154

jellyfish, Cnox genes of, 231 junk DNA amount of, 50, 51 composition of, 50 human genome, 50, 51, 253

kin selection, 167, 169, 179-180 kingdom, 127

lactose intolerance, 266 landscape, adaptive, 95 lateral gene transfer, 240-241 lava, 31, 32

Lewontin, Richard C. (evolutionary biologist), 79 lice, 265 life, origin of, 37 life history aging, 151, 165, 166 definition, 147

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