Illustrations In Text

Figures in the text on the following pages were redrawn by HL Studios: 90, 149 (both), 153, 166, 167, 168 (both), 173 (both), 176, 177, 186, 187, 189, 191, 192 (both), 193, 196, 222, 225, 227, 228, 230, 231, 232, 287, 289, 290, 294 (both), 295 (both), 300 (all), 302, 304, 307, 343, 346, 347 (both), 350 (both), 354, 357 and 365.

Individual credits:

page 7: 'I still say it's only a theory', cartoon by David Sipress from the New Yorker, 23 May 2005: © The New Yorker Collection 2005 David Sipress from All Rights Reserved. pages 40 and 42: Computer-generated images courtesy the author.

page 55: Hamburgh fowl, Spanish fowl and Polish fowl, from Charles Darwin, The Variation of Animals and Plants under Domestication, 1868.

page 57: Kabuki mask of a samurai warrior, detail of a 19th-century woodblock by Utagawa Toyokuni III, photo courtesy Los Angeles Natural History Museum. Heikea japonica, a male collected in Ariake Bay, off Kyushyu, Japan, 1968, width 20.4mm, photo Dick Meier, courtesy Los Angeles Natural History Museum.

page 67: Two lines of maize selected for high and low oil content, from J. W. Dudley and R. G. Lambert, 'Ninety generations of selection for oil and protein in maize', Maydica 37 (1992) 81-7. page 68: Two lines of rats, from H. R. Hunt, C. A. Hoppert and S. Rosen, 'Genetic factors in experimental rat caries', in R. F. Sognnaes, ed., Advances in Experimental Caries Research (Washington DC: American Association for the Advancement of Science, 1955), 66-81.

page 75: Dmitry Belyaev with laboratory foxes, Novosibirsk, Russia, March 1984, photo RIA Novosti; inset photo from D. K. Belayev, 'Destabilizing selection as a factor in domestication', Journal of Heredity 70 (1979), 301-8.

page 112: Graph from A. C. Brooks and I. O. Buss, 'Trend in tusk size of the Uganda elephant', Mammalia 26: 1 (1962), 10-34.

page 115: Diagram from A. Herrel, B. Vanhooydonck and R. van Damme, 'Omnivory in lacertid lizards: adaptive evolution or restraint', Journal of Evolutionary Biology 17 (2004), 974-84. page 116: Photograph of caecal valve, from A. Herrel, B. Vanhooydonck and R. van Damme, 'Omnivory in lacertid lizards: adaptive evolution or restraint', Journal of Evolutionary Biology 17 (2004), 974-84; photo courtesy Anthony Herrel.

pages 123 (both), 125 and 127: Lenski experiment, diagrams from R. E. Lenski and M. Travisano, 'Dynamics of adaptation and diversification: a 10,000-generation experiment with bacterial populations', Proceedings of the National Academy ofSciences 91 (1994), 6808-14.

page 140: Lingula: 'Recent specimen of the brachiopod Lingula with long pedicle emerging from the 5 cm long valves of the phosphatic shell', © Natural History Museum, London. Lingulella, engraving © Natural History Museum, University of Oslo.

page 153: Eomaia scansoria, Chinese Academy of Geological Sciences (CAGS), redrawn from Qiang Ji, Zhe-Xi Luo, Chong-Xi Yuan, John R. Wible, Jian-Ping Zhang and Justin A. Georgi, 'The earliest known eutherian mammal', Nature 416 (25 April 2002), 816-22.

page 166: Eusthenopteron, after S.M. Andrews and T.S. Westoll, 'The postcranial skeleton of Eusthenopteron foordi Whiteaves', Transactions of the Royal Society of Edinburgh 68 (1970), 207-329. page 167: Ichthyostega, after Per Erik Ahlberg, Jennifer Clack and Henning Blom, 'The axial skeleton of the Devonian tetrapod Ichthyostega', Nature 437 (1 Sept. 2005), 137-40, fig. 1. Acanthostega, after J. A. Clack, 'The emergence of early tetrapods', Palaeogeography, Palaeoclimatoogy, Palaeoecology 232 (2006), 167-89.

