Extreme Cold Ebook

Bitterly Cold Defense Guide

This eBook guide teaches you how to defend yourself and your family from the incoming cold that has hurt people all over the nation. The Polar Vortex has struck the United States, and it will continue to bring cold and freezing to people all over the nation. You can try to ignore the problem, but that does not make it go away. In fact, not preparing for the cold is what gets a lot of people killed. Last year, at least 21 people died as a result of the cold. You do NOT want to be one of those people! This ebook guide teaches you to defend yourself against the bitter cold and learn to deal with all of the hazards that accompany bitter cold temperatures. Leon Wilde, author and speaker at survival camps, brings you this book to help you survive the bitter winter temperatures. Don't get caught unawares!

Bitterly Cold Defense Guide Summary


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Author: Leon Wilde
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Fewer Than Years

In the late nineteenth century, much of the United States was a frontier where people sought to realize their American dream, and many of them headed to the vast prairies of this continent. The term prairie conjures up images of beautiful, undulating plains stretching as far as the eye can see, yet this image is not altogether accurate. In the winter, these plains get bitterly cold, and in the summer, they are blistering hot. Add to this an almost perpetual wind, and what you get is an unforgiving environment. As if these tough conditions weren't enough for the settlers, they were also confronted with an insect that amassed in swarms of a gargantuan nature.

Lovers of the Extreme

The environments around the deep-ocean volcanic rifts can be described with a single word extreme. Extreme heat, extreme cold, extreme pressure, darkness and toxic-waste waters are conditions seemingly inhospitable to every living thing. Yet over the past two decades, oceanographers and biologists who have braved the perils of the long trip to this depth in their small submarines have made stunning discoveries. The finding of bizarre tubeworms and clams was completely unexpected, but even this life is conceivable to us, for it exists in the warmed waters around the volcanic vents. What was not expected, however, was that life could live not only around, but also amid, the vents. Within these scalding cauldrons of superheated water, a rich diversity of microbial entities grow and thrive at temperatures far too hot for any animal. Yet here, indisputably, is life, in a region previously thought as sterile as Mars.

To an adjustable shower head At full Jk power the DPS could generate a

As in the SPS engine, propellants were forced into the combustion chamber by pressure alone. There were no pumps to fail. This pressure was provided by two helium tanks, one of which stored the gas at ambient temperatures the other tank stored it as supercritical helium (SHe), a strange phase of the gas brought about by a combination of very high pressure and extremely cold temperatures. By using SHe, more of the gas could be crammed into a much smaller tank, thereby eliminating over 100 kilograms of weight from the vehicle. Care had to be taken, however, because if the heat in the system was not handled properly, the extreme cold of the SHe could freeze the fuel that was used to warm it - and this was the main reason for using the ambient tank, which provided initial pressurisation until the engine ignited. First, three explosively operated valves were opened by command from the crew to release the ambient helium into the tanks. This was part of the preparatory checklist. Later, once...

An Overall Requirement

Living material may suffer damage from a number of causes, the more advanced life being more vulnerable than elementary life. One major danger is being forced to absorb energy, in one form or another, above a certain limit. This can be in many forms. For advanced life, for instance, it may be the absorption of kinetic energy due to a fall or the absorption of radiation (such as X-rays or ultra-violet rays and so on). This will disrupt the molecules of which it is made, or they may be disrupted by a cut or some similar misfortune. Microbial life is able to withstand extreme cold by hibernation for considerable periods but advanced life generally cannot do this except in certain small degrees. The more elementary advanced life is able to renew body parts.

Climates And Habitats

Fossil evidence of nontropical plants distributed all over the globe and the lack of any evidence for glaciation support the likelihood that the climate of the Mesozoic was pleasantly mild. Lands that are now known to be extremely cold to the north such as Greenland and northern Europe once hosted such mild-climate plants as ginkgo and conifer trees. None of these plants could have survived subfreezing temperatures on a regular basis.

