R

rabbits, in Australia, 216-217 race, 113

radiation, as mutagen, 63, 64 radioisotope dating, 30-32 random event coin toss example, 87, 89 description, 86-87 as evolutionary force, 337 at gamete level, 88-89 Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium and, 70 at individual level, 87-88 reassortment, genetic, 300-301 receptor, 287 recessive allele, 48 reciprocal altruism, 177-178

recombination, 295, 301 Red Queen hypothesis, 209 redundancy, in genetic code, 13, 18 relatedness, degree of, 168, 180 Remember icon, 6 replication, DNA, 42, 63, 67 reproduction. See also sexual reproduction asexual, 68, 184, 195, 196 bacterial, 203 clonal, 196

early versus late, 156-162 hermaphrodites, 201, 203 iteroparous, 154

offspring number versus size, 163-165 parental care, 163, 164-165 plant, 210-214 semelparous, 154-156 sex ratio, 200-203 trade-off between survival and, 153 viral, 199-200, 201, 285, 286 reproductive isolation founder effects, 94 fruit fly experiment, 122 island environments, 123 mechanisms, 115-116, 117-118 partial, 113 postzygotic, 118 prezygotic, 117 ring species, 37, 112, 114-115 speciation and, 112, 115, 338 between subspecies, 113 resistance to disease, 266-267 Resnick, David (biologist), 157-160 resource partitioning, 163 retroelements, 239-240 retrovirus, 239, 286, 290 reversal, 138

reverse transcriptase, 286, 288 ribonucleic acid (RNA) DNA compared, 44 messenger (mRNA), 241 non-protein-coding, 46 protein-coding, 44-45 ribosomal RNA (rRNA), 46 transcription, 44

transfer RNA (tRNA), 46 translation, 236 virus, 199, 239, 286, 300 ribosomal RNA (rRNA) function, 46

as tool for evolutionary biology, 46 ribosome, 46

Rice, William (biologist), 194

ring species, 37, 112, 113-115, 338

RNA. See ribonucleic acid rock, types of, 32

Rolland, Morgane (biologist), 295

Rose, Michael (biologist), 151-153

roundworm, 50

rRNA. See ribosomal RNA

runaway-selection hypothesis, 186-187

Russian flu, 307

salamander development, 227-228 kin selection in, 169 ring species, 114 salmon, reproductive strategy of, 148, 150,

154-155 San Marco, spandrels of, 79 schizophrenia, 102-103 Schmidt Sting Pain Index, 215 Schrag, Stephanie (biologist), 278-279 science language of, 25-26 method of investigation, 26-27 thought experiment, 166 thought processes of scientists, 25-27 scientific investigation (scientific method), 26-27

scientist, thought processes of, 25-27 scramble competition, 191 sea anemone, mutualism and, 206-207 seals male-male competition in, 191 population bottleneck, 93 second law of thermodynamics, 336

sedimentary rock, 32 seed dispersal, 81, 214 selection. See also natural selection artificial, 15, 74, 82, 152-153, 159 direction of, 170, 174 directional, 75 at gene level, 173-174 groups, 170-173

Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium, deviation from, 69 kin, 167, 169, 179-180 levels of, 170-174 periodic, 124 relaxation of, 267

runaway-selection hypothesis, 186-187 sexual, 184-192 stabilizing (balancing), 75 strength of, 91, 107-110, 244 selection experiment, 153 selective agent, 74 selective sweep, 124

selectively neutral trait, 18, 79, 90, 151, 243 self-fertilization, 116, 120 semelparity, 154-156 semen, toxic, 192, 194-195 seminal plug, 192 sequential hermaphrodism, 203 seroarchaeology, 306 sex ratio, 200-203 sexual reproduction advantages of, 195-200 definition, 184 in diploid organisms, 53 evolution of separate sexes, 202 gametes, 53

hermaphrodites, 201, 203 male-female conflict, 192-195 sexual selection description, 184-185 female choice, 185-189 good-genes hypothesis, 188 handicap hypothesis, 189 male-male competition, 189-192 runaway-selection hypothesis, 186-188 as subcategory of natural selection, 184-185

sexy-sons hypothesis, 187 shifting-balance hypothesis, 95-98 sickle cell anemia, 19 sight, evolution of, 328-329 simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV),

143, 289 smallpox, 266-267

snails, parasite resistance in, 198-199 snapdragon, flower color in, 53 sneaky strategy, 192, 193 social systems, altruistic, 175-182 somatic tissue, 63

sooty mangabeys, as HIV-1 origin, 289, 290 spandrels of San Marco, 79 Spanish flu, 306, 307 spatial separation, as reproductive isolation mechanism, 117 speciation allopatric, 118-119 components of, 115-118 Darwin and, 16-17 definition, 12, 111 Galapagos finches, 35-36 islands as hot spots of, 123 natural selection and, 36-37 parapatric, 119-121

phylogenetic tree representation of, 128 reproductive isolation, 112, 115, 117-118,

sympatric, 121-122 species biological-species concept, 112 in classification scheme, 127 concept for bacteria, 123-124 definitions of, 37, 112 ecological, 124

grouping in phylogenetic tree, 136-138,

140-142 phenetic, 124 protecting endangered, 20 ring, 37, 112, 113-115, 338 subspecies, 113 variations within, 60, 113 sperm competition, 191-192, 193 spiders, in amber, 326 spores, microfossil, 325-326

squash, epistasis in, 101 stabilizing selection, 75 Staphylococcus aureus, 124, 269, 276 stem cells, 221

stickleback, sexual selection in, 188

stop codons, 45

stratigraphy, 30

stromatolites, 324-325

sturgeon, reproductive strategy of, 163-164

subspecies, 113

survival of the fittest, 16

swordtails, mating preference in, 188

symmetry, bilateral, 231

sympatric speciation, 121-122

Technical Stuff icon, 6 teeth, 327-328 terminal taxa, 130 termites, eusociality in, 181 tetrapods, 36 theory definition, 26 evolutionary, 335-336 fact compared to, 24-25 gravitational, 24-25 thermal vents, 332-333 thermodynamics, second law of, 336 thought experiment, 166 thrifty genotype hypothesis, 223 thrifty phenotype hypothesis, 222-223 thymine, 41

Tiktaalik rosea, 36, 322-323 Tip icon, 6

tortoise, life span of, 149 trade-off adaptations as, 80 definition, 149

DNA replication speed and accuracy, 67 life-history components, 150 between survival and reproduction, 153-165

trait. See also character continuous, 102 multigenic, 99-102 non-continuous, 102 quantitative, 99, 101-107 selectively neutral, 18, 79, 90, 151, 243 Tran, Thutrang (biologist), 200 transduction, 275 transfer RNA (tRNA), 46 transformation, 275 transitional life form, 35 translation, 236 transposable element, 240 tree frog, Caribbean, 228 tree of life, 125. See also phylogenetic tree trilobite, 321-322 triploid organism, 198 tRNA (transfer RNA), 46 tuberculosis, 280-281 Tyrannosaurus rex, 34

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