page 168: Panderichthys, reconstruction after Jennifer A. Clack.

page 171: Diagram from D. R. Prothero, Evolution: What the Fossils Say and Why it Matters, copyright © 2007 Columbia University Press. Reprinted with permission from the publisher. page 173 (below): Reconstructed composite skeleton of Pezosirenportelli. Lateral view, length roughly 2.1 m. Shaded elements are represented by fossils; unshaded elements . . . are not. The length of the tail, and the form and posture of the feet are partly conjectural. After D. P. Domning, 'The earliest known fully quadrupedal sirenian',Nature 413 (11 Oct. 2001), 626-7, fig. 1.

page 177: Diagram modified from W. G. Joyce and J. A. Gauthier, 'Palaeoecology of Triassic stem turtles sheds new light on turtle origins', Proceedings of the Royal Society of London 271 (2004), 1-5. page 204: Sahelanthropus tchadensis, reconstruction by © Bone Clones. page 205: Skull of a foetal chimpanzee, reconstruction by © Bone Clones. page 206: Baby and adult chimpanzee, photos courtesy Stephen Carr, from Adolf Naef, 'Uber die Urformen der Anthropomorphen und die Stammesgeschichte des Menschenschadels', Die Naturwissenschaften 14: 21 (1926), 472-7. Original photos by Herbert Lang taken during the American Natural History Museum Congo Expedition, 1909-15.

page 222: Three kinds of virus, after Neil. A. Campbell, Jane B. Reece and Lawrence G. Mitchell, Biology, 5th edn, fig. 18.2, p. 321. Copyright © 1999 by Benjamin/Cummings, an imprint of Addison Wesley Longman, Inc. Reprinted by permission of Pearson Education, Inc. page 227: Neurulation diagram, courtesy PZ Myers.

pages 242-3: Cellular family tree of Caenorhabditis elegans,

page 259: Map of the Galapagos archipelago, from Charles Darwin, Journal of Researches, 1st illus.

edn, 1890, © The Natural History Museum, London.

page 266: Forest trees on St Helena, by courtesy of Jonathan Kingdon.

page 275: 'South America Secedes', cartoon by John Holden from Robert S. Diets, 'More about continental drift', Sea Frontiers, magazine of the International Oceanographic Foundation, March- April 1967.

page 289: Pterodactyl skeleton, after P. Wellnhofer, Pterosaurs (London: Salamander Books, 1991). page 292: Polydactylic horse, from O. C. Marsh, 'Recent polydactyle horses', American Journal of Science, April 1892.

page 295: Okapi skeleton, after a drawing by Jonathan Kingdon.

page 301: Thylacine skull, S. R. Sleightholme and N. P. Ayliffe, International Thylacine Specimen Database, Zoological Society of London (2005).

page 304: Bdelloid rotifer, after Marcus Hartog, 'Rotifera, gastrotricha, and kinorhyncha', The Cambridge Natural History, vol. II (1896)

page 309: 'Various species of crabs and crayfishes', from Ernst Haeckel, Kunstformen der Natur (18991904)

pages 311-12: diagrams from D'Arcy Wentworth Thompson, On Growth and Form (1917) page 327: 'Hodgkin's Law', courtesy Jonathan Hodgkin.

page 329: Phylogenetic tree, from David Hillis, Derrick Zwickl and Robin Gutell, University of Texas at Austin, page 347: Anhanguera: after John Sibbick.

page 349: Female Thaumatoxena andreinii silvestri, from R. H. L. Disney and D. H. Kistner, 'Revision of the termitophilous Thaumatoxeninae (Diptera: Phoridae)', Journal of Natural History (1992) 26: 95391.

page 361: Diagram from R. J. Berry and A. Hallam, The Collins Encyclopedia of Animal Evolution (1986)

page 363: Giraffe dissection, photo Joy S. Reidenberg PhD. page 364: Diagram after George C. Williams.

Every effort has been made to trace copyright holders. Should any have been overlooked, the publishers would be pleased to hear from them so that appropriate acknowledgement may be given in future editions.

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