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Page numbers in italic refer to illustrations in the text. Page nos in bold refer to illustrations in the colour sections.

Page numbers refer to the printed version - page links direct to the first pages of the corresponding chapter.

Acanthostega, 167-8 Adam and Eve, 7-8, 23, 213-14, 404n, 1 Adams, Douglas, 345 Africa: age of rocks, 279-80; antelopes, 380; continental drift, 16, 273-4; elephants, 111, 113; Eocene beds, 171;

human ancestry, 183-4, 185-6, 188, 196; lakes, 266-7; monkeys, 269-70; moths, 50;

tectonic plate, 276-7, 280, 281-2; trees, 265-6 Ahlberg, Per, 167 AL 444-2 skull, 188- 9 Al-Nasr Trust, 436 Alexander, Mrs C. F., 212n Ambulocetus, 171-2

America, see South America, United States of America amino acids, 235-7, 241, 418 amphibians, 151, 164-9, 227 Anabas, 366 ancestor, single, 408-10 Ancestor's Tale, The, 165-6, 368 angler fish, 60-1, 62, 63, 64 Anguilla, 257-8, 261 Anhanguera, 347, 348 Answers in Genesis, 185, 436 antelopes: DNA, 392; hooves, 292; legs, 70; risk-taking, 72; running, 380-1, 384, 30 antibiotics, 132-3, 301 antibodies, 316-17, 406-7 ants, 349-50, 400, 401, 29 apoptosis, 221 ara gene, 119-22

Archaeopteryx, 151, 159-61

Ardipithecus, 204

armadillos, 269, 299

arthromorphs, 41, 216n, 423

arthropods, 425

Ascension Island, rats, 31-2, 279 Atkinson, Will, 313 Atlas of Creation, 154 atomic theory, 91-5 Australia: birds, 272; Eucalyptus, 267; fossils, 273; Gondwana, 273, 282; koalas, 369;

marsupials, 268, 270, 289, 300; orchids, 78; river turtle, 173 Australopithecus: afarensis, 188-90, 203; africanus, 189-90, 193, 203; brain size, 197, 205; creationist view, 204; evolution, 205, 207; fossils, 199, 201, 202-3; genus, 190, 192, 194; habilis (rudolfensis), 193-4; human ancestry, 195-7, 205, 207; name, 190-1, 192, 194, 195, 202-3 bacteria: borrowing of DNA, 301, 303, 328n; chloroplasts, 376-7;

evolutionary change, 116-17, 119, 123-6, 130, 131-2; Lenski E. coli experiment, 117-31; mitochondria, 377; parasite of, 223;

resistance to antibiotics, 132- 3, 301; thermophilous, 419 baobab tree, 23 bats: in Antipodes, 270;

biblical classification, 298n; featherless, 297, 303; flight, 348, 27; pollinators, 47, 48; skeleton, 287 -9, 291, 312-13, 27 Bathylychnops, 175-6 Beagle, 265n, 270

bees: parasite of, 350;

relationship with plants, 48-9, 51, 53-4, 77, 78-9, 4 -5; vision, 51 beetles, 350 Belloc, Hilaire, 86n Belyaev, Dimitri, 73-6, 75 Bergson, Henri, 404n biomorphs, 39-41, 40, 216n, 313-14, 423 bipedalism, 188-9, 367-8 birds, 159-61; flightless, 344-5; reptiles and, 151, 159-61 Blair, Tony, 5

Blind Watchmaker, The, 148, 216n, 422 Blind Watchmaker program, 40-1 Blixen, Karen, 186 Blount, Zachary, 130 blueprints, 214-15, 221 blue-footed booby, 24 Blyth, Edward, 31 Bohr, Niels, 92 Boltzmann, Ludwig, 416n Boyle's Law, 366 brain: capacity and power, 402; memory, 408; size, 185, 187, 197, 205; surface, 343 Brenner, Sydney, 244, 246n, 389n Britain: opinion polls, 7, 106, 431-5; science teaching, 4; views on creationism, 106, 436-7 British Charity Commission, 436n Buckland, William, 395 Bush, George W., 16 butterflies, 30, 48, 51, 52, 53

cabbages, 27, 67, 2 cadherins, 234-5 caecum, 115-16

Caenorhabditis elegans, 242 -3, 243-7, 253 Cairns-Smith, Graham, 419 Cambrian Explosion, 147-9 Cambrian period, 98-100, 141 camouflage, 134-6 canaries, 55-6

carbon, 103-7;

carbon-14, 94, 95, 102-6 Carboniferous period, 101, 164-7, 414 Cartesian Diver, 366-7 caterpillars, 59-60 cathedrals, 217 cats, 321, 381 cattle, 37-8, 39, 70, 292, 2 cells: adhesion molecules, 234-5; chemical factory, 241-2; division, 226, 245-6; family tree, 243-5, 247; founder cells, 246-7; genes, 242-3; infrastructure, 239, 13; modelling, 229-35; multiplication, 229; nucleus, 241-2 Censky, Ellen, 257-8 cheetahs, 298, 380-1, 383-6 chickens, 27, 55

chimpanzees: ancestry, 153-4, 187, 188, 204; brain size, 187, 188-9, 197, 205; genome project, 316; hair standing on end, 340; infant and adult, 205-7, 206;

relationship to humans, 8, 26, 150-1, 155-6, 183, 187, 317-21, 323-5; skull, 187, 205, 310, 312; walking on two legs, 368 chloroplasts, 376-7

