Other cooperative breeding behaviors

The groove-billed ani is a kind of cuckoo that lives primarily in Central and South America. These birds live in small groups (between one and five pairs) within a single nest. They all help defend territory, provide food, sit on the eggs, and feed the young. But this isn't an avian utopia. Before they lay their own eggs, the females make room for their own eggs by kicking others' eggs out.

The ani engages in cooperative breeding, but it isn't an example of kin selection because the helpers are other reproducing birds; they don't forgo or delay their own reproduction to help the others. Even with the problems of this system (the danger of your eggs getting tossed by another female, for example), each reproducing pair produces more offspring than it otherwise would have.

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