Infra Red Spectrograph IRS

Although spectral resolution is less than that of the ISO SWS, spatial resolution and sensitivity are significantly better and thus this instrument has proved useful in measuring the abundance and mapping the spatial distribution of gases in the giant planet atmospheres, especially those of Uranus and Neptune. Initial observations of Uranus by Spitzer IRS (Burgdorf et al., 2006) were reported in Chapter 4. However, on a practical note, Spitzer is primarily designed to look at extremely cold targets, which explains its very low operating temperature. Hence, to Spitzer the larger giant planets, in particular Jupiter, appear very warm, and thus any observations have to be strictly limited to avoid excessive heating of the telescope and thus loss of precious cryogen.

Islands of Antarctica

Dinosaur fossils have been discovered on two of Antarctica's islands. The bone fragments that have been collected from James Ross Island and Vega Island belong to the Late Cretaceous world. Imagine a woodland environment where a meat-eating dinosaur stalked its prey (or scavenged on the body of an already dead animal), scaring a herd of timid, ostrichlike hypsilophodonts that ran for their lives past a slow-moving ankylosaur. This was the Antarctica of about 80 million years ago. In recent years, teams of paleontologists have begun to reveal this lost world. In areas not covered by snow and ice, they scour the rocky terrain for evidence of dinosaurs.

The Martian Engineers

Schiaparelli opens his 1893 paper with a description of the white polar caps on Mars. He compares them to the masses of snow and ice encountered by explorers in the Earth's polar regions. Martian ice and snow fit Schiaparelli's description of Mars as an aquatic planet. However, they conflicted with recent (1892) findings that the Martian polar caps were largely solid carbon dioxide, not all frozen water. The seasonal melting of the Martian ice caps is central to Schiaparelli's interpretation of the landscape of Mars. Melting Martian snow and ice, he says, cause great inundations. Flooding is the main source of water for all the seas, As the snow and ice in the southern polar region melt, water flows directly into the surrounding sea. By contrast, water from the melting northern ice cap floods the adjacent lowlands. Schiaparelli likens the seasonal flooding of northern Mars to the great tides that periodically roll over the lowlands of Holland or the northwestern coasts of Germany. He...

Kinds Of Habitable Planets

A similar night-day cycle, a sun of similar size and appearance, a mild inclination to its equator, and a moderate eccentricity to its orbit. Seasons should be part of the common experience of the inhabitants, as well as oceans of water, winds, sunsets, rainbows, beaches, blue skies, starry nights, deserts, mountains, volcanoes, earthquakes, rain, lightning, rivers, clouds, and snow and ice in the cold regions. In short, most of the physical and meteorological phenomena with which we are familiar should also be known on most other habitable planets. When it comes to the living things indigenous to the planets, of course, these might differ widely, depending on the course that evolution happened to take in each special circumstance. Even so, on each planet one would expect to find organisms carrying on photosynthesis and animal forms capable of invading practically every conceivable ecological niche marine forms, land creatures, aerial forms, et cetera. In spite of differences in...

Energy Balance and Greenhouse Effect

Of course human beings started influencing the atmospheric composition, and greenhouse gas concentrations, well before the massive industrialisation began. About 11,000 years ago stone-age farmers may have already altered Earth's climate by clearing forests and irrigating fields to grow crops. Besides resulting in changes to the albedo, these activities may have led to considerable amounts of CO2 and CH4 being emitted. It should be mentioned that some scholars have even put forward the hypothesis that this early interference with the climate system could possibly have averted the start of a new ice age (Ruddiman 2003, 2005). This controversial hypothesis is discussed, for example, by Claussen et al. (2005), since

Section Early migrations into mainland SEA

Since neither the c-2 people nor their ancestors ever lived in a region with cold winters, we would expect that their average intelligence was not much different than that of their African forebears. However, the c-3 evolved in southern China and although the coastal areas of southern China have no cold season, parts of the interior do (and, of course, winters there were colder during the Ice Age). The result was that the c-3 gradually evolved a higher average intelligence than the c-2 (see Table 17-1). By 5000 BC, many of the c-3 were farmers (some of them speaking Proto-Austric), while the c-2 were still hunter-gatherers. Within the last 7000 years there have been several migrations of Austric-speaking c-3s back into SEA (see Map 37-1), and the c-3 now provide the bulk of the SEA gene pool.