Christian views on evolution, 4-8, 434, 436 cichlids, 135-6, 138, 266-7

CIPA (congenital insensitivity to pain with anhidrosis), 394

Clack, Jenny, 167

clade selection, 424-5

cladists, 159-60

climate change, 368

Climbing Mount Improbable, 41, 216n, 416, 425 clocks: carbon-14, 103-6; molecular, 107, 330-6; radioactive, 87, 91-8, 101-3, 106; timescales, 85-8;

tree rings (dendrochronology), 88-91, 105, 106, 330 Clostridium difficile, 132 co-evolution, 80-1 Coates, Michael, 167

coelacanths, 140, 162, 163-4, 170 cold, common, 391-2 Collins, Francis, 246n colour vision, 50-1 colugo, 27

Conan Doyle, Arthur, 404 Concerned Women for America, 198 conchomorphs, 41-2, 423 Conservapedia, 131 continental drift, 16, 273-4, 275, 281 Coppinger, Raymond, 35, 71, 73, 76 coral: islands, 271; fish, 80-1, 266; reefs, 90

cormorants, flightless, 170, 260, 345, 28

Cott, Hugh, 382

cows, see cattle

Coyne, Jerry, 171, 283, 356n crabs, 56-9, 57, 305, 307 -8, 310

cranefly, 346

Creation Museum, Kentucky, 436 creationist views: of Australopithecus, 204; of Cambrian Explosion, 148; of chance, 124-5; of dating, 94, 100-1; of Dubois, 185; of evolution, 9-10;

of fossil record, 100-1, 145, 147-9, 283, 297; of Lenski research, 117, 124-5, 128, 131; in opinion polls, 431-2, 437; of origin of life, 418; of patterns of resemblance, 296-7; of plate tectonics, 282-3; of pseudogenes, 332-3; of Second Law of Thermodynamics, 415; of spontaneous generation, 418 Cretaceous period, 98-9, 101, 279, 348 Crick, Francis, 30n, 244, 319, 409 crocodiles, 298-9 cross-fertilization, 47-9 crustaceans, 305-8, 309, 358, 424 crystals, 223-4 cuckoos, 400, 401, 30 Currey, J. D., 356 Cuscuta, 304

cytochrome-C, 322, 324, 336

Daeschler, Edward, 168, 169 daisies, 265-6 D'Alberto, Clare, 328, 25 Dart, Raymond, 189, 190-1 Darwin, Charles: on artificial selection, 42; birthday, 360, 364; on blind cave-dwellers, 351; on comparative evidence, 314-15; on coral islands, 271; on Creator and creation, 403-4; on cruelty of nature, 370, 390, 400; The Descent of Man, 183, 196; on domestication, 27-8, 55, 73; on elephants, 111, 326; evolution theory, 9-10, 18, 272; The Expression ofthe Emotions, 340; on frogs, 269; Galapagos map, 258-9; Galapagos visit, 260-3, 265, 270; on geographical distribution, 271-2; on human evolution, 183, 196; on ichneumon wasps, 370, 395, 400; inspiration for natural selection, 17-18, 399n; on land bridge, 273; and Mendel, 29, 31 n; on natural selection, 64, 390, 400, 405; on non-blending of varieties, 30-1; on orchids, 49-50, 52, 77; on origin of life, 417-19;

On the Origin ofSpecies, 18, 26, 27, 28, 314-15, 399-400, 417;

On the Origin ofSpecies (first edition), 64, 183, 403-4;

pigeon breeding, 27, 29, 55;

on proteins, 419-20;

on sexual selection, 54, 62;

on struggle for survival, 401;

on survival and natural selection, 62- 3;

The Variation of Animals and Plants under Domestication, 27, 55; On the Various Contrivances by which Orchids are Fertilised by Insects, 77; The Voyage ofthe Beagle, 261n; world-view, 402-3 Darwin, Erasmus (brother of Charles), 17 Darwin, Erasmus (grandfather of Charles), 399 Darwin, Francis, 404, 417 Darwin, George, 326

darwin, unit of measurement, 330-1 Darwinius masillae, 180, 9 dating, see clocks Davies, Paul, 410 Dawson, Charles, 150n dendrochronology (tree-ring dating), 88-90, 105, 106, 330 Denton, Derek, 370 Denton, Michael, 370n design flaws: eyes, 353-5; koala pouch, 369-70;

recurrent laryngeal nerve, 356, 359-64, 371; sinuses, 370; vas deferens, 364-5 Devonian period, 98-100, 101, 164-9, 10 dinosaurs, 7, 160-1, 270, 306n, 434-5 DNA: as blueprint, 214-15, 248; bonding, 318-20; borrowing, 301, 303; code, 315, 333, 405, 409-10; discovery, 409; evidence, 15-16;

