V

vaccine, influenza dead, 308-309 definition, 308

designing next year's, 311-313 live, 309-311 universal, 313-314 vampire bats, reciprocal altruism in,

177-178 variation additive and non-additive, 105, 106 determining phenotypic, 105-106 environmental, 106 fitness consequences of, 62

variation (continued) genotypic, 61 heritable, 59-63, 69 importance to evolution, 62 mutations, 63-68 non-heritable, 62 in offspring, 196-197 phenotypic, 61 within population, 60 between populations, 60-61 as property of groups, 105 within a species, 60, 113 vertical transfer, 217, 274 vestigial organ, 342 virulence, 215-217

virus. See also human immunodeficiency virus (HIV); influenza antivirals, 270, 272 genome, 237, 285, 286 as living microorganism, 284-285 myxoma, 216-217 phi-6, 199-200, 201 phylogenetic tree for, 138-139 reproduction, 199-200, 201, 285, 286 retrovirus, 239, 286, 290

smallpox, 266-267 transduction by, 275 virulence, 216-217

Walsh, Matthew (biologist), 161-162 wasps eusociality in, 179, 180 fig pollination by, 212-213 waterfowl flu, 302-305 When Worlds Collide (film), 94-95 Wilkinson, Gerald (biologist), 177-178 Wrangle Island mammoths, 320 Wright, Sewell (population geneticist), 95

Y chromosome, 264

yeast, number of genes in genome of, 50, 235

zygote, 220

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