Sewell Wright (1889-1988) was a key founder of the science of population genetics, and his shifting-balance hypothesis is one of the coolest hypotheses about how evolution might work in certain circumstances. This hypothesis says natural selection and genetic drift can work together to allow populations to reach higher fitness.
To help visualize how this might work, you need to get cozy with an especially slippery concept called the adaptive landscape (or fitness landscape). It's slippery even for professional evolutionary biologists, but of course that's part of the fun!
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