'Genetic Book of the Dead', 179-80; hybridization, 317-20; 'memory', 406-7; natural selection of, 406; replication, 420-1; sequence, 247-8; transformation, 301, 303; viruses, 391-2 dogs: ancestry, 28, 321;

breeds, 27-8, 35-7, 38, 56, 81-2, 3; Darwin on, 27, 29; domestication, 71, 73-4, 76; fox-breeding experiment, 74- 6; gene pools, 33-4, 37; pedigree, 33-5, 257; Penny's family tree, 322, 325; puppies, 35-6; running, 381;

selective breeding, 37-40, 45, 52, 60, 66-7; sniffing, 233; thylacines and, 300; working, 38-9 dolphins, 298-9, 340-3, 29 domestication, 27-8, 53, 65, 71, 73 dorados, 298-9, 340-1

Douglas-Hamilton, Iain, 113 dragonflies, giant, 164 Dubois, Eugene, 184-5 dugongs, 169, 172-3, 176, 180, 342, 11

opinion polls on existence of life on, 430; opinion polls on orbit, 434; orbit, 412-13; rotation, 410-12; satellite, 411-12 earthquakes, 90 Eddington, Arthur, 415 electrons, 92-4 elephants, 111-13, 326

embryology: analogies for development, 221-2, 224-9; apoptosis, 221; biomorph, 40-1, 423; cell adhesion molecules, 234-5; cellular family tree, 243-7; changes in form during development, 207; chimpanzee, 207;

computer model of a single cell, 229-32; constructive enzymes, 240-1; epigenesis, 213, 216; evolvability, 423-5;

flocking behaviour analogy, 219-20, 242;

gastrulation, 226-7, 228, 231;

invagination, 227-9, 231, 232;

koala, 370;

nerve cells, 233-4;

neurulation, 227-8, 231;

numbers of digits, 167;

origami analogy, 224-9, 235;

preformationism, 213-16;

segmentation, 358;

self-assembly, 216-17, 220, 224, 235, 243; shell, 41; wings, 346 Emory University, Atlanta, 434 emus, 344-5 Endler, John, 133-9 enzymes, 235-43, 420-1, 12

Eocene epoch, 98 Eomaia, 153 epigenesis, 213, 216 Escherichia coli, 117, 127-8, 130 essentialism, 21-7 Eucalyptus, 267-8, 22 eugenics, 38, 62n Eurobarometer, 432-5 Eusthenopteron, 166, 168 evening primrose, 51

evolution: British attitudes to, 431-2, 436-7; Christian views of, 4-8, 434, 436; evidence for, 8-9, 99-100; of evolvability, 423-4; fact of, 17-18;

by non-random natural selection, 35, 426;

start of, 416-22;

US attitudes to, 429-30, 432, 434-7 evolutionary change: bacteria, 116-17, 119, 123-6, 130, 131-2; birds, 141; dogs, 37, 81-2; elephants, 111-13; and embryological change, 207; fossil record, 194, 196; guppies, 139; invisible, 16; living fossils, 141; lizards, 116;

minimum amount of, 323; selection as cause of, 66; sexually reproducing populations, 126n; rate of, 331; stages of, 153; timing, 336 exoskeletons, 305, 308, 315 experiment, 66 eye-witness evidence, 14-16 eyes, 351-5, 354

family tree: of all living creatures, 328-40; cellular, 243, 245, 247; evolutionary, 243, 324, 328; of genetic resemblance, 322, 324-5, 328;

of resemblance, 296, 298, 315; of tortoises and turtles, 177 feathers, 297-8 Fermat, Pierre de, 12-13 Fermi, Enrico, 421-2 'First Family', 188 fish: blood vessels, 356-7; brains, 343; cleaners, 80-1; coelacanths, 163-4; definition, 162; DNA, 180; emergence on to land, 161-2, 165; evolution, 424; livebearers, 342; lobe-finned, 162-3, 165; 'missing link' with amphibians, 151, 164-9; swim bladder, 366-7; vagus nerve, 360, 361 Fisher, Ronald, 31n 'fission track dating', 107 fixation, 335-6 flatworms, 148-9 flies, 346, 349 - 50 'flight distance', 71-3 flocking behaviour, 218-20, 229, 16 Focke, W. O., 31n forest, 377-80;

canopy,378-9,383, 31 Forest of Friendship, 379-80, 387 fossils: creationist view, 100-1, 145, 147-9, 283, 297; dating, 97-100, 101; formation, 97;

'living fossils', 139-41, 164; fossil record, 145-50, 194, 198-202, 283-4 foxes, 28, 73-6, 75, 138-9 frogs: ancestry, 152-3; embryo, 227;

geographical distribution, 271; pollinators, 47; species, 424; spine, 298;

tadpole experiment, 233-4 fruit flies, 135, 303, 346

finches, 258, 264, 270; flightless cormorants, 170, 260, 345; giant tortoises, 260, 263-5, 21; hawks, 260; land iguanas, 261-2; marine iguanas, 170, 261-2, 20 -1 mockingbirds, 262-3; name, 56; plants, 262 Gallup polls, 429-30, 434 gastrulation, 226-7, 228, 231 Gauthier, Jacques, 178 gazelles, 381, 383-6 gecko, 7

gene pool: 'arms races', 383, 386; concept, 28-9, 31-3; database of survival instructions, 405-6; divergences, 255-6; domestic dogs, 33-7; fixed genes, 335; genetic variants in, 126n; mutations, 237-8, 250, 335, 352; natural selection, 242, 248-50; speciation, 256-7;

survival and reproduction, 63, 242, 248-50 genes: borrowing, 301, 303; fixed, 335; gene transfer, 303-4; GM foods, 304; hox, 358;

