Or is it? If it were, the eye would be terrible at seeing, and it is not. It is actually very good. It is good because natural selection, working as a sweeper-up of countless little details, came along after the big original error of installing the retina backwards, and restored it to a high-quality precision instrument. It reminds me of the saga of the Hubble Space Telescope. You'll remember that, when it was launched in 1990, the Hubble was discovered to possess a major flaw. Owing to an undetected fault in the calibration apparatus when it was being ground and polished, the main mirror was slightly, but seriously, out of shape. The telescope was launched into orbit, and then discovered to be defective. In a daring and resourceful move, astronauts were dispatched to the telescope, and they succeeded in fitting it with what amounted to spectacles. The telescope thereafter worked very well, and further improvements were effected by three more servicing missions. The point I am making is that a major design flaw -catastrophic blunder, even - can be corrected by subsequent tinkering, whose ingenuity and intricacy can, under the right circumstances, perfectly compensate for the initial error. In evolution generally, major mutations, even if they cause improvements in generally the right direction, almost always require a lot of subsequent tinkering - a sweeping-up operation by lots of small mutations that come along later and are favoured by selection because they smooth out the rough edges left by the initial large mutation. This is why humans and hawks see so well, despite the blundering flaw in the initial design. Helmholtz again:
For the eye has every possible defect that can be found in an optical instrument, and even some which are peculiar to itself; but they are all so counteracted, that the inexactness of the image which results from their presence very little exceeds, under ordinary conditions of illumination, the limits which are set to the delicacy of sensation by the dimensions of the retinal cones. But as soon as we make our observations under somewhat changed conditions, we become aware of the chromatic aberration, the astigmatism, the blind spots, the venous shadows, the imperfect transparency of the media, and all the other defects of which I have spoken.
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