The process in which a single-stranded RNA molecule is produced from a double-stranded DNA molecule is called transcription. The details of the transcription process aren't important for the purposes of this discussion (you can thank me later for sparing you), but the gist of it is that the double-stranded DNA molecule unwinds a bit, and a single-stranded RNA molecule is produced by copying one of the strands.
The four nucleotides that make up RNA line up to match the order of the DNA nucleotides, as follows:
ii A (from RNA) lines up with T (from DNA). I C (from RNA) lines up with G (from DNA). I G (from RNA) lines up with C (from DNA). I U (from RNA) lines up with A (from DNA).
In this way, the four-letter alphabet of DNA is transcribed into the four-letter alphabet of RNA.
Different regions of DNA produce RNA transcripts with different functions. Some of the RNA transcripts code directly for the production of proteins, and other types of RNA transcripts don't code for proteins themselves, they just help the process along.
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