Mendel's law, 29-31; mutant, 237-8, 244, 389; pseudogenes, 332-3, 336; shared genetic material, 317-22; survival of successful, 248-50; tree of genetic resemblances, 322-4; turned on, 241-3, 245-6 Genius ofCharles Darwin, The (Channel Four documentary), 198 genome: bacteria, 117, 128; 'borrowed' genes, 303; C. elegans, 244; in cell nucleus, 242; chimpanzee genome project, 316; Human Genome Project, 246n, 316, 320; modification, 304; mutations, 334-5, 352, 368;

new information entering, 131; Penny study, 325; sequencing, 326-8; sizes, 157-8, 327; species, 256 gill arteries, 356-7, 359 giraffes, 295 -6, 360-4, 370-1 GM foods, 304 gnus, 296, 380 Goldbach Conjecture, 11-12 Gondwana, 275, 276, 281-2, 345 gorilla test, 14-15, 16, 8 gorillas, 115, 159, 183, 317 Gosse, Philip, 214 Gould, Stephen Jay, 140, 150n, 395 gravity, 411 Great Barrier Reef, 266 Great Chain of Being, 150, 155-9 Griffith, Frederick, 301 Guardian, 265n, 436 guppies, 133-9, 6 gypsy moths, 346

hackles, 340 Haeckel, Ernst, 308, 309 haemoglobin: genes, 336;

plant, 304n haemoglobin-A, 322-4 hair standing on end, 339-40 hairpin thought experiment, 24-6 Haldane, J. B. S.: darwin unit, 330-1; on evolution, 147, 211-12, 217, 248-50; on origin of life, 418; population genetics, 31n halteres, 346 -7 Hamilton, W. D., 190n Hardy, G. H., 31n Harries, Richard, 5-6 Head, Jason, 175 Heikea japonica, 56-9 Heinlein, Robert, 70

Helmholtz, Hermann von, 353-4, 355, 356, 371 Heraclitus, 23 heredity, 29—31 hermit crabs, 307-8

Herrel, Anthony, 113-14 Hillis, David, 328-30;

'Hillis plot', 329 hippos, 170

history-deniers, 7-9, 85, 106-7, 150-1, 198, 202-3, 269, 427

Hitler, Adolf, 62n

Hodgkin, Jonathan, 303, 326-7

Homo: ancestry, 192;

classification, 193-4, 196, 202-3; erectus, 185-6,190, 196 -7, 199-201; ergaster, 195, 196-7; floresiensis, 188; georgicus, 186;

habilis, 193-4, 195, 197, 199, 201, 203; heidelbergensis, 197; neanderthalensis, 190, 197; rhodesiensis, 197; rudolfensis, 193-4;

sapiens, 186, 190, 195, 197, 199, 203, 205, 207; sapiens neanderthalensis, 190 homology, 288, 290-1, 312-13 Hooker, Joseph, 390, 404, 417 Horizon (BBC TV series), 431 horses: in America, 292n; diet, 70;

galloping, 298-9; hooves, 291-2; legs, 385; skull, 294 hox genes, 358 Hoyle, Fred, 87n

Hubble Space Telescope, 355, 356 Human Genome Project, 246n, 316, 320 humans: ancestry, 155, 203; bird-fanciers, 55-6; bodybuilders, 37-8,2; brain size, 185, 187, 197; brain surface, 343; cell generations, 245;

and chimpanzees, 8, 26, 150-1, 155-6, 183, 187, 205-7, 317-21, 323-5; culture, 408;

and dinosaurs, 7, 270, 434-5; dog-breeders, 34-7, 42, 45, 81; domestication of animals, 70-1, 73; embryos, 214, 221, 357, 359, 14 -15;

eugenic breeding, 38-9, 62n; evolution, 183, 196, 203; eyes, 353-5; feet, 157, 167; gardeners, 45-7, 53, 61, 81; genome, 316, 333; Great Chain of Being, 155-9; hands, 305, 312; memory, 408;

and monkeys, 155;

opinion poll answers on, 433;

skeleton, 288, 290, 312;

walking on two legs, 187, 197, 367-8 hummingbirds, 48, 51-2, 5 Huxley, Julian, 36, 57-9, 314, 404n hypothesis, 10-11, 66