Section The origin of the Chinese

Originally, the inhabitants of northern and southern China were very different racially.1 Southern China was settled by c-3 who entered from Southeast Asia, whereas northern China was settled by M-1 (Mongoloids), who entered from the north. (See Map 10-1 and sections 11-4 and 12-6.) The two groups differed in appearance and in average IQ. The M-1 had already evolved a high intelligence before their entrance into China, and the cold winters of northern China tended to continue that process.

African or Asian Origin for Homo erectus

Problems with such an African origins hypothesis have been noted, and it is increasingly clear that alternatives must be explored (see Dennell and Roebroeks, 2005 for a review). As has been emphasized, the Georgian crania are small and lack strong crests or tori. There are numerous resemblances to Homo habilis from East Africa. Skulls presently included within this latter hypodigm constitute plausible structural antecedents to Homo erectus (Lieberman et al., 1996 Strait et al., 1997 Kimbel et al., 2004). Therefore, it can be argued that a population composed of such small-brained and lightly built individuals was ancestral to the Dmanisi hominins. In this view, early (pre-erectus) Homo dispersed from Africa into western Asia, sometime prior to 1.8 Ma. The travelers were able to make simple chopping tools and utilize flakes and cobbles to obtain meat and marrow from animal carcasses. These skills would have been important to survival at higher latitudes, especially during the cold...

Section Intelligence and accomplishments

It seems likely that the extraordinary problems faced by the Polynesians produced a selection pressure for higher intelligence similar to (although probably not as great as) the selection pressure produced in North Asia and Europe by the necessity of coping with cold winters. Of course, the Polynesians lived in their difficult environment for a comparatively short time, so the opportunity for significant changes to evolve was much less.

From cartoon character to chocolate bar

Then Dot opened her eyes very wide and looked round, and saw a funny native Bear on the tree trunk behind her. He was quite clearly to be seen in the moonlight. His thick, grey fur, that looked as ifhe was wrapped up to keep out the most terribly cold weather his short, stumpy, big legs, and little sharp face with big bushy ears, could be seen as distinctly as

Surface Morphology of Comets

Interesting topography may result from inversion of relief and feedback effects on sublimation forms. Inversion of relief occurs when relatively low areas are filled with material that is, or becomes, more resistant to erosional forces than the surrounding materials. On the earth the relevant analogy is covering of snow and ice in low areas by sediment, volcanic ash, or debris flows. The non-volatile covering protects the underlying material from insolation and ablation, and subsequent lowering of surrounding areas yields an inversion of relief former low areas become relatively high. Inversion can also occur simply due to different amounts of cover. Thin covers can speed up sublimation by lowering the albedo but providing little insulation thick covers can inhibit sublimation entirely cover free areas may show an intermediate response (Driedger, 1980 Malin and Zimbelman, 1986).

Parasitic and Robber Bees

Possible explanations for this trend in percentages of parasitic species include (1) the synchronization caused by cool seasonal climates, such that many host nests are in the right condition for attack at the same time, (2) the competition for nest sites when synchronization is intense, some individuals thus being unable to find their own good sites, and (3) the short summer at high latitudes, leaving an individual that is delayed in nesting unable to produce offspring ready to overwinter, either because of the seasonal lack of the right flowers to provide food or because of autumnal cold weather. A delayed individual thus might profit from laying eggs in an already established nest. Obviously, these ideas are not mutually exclusive. Petanidou, Ellis, and Ellis-Adam (1995) believed that the unpredictability of the xeric warm-temperate Mediterranean climates contributed to their reduced percentage of parasitic species relative to percentages in cooler...