Ichthyostega, 166- 7 iguanas: on Anguilla, 257-8, 261; on Galapagos islands, 261-2; marine, 170, 180, 261-2 immune system, 316-17, 406-7 impalas, 296 inference, 15-16 insects: clade selection, 424-5; mimicry, 59-60, 350, 7; parasites, 349-50;

relationship with flowers, 46-54, 77-80, 4 -5; segmented body plan, 358; sympatric speciation, 257; wings, 313, 345-7, 349-50 intermediates: ape-man, 184-5, 187, 194, 196-7, 199-200, 202-3, 207; chain of, 23-5; to chelonians, 174;

creationist demand for, 145, 151, 159, 198-9, 202; fish-amphibians, 165, 169, 202; in fossil record, 145, 150-1, 196-7, 199, 201; koalas, 370;

mammal ancestry, 298-9; sunflowers, 47; terrapins, 180; to whales, 169;

wings, 346 invagination, 227-9, 228, 231, 232 Islamic views: of age of earth, 106; of creation, 154, 436-7; of evolution, 151 island gigantism, 264 isotopes, 93, 102-3, 107

Jacob, François, 368 Janet, Pierre, 65-6 Jarvik, Erik, 166-7 Java Man, 184-5, 186, 196 jet engine, 365-6 Johanson, Donald, 117, 188 Jones, Steve, 436 Joyce, Walter, 178 Jurassic period, 98-9

Kaehler, Ted, 41 kakapos, 345, 28 kangaroo, 22 Kimeu, Kamoya, 197 Kimura, Motoo, 332 Kingdon, Jonathan, 367-8 kiwis, 344

KNM ER 1813 skull, 192 -3, 194 KNM ER 1470 skull, 192 -3, 194, 196 koalas, 369-70, 22 Krebs, John, 240, 382

Labradoodle, 34-5 Lamarck's theory, 17 Lang, Herbert, 206

laryngeal nerve, recurrent, 356-7, 360-4, 361, 363, 371

Latimer, Margaret, 163

Leakey, Mary, 189

Leakey, Richard, 197

Lee, Sheila, 206

legs, 385-6

lemurs: dancing sifaka, 23; flying, 290;

population distribution, 269; ringtailed, 23;

walking on two legs, 368 Lenski, Richard, 117-31 Limulus, 141 Lingula, 140 -1, 331 Lingulella, 140 lions, 380-1, 384, 388-90, 30 litopterns, 291-2 lizards: backbone, 298; body temperature, 344; Croatian experiment, 113-16, 115; evolutionary divergence, 114, 116, 255; 'flying', 289- 90 lobefins, 162-3, 165 lobsters, 305, 307 Lorenz, Konrad, 28 Lucy, fossil skeleton, 117, 188-9, 198 lungfish, 162, 164, 170 Lyell, Charles, 183 Lysenko, Trofim, 74

Madagascar, 269, 281-2 magnetic north, 280-1 maize, 67, 134 Malawi, Lake, 266, 267

Malthus, Thomas, 17, 399n mammals: body temperature, 343-4; brains, 343;

dolphins and whales, 342-4; placental, 268, 300-1, 302, 342-3; segmented body plan, 357-8 manatees, 169-70, 172, 342, 11 marsupials, 268-9, 300-1, 302, 22 Martineau, Harriet, 17 Matthew, Patrick, 31 Mayr, Ernst, 21-3, 26 Medawar, Peter, 150n, 158n Mendel, Gregor, 29, 31 Michelangelo, 37 Miller, Stanley, 418-19 millipede, 299-300 Miocene epoch, 98

'missing links', 150-2, 164-9, 173, 180n, 184-5, 187, 197 Mitchell, Graham, 362 mitochondria, 377 moas, 344

monkeys: and earthworms, 156-9;

and humans, 155; platyrrhine, 269; spider, 290-1, 26; walking on two legs, 368 Monod, Jacques, 236n Moore, Gordon, 325 Moore's Law, 325-7 MORI poll, 431-2 Morris, Desmond, 206 Morton, Oliver, 48n moths, 50, 52, 4 - 5 Mrs Ples, 191 -3 MRSA, 132

mutations: in bacteria, 117, 121, 124-30; in C. elegans, 244; change in protein shape, 237; computer simulation, 39-41; D'Arcy Thompson's 'transformations', 310; definition, 35; deleterious, 352-3; dog breeding, 35;

embryological processes, 424, 425n; evolution by natural selection, 130, 249-50; fixation and, 335-6; frequency, 335-6; in genetic code, 409; large and small, 352n, 355, 368; neutral, 332-5; rates, 117, 336 Myers, PZ, 131

natural selection: angler fish, 62, 63; Darwin on, 64; discovery of, 31; of DNA, 406;

favouring competitive individuals, 390;

hindsight, 371;

hypothesis of, 17-18;

start of, 419;

survival and reproduction, 63-4, 405; 'tinkering', 368; tree height, 380;

Wallace on, 64-5 Nature, 172, 174 Neanderthal man, 190 Needham, Joseph, 229n nematode worms, 243-4, 253, 303 Neo-Darwinian Synthesis, 29 neoteny, 36, 207 neurulation, 227 -8, 231-2 neutrons, 92-5