Ptc Spacecraft On A Spit

Imagine placing an object in cislunar space, not too near the Earth, sitting motionless. The side facing the Sun will become warm. How much depends on its characteristics but as it gradually warms, it also radiates heat. The warmer it gets, the more heat it radiates until it eventually reaches a point where it radiates as much heat as it receives. At this point, it is at thermal equilibrium and its surface temperature, probably quite high, is constant. Meanwhile, the side of the object opposite the Sun will also radiate whatever heat it had, but this will not be replenished. The surface temperature will gradually fall until the minimal sources of heat available to it become comparable to the heat it is losing. Given time, and assuming that little heat leaks through the object from the sunward side, this area will become extremely cold. These extremes of temperature easily coexist in an environment where there is no air to transport heat.

Bone Histology and Biogeochemistry

Bone Histology Lags

LAGs recorded in dinosaur bones represent periods of interrupted growth, which can be attributed to yearly cycles in growth that suggest ectothermy. However, LAGs also are present in some mammal bones. Subsequent research shows that a number of environmental factors, such as prolonged droughts or cold winters, can cause these features. Additionally, some dinosaurs have LAGs but others lack them, which means that they cannot be used as a universal indicator of thermoregulation. For those dinosaurs that have LAGs, and using the assumption that they represent annual growth lines, growth rates have been calculated for some dinosaur genera (Chapter 11). High growth rates should reflect endothermy, whereas slow growth rates are characteristic of ectothermy. The growth rates calculated for some dinosaurs are faster than those known for crocodiles, but slower than those of birds. Another interesting feature common to compact bone in dinosaurs is that it does seem highly vascularized. This...

The Times and Climes of Homo erectus

Rivers Book Dragon Bones

Questions about Homo erectus behavior have to be placed in an environmental context first. Did these hominids from the Ice Age live amid snow and ice, adapting like modern-day circumpolar peoples such as the Inuit, or were conditions less extreme Did they stay in one place for example, near Longgushan most of the year, or did they move with the seasons What sort of shelter and clothing would have been necessary Most of these pressing questions were not answered in the lifetimes of the first investigators (and some are still not answered) because resolution has had to wait for sophisticated dating techniques and the integration of results from many different subfields of science. Only recently has it been possible to construct a firm contextual story for the Longgushan fossil hominids, and the most basic part of the story is the geological age of the site.

Refugia of Boreal Birds and Mammals in Eastern Central Europe

Comparison of phylogeographic structures in several Eurasiatic boreal species has shown that species associated with the taiga forest revealed essentially similar patterns. In the wood lemming (Myopus schisticolor), and also in most other boreal forest species, no substantial phylogeographic divisions across Northern Eurasia have been reported (Zink et al. 2002 Fedorov et al. 2008). The contraction of the range of these species to a single, probably Southern Siberian refugial area during the late Pleistocene followed by demographic expansion seems to be a general background for their shallow phylogeographic structure. The most important genetic discontinuity has usually been observed between the Northern Eurasiatic and the Far East clades. The limited distribution range of the South-eastern lineages suggests that their core areas ( Manchurian refugium of de Lattin 1967) could not play an essential role in the post-glacial colonisation of Northern Eurasia by boreal forest species. A...

Uranus Composition profiles

Because the observable atmospheres of Uranus and Neptune are extremely cold, it is difficult to determine composition profiles using thermal-infrared spectroscopy since the emitted spectrum has such low power. Hence, we know a lot less about the composition of the atmospheres of Uranus and Neptune than we do about the warmer atmospheres of Jupiter and Saturn. What has been determined about Uranus' composition is outlined in Table 4.8 and Figure 4.21. Methane is indeed found to condense near the 1.5 bar level and the v.m.r. drops very rapidly with height above this level reaching a minimum of approximately (0.3-1) x 10 4 at the tropopause. In the stratosphere, photodissociation of methane occurs between 0.1 mbar and 1 mbar, giving rise to hydrocarbon products. Acetylene (C2H2) was detected by ISO (Encrenaz et al., 1998) with a maximum v.m.r. of 4 x 10 7 peaking at the 0.1 mbar pressure level and ethane (C2H6) has been detected by Spitzer (Burgdorf et al., 2006) with a v.m.r. at the 0.1...