New Zealand, 160, 270, 271, 344-5 Noah: Ark, 268, 269-70;

flood, 100-1, 106, 283 notochord, 227-8 Nova (US TV series), 431n

Odontochelys semitestacea, 174-9, 11

okapis, 295 -6

Oligocene epoch, 98

omphalogy, 214

Oparin, Alexander, 418

Ordovician period, 98-9, 100

origami, 220, 224-9, 232

Orrorin, 204

Oster, George, 229-32

ostriches, 272, 282, 344-5, 28

Owen, Richard, 362

oxygen, 164n, 418

pain, 392-6 Palaeochersis, 178-9 Pan, 194

Panderichthys, 167- 8 Pangaea, 274

Paranthropus boisei, 115n, 190 parasites: arms race, 383, 426, 31; co-evolution, 80-1; DNA information about, 406; of social insects, 349-50; suffering caused by, 391, 401 Pasteur, Louis, 418 peahens and peacocks, 60, 61, 62, 64 Peking Man, 184, 185, 186, 196 penguins, 170, 180, 345

Penny, David, 322, 324-5 periodic table, 92-3 Permian extinction, 140 Permian period, 99, 101 Pew Forum, 430, 434 Pezosiren, 172- 3 pharyngeal arches, 357 pheasants, 54-5, 134, 6 Phoridae, 349 - 50 photons, 376, 379-80 photosynthesis, 376 pigeons, 27, 29, 41, 55 pigs, 38

Piltdown Man, 150

pinnipeds, 172-3

Pithecanthropus erectus, 184-5

Pittendrigh, Colin, 371

placental mammals, 268, 300-1, 302, 342-3

Platyhelminthes, 148-9

platypus, duck-billed, 327, 22

pleiotropy, 76

Plesianthropus, 191-2

Pliny the Elder, 55n

Pod Kopiste, 113-15

Pod Mrcaru, 113-16

pollination, 47-53, 77

population genetics, 31n population thinking, 23

potassium argon clock, 96-7, 102, 106

potassium-40, 96-7, 102, 107

prawns, 305, 307

Precambrian, 149

prudent, 388-90 preformationism, 213-16 primroses, 47

Pringle, J. W. S., 346-7, 348 prions, 236n Proganochelys, 177-9 proof, 10-11 proteins: chains, 236-7;

Darwin's speculation on origins of life, 417, 419-20; molecules, 235-6, 240, 419-20; mutations, 237;

natural selection, 249-50; role as enzyme, 238, 419-20; virus assembly, 223-4 Prothero, Donald, 171 protons, 92-5 pseudogenes, 332-3, 336 pterodactyl skeleton, 288, 289 Puijila darwini, 172-3 puppies, 35-6 Pusey, Harold, 165 Pythagoras' Theorem, 10, 11

rabbits, 22-6, 316-17 radioactive decay, 94-5 rats, 31-2, 67-9, 68 redwood trees, 379 Reidenberg, Joy, 362 Reisz, Robert, 175

reproduction: asexual, 116-17, 118, 126n; sexual, 47, 126n, 301, 405; survival and, 63, 384, 395, 405 reptiles and birds, 151, 159-61 resemblance, patterns of, 296-7, 315 retina, 353-5, 356 reward and punishment, 407-8 Reynolds, Craig, 219-20 Reznick, David, 138-9 Rhamphorhynchus, 347 -8 rhodopsin, 236n Ridley, Matt, 399n risk-taking, 72-3 RNA, 420-1;

'RNA World' theory, 419, 421 rocks: igneous, 96-7;

sedimentary, 97-8 Romer's Gap, 164-5 roses, 45-6, 60, 61 rotifers, bdelloid, 303, 304 running, 380-90 Russell, Bertrand, 13

Sagan, Carl, 12, 58-9 Sahelanthropus, 204 St Helena, 265-6

salamanders, 351-3, 29 San Andreas Fault, 276, 17 Sarich, Vincent, 317 Schafly, Andrew, 131 sea: emergence from, 161-9;

return to 169-70, 173, 176, 180, 299 sea-floor spreading, 275-6, 18 - 19 sea lions, 169, 172-3, 180 seals, 169, 172-3, 180

Second Law of Thermodynamics, 413, 414-15 segmented body plan, 305-7, 357-9, 425 selection: artificial, 28, 39-42, 61, 62, 65-8, 81-2, 422-3, 2; 'group selection', 62n; natural, see natural selection; sexual, 54-5, 62 selective breeding: by females of males, 54-6, 60, 62, 134, 138; by humans, 38-9, 47, 60, 61; of humans, 38-9; by insects, 47-54 self-assembly, 216-17, 220, 224, 235, 243 self-replication, 392, 419 Selfish Gene, The, 349n Shannon, Claude, 416n sharks, 175, 360, 361, 366, 367 Shubin, Neil, 168 Sibson, Francis, 341 Silurian period, 99, 100 Simons, Daniel J., 14-15 Simonyi, Charles, 215n, 403 sinuses, 370 sirenians, 342, 344 skeleton: ancestral, 295-6, 308; exoskeleton, 305, 308, 315; flying creatures, 288-90, 27; homology, 288-93, 312; Lucy, 188;

mammalian, 287-8, 292-3; vertebrate, 289, 293, 305, 308, 315 skulls: adult and infant, 205-7; AL 444-2, 188-9; amphibian, 166, 167; bones in, 293; brain size, 187, 343; chimpanzee, 187, 205;

D'Arcy Thompson's transformations, 310, 311 -312; fish-amphibian, 166;

Georgian Man, 186; gorilla, 115;

horse, 294;

Java Man, 185;

Paranthropus boisei, 115n, 190;

sirenian, 172;

thylacine, 300, 301;

Twiggy, 193

Smith, Adam, 390

Smith, John Maynard, 211, 345

snakes, 298, 299, 391

Social Darwinism, 62n solar: energy, 375-80, 414-16;

system, 413 South America: animals, 272; bees and orchids, 78-9; continental drift, 16, 273-5; Galapagos islands, 258, 260- 1, 264; litopterns, 291-2; monkeys, 269-70; moths, 50;

tectonic plate, 276-8, 281-2 speciation, 256-7 species: database, 406; gene transfer, 303;

geographical distribution, 272-3, 283-4; how new species are born, 254-7; immutability of, 26-7; status, 190 Spencer, Herbert, 65 Sperry, Roger, 233-4 spider monkeys, 290-1, 26 spine, movement of, 298-9, 384 squirrels: flying, 268, 288-90, 302; grey, 304

starlings, flocking behaviour, 218-20, 229, 16

stars, 426

Streptococcus, 301

subduction, 275-6

suffering, 392-3, 401

Sulston, John, 246, 247

sunbirds, 51-2, 5

Sunday Times, 5, 151-2

sunflowers, 46-7, 61, 67, 2 survival: genetic change, 237, 242, 250; natural selection, 384, 392; neutral theory, 332-4; non-random, 42, 63-4, 66, 405-8; 'of the fittest', 65, 395, 401; pain and, 393, 395; selecting agent, 62-3; successful genes, 248 symmetry, 59, 305, 358-60, 425

tadpoles, 233 tameness, 73- 6 Tanganyika, Lake, 266, 267 tarpon, 63, 64 'Tasmanian wolf', 300-1 Taung Child, 189, 190-1 Taylor, Bert Leston, 306n tectonic plates, see plate tectonics teeth, 67-70

Teilhard de Chardin, Pierre, 150n teleosts, 366

terrapins, 174, 180

tetrapods, 166-7

theodicy, 392-3, 401

Thompson, D'Arcy, 308, 310-14, 423

Thompson, Silvanus P., 331n thylacines, 300-1, 302

tides, 411-12

tigers, 391-2

Tiktaalik, 168-9, 10

tortoises, 174-80

transformation, 301, 303

'transformations' (D'Arcy Thompson's), 308-14, 311 - 12 trees: height, 377-80, 383;

rings (dendrochronology), 88-90; on St Helena, 265- 6 trial-and-error process, 407-8 Triassic period, 99, 174, 178 troglobites, 351 turbellarians, 148- 9 Turin Shroud, 105-6 Turkana Boy, 197

Turkey, opinion polls, 432-5

turtles, 173-80

Twiggy skull, 193, 194, 196

Uganda Game Department, 112

United States of America: opinion polls, 7, 106, 268, 269, 429-30, 434, 437; school syllabuses, 106; science teaching, 4 universes, 426

Unweaving the Rainbow, 148 vagus nerve, 360-3 varves, 90

vas deferens, 364- 5 vegetarian diet, 114-16 vertebrates: classes, 154, 159, 160, 183-4; early evolution, 162; embryology, 226-7; eyes, 353-4; land, 162-3, 166, 293; notochord, 227; returning to water, 173; segmented body plan, 357-9; skeletons, 289, 293, 305, 308, 315; spinal cord, 306; symmetry, 305-6 Victoria, Lake, 266, 267 viruses, 222 -4, 391-2, 421

Wallace, Alfred Russel, 22, 30, 31, 49-50, 64-5 wasps: ichneumon, 370, 395; solitary, 77-8; thynnid 78, 5 Watson, James, 30n, 246n, 319 Wegener, Alfred, 273-6, 281 Weinberg, Wilhelm, 31n whales: brains, 343; fossil record, 170-2; genetic evidence for evolution, 170; return to water, 169-70, 176, 180, 299; skeleton, 342; spinal motion, 299 Wiles, Andrew, 12 Williams, George C., 364, 424 Williams, Robyn, 369-70

Wilson, Allan, 317 wings, 344-50, 29 Wolpert, Lewis, 216, 220, 226 wolves, 27-8, 71-5, 302, 381 wombats, 268, 369 Wong, Yan, 335 woodlouse, 299-300 Wright, Sewall, 31n Wright, Wendy, 198-202

Yahya, Harun, 154

zebras, 72, 384

What artificial selection can do in a very short time: wild cabbage (a) and its useful (b) and monstrous (c) descendants.

Sunflowers were (d) artificially selected long ago by Native Americans and (e) enhanced by modern horticulturalists.

The Belgian Blue mound of beef (f) is artificially mutated. The beefcake woman (g) is artificially nurtured and exercised. Environmentally induced change can closely mimic genetic change.

(h) Chihuahua and Great Dane: both are wolves under the skin, but who would guess it from their appearance, after a few centuries of artificial selection?

(a) The long nectary of this Madagascar orchid led both Darwin and Wallace to predict the eventual discovery of a long tongue to match. Years later, it was found: Xanthopan morgani praedicta, Darwin's hawk moth, (b) Bucket orchid: one of the most elaborate exponents of 'silver bullet' pollination, (c) Euglossine bee, struggling to leave bucket orchid and picking up pollen as it does so.

(d) Moth that thinks it's a hummingbird? The hummingbird hawk moth, a wonderful example of convergent evolution.

(e) Hummingbird in exquisite action. Bright red flowers are usually bird-pollinated, for birds, unlike insects, see well at the red end of the spectrum, (f) Sunbird sucking nectar from a red flower in Africa, (g) Bucking bronco ride of a thynnid wasp on a hammer orchid, (h) Honey trap? This orchid is a deceiver, relying on its resemblance to a female bee to lure a male into attempted copulation, (i) Evening primrose as we see it. (j) Evening primrose as an insect sees it? Not quite, but with false colours to show the patterns that an insect, with its ultraviolet vision, might see.

(k) Spider orchid. Is the resemblance to a spider shaped by natural selection?

The bright colours of the cock pheasant (a) have been selected by generations of hens.

(b) Underwater cock pheasants? Male guppies in predator-free waters are free to evolve bright colours that attract predators. As with roses and tulips, human breeders have latched on and taken the trend further. These guppies appeal to aquarists as well as females.

(c) Danger lurks in beauty. Purple praying mantis lies in wait for insects lured by the flower that it mimics.

(d) Other mantises mimic leaves; this is the nymph (a juvenile stage) of one of them. Some animals, such as this gecko (e) from South America, mimic dead leaves, (f) This is not the front end of a snake but the back end of a caterpillar. Its ancestors survived because a significant number of would-be predators were frightened by the resemblance.

(a) Gorilla in our midst. Stunning evidence of the unreliability of eyewitness testimony (see text p. 14)

H far

(b) If evolution is true, why isn't the world full of crocoducks and fronkeys, of doggypotamuses and kangarabbits? To celebrate this knockdown argument (see text pp. 152-3) Josh Timonen kindly made me a crocoduck tie, to wear in honour of creationists everywhere.

Figure provided by Daniel Simons. The video depicted in this figure is available as part of a DVD from Viscog Productions (http://www.viscog.com).

Figure provided by Daniel Simons. The video depicted in this figure is available as part of a DVD from Viscog Productions (http://www.viscog.com).

Is it a monkey? Is it a lemur? Its Superlink! Darwinius masillae has been classified as an Adapid primate, and it certainly lies somewhere close to the ancestry of^anthropoids, but to say that 'this transitional species finally confirms Charles Darwins theory of evolution is ridiculous. Darwin's theory was confirmed long ago, 3 and in any case applies to all living creatures, not just our own close relatives. This fossil has been described as the eighth wonder of the world', but the real wonder is the tightly orchestrated and bizarrely exaggerated hype that attended its discovery: 'the most important find for 47 million years'; a global event' that changes everything'; the 'first ever link to human beings'; the impact of its publication will be 'just like an asteroid hitting the Earth'. Preposterous nonsense, but it is a beautiful fossil which will certainly shed some light on our ancestry, and that is a good enough reason for picturing it here.

(a) The Devonian era when the land waited, full of promise, for the exodus of the fishes from the water. Embodying this huge transition was Canada's prize discovery Tiktaalik (b) and (c) -like all 'missing' links, just waiting to be found. But not all the animals who discovered the land stayed there: manatees (d, with babies) and dugongs (e) -together called sirenians, because of their alleged resemblance to mermaids, as perceived by frustrated sailors - returned to the water. Some groups - as suggested by the fascinating Odontochelys semitestacea> the proto-turtle without a top shell (f) - having returned to the water, may even have made another return to the land later.

(a) and (b) The large green molecule is hexokinase, an important enzyme that processes glucose (the small brown molecule) by adding phosphate to it. The open 'jaws' (the active site' of the enzyme) in (a) clamp shut on the glucose

(b), hold it while phosphate is added, then let it go. (c) Even a single cell is breathtakingly complicated. Far from being just a bag full of juice, the cell is packed with elaborate membranous machines and molecular conveyor belts. The key to understanding how such complexity is put together is that it is all done locally, by small entities obeying local rules.

Stages in human development. The fertilized egg cell or zygote (a) splits into two (b), then four, then eight (c), then sixteen (d), all without any increase in total size. At ten days, the embryo implants into the wall of the uterus (e). At twenty-two days the neural tube begins to form (f). At twenty-four days (g) the embryo resembles a tiny fish. At twenty-five days (h) the face is forming. The little holes near the back of the head are the embryonic ears.

Baby Stage Days Embryo

At five to six weeks (i) the embryo is starting to look like a baby and it continues to grow, with changing proportions, until birth (m) and beyond.

Surely one of the wonders of the world. Starlings flocking in winter over Otmoor, near Oxford. Group mind? No, local units obeying local rules.

(a) Colour coding the age of the rocks under the sea. Chapter 9 s hypothetical submarine sets a course due east from the bulge of Brazil, reaching the young rocks of the mid-Atlantic ridge halfway across.

(b) Sea-floor spreading and (c) the deep and slow convection currents that drive the movements of the plates.

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