Cranial Anatomy Related to Respiration

Endothermic vertebrates have large spaces within their nasal cavities to accommodate folded bony or cartilaginous structures, which were often lined with mucous membranes called respiratory turbinates. These structures are essential to endotherms because they help to conserve the water and heat associated with the near-constant breathing that endotherms use for their more active metabolism. Turbinates ensure that as much as 60 of the water moisture that is inhaled is absorbed ( reclaimed ) before being exhaled, otherwise its absence would quickly result in dehydration. Body-heat losses and energy demands would also accumulate if turbinates were not in place, the equivalent of leaving a window open on a cold winter day. Because of the essential function of turbinates in conserving water and heat, nearly all mammals and birds possess them and they can be used as undoubted indicators of endothermy in modern taxa. Searches for these structures (or at least enough room for them) in a few...

Paris Basin Anoplotherium

Oviraptor Outlines

Sir Francis Bacon (1561-1626), a famous English lawyer, politician and scientist (Fig. 1.2a), established the methods of induction in science. He argued that it was only through the patient accumulation of accurate observations of natural phenomena that the explanation would emerge. The enquirer might hope to see common patterns among the observations, and these common patterns would point to an explanation, or law of nature. Bacon famously met his death perhaps as a result of his restless curiosity about everything he was traveling in the winter of 1626, and was experimenting with the use of snow and ice to preserve meat. He bought a chicken, and got out of his coach to gather snow, which he stuffed inside the bird he contracted pneumonia and died soon after. The chicken, on the other hand, was fresh to eat a week later, so proving his case.

Opening the Black

Lego City Coast Guard Shinking Boat

The prospect of life on Mars has captivated dreamers and visionaries for ages. Barely a century ago, astronomers and fantasy writers could peer into the night sky and imagine the red planet's mottled surface laced with canals or seething with warlike aliens set to invade Earth. In the 1960s, the first images beamed back to us by Mariner spacecraft quashed any lingering visions of canals or ruined cities. If we were ever to find signs of Martian life, it was clear we would have to search beneath the surface of an arid, bitterly cold planet with air too thin to breathe. A Viking lander did just that in 1976 it scooped up material from the planet's surface, analyzed it chemically, and found no clear evidence of life. That disappointment, however, did not quench our curiosity. Perhaps there was once a golden age on Mars,

Hadean Atmosphere and Climate

Hades can also suggest icy wastes trapped in perpetual winter. It is not as certain that Earth was at times bitterly cold as it is certain that Earth was once infernally hot, but the argument that a lifeless young Earth should have been very cold when not very hot is good. The key point is that the young Sun was much fainter than it is now (Fig. 1). If a snowball Earth seems plausible in the Neoproterozoic, when the Sun was 96 as bright as it is now, it should seem more plausible when the Sun was just 71 as bright as it is now. A warm Hadean Earth needs either enormous geothermal heat flow or abundant greenhouse gases. As discussed earlier, geothermal heat was comparable to insolation during accretion, and at times much bigger, but its role was confined to aftermaths of big collisions. Geothermal heat was probably climatologically insignificant after 4.5 Ga. Of greenhouse gases the only good candidates are CO2 and CH48. Methane can help provided that there are reducing agents and...

The Neanderthal peoples

The Neanderthals seem to have disappeared about 30,000 years ago their last refuge may have been in northern Spain and south-west France. It is not clear whether they were seen off by the loss of cold-weather habitat as the ice sheets retreated, or whether they were killed off by more modern H. sapiens of our own type (Klein, 2003). Molecular evidence (Krings et al., 1997) suggests that they did not interbreed with the interlopers mitochondrial DNA from the original Neander skeleton shows no more similarity to that of modern Europeans than to any other modern humans.

Consequences of the Strength of the Forces of Nature

Just as carbon is necessary for life so is water. This is a very strange substance in having an extraordinary crystal structure which gives a greater mean separation of atoms in the solid form (ice) than in the liquid form. The reason is well understood in the structure of the H2O molecule but the hydrogen, oxygen linkage is unusual. Indeed, workers in the theory of liquids will admit that water is not a liquid from the point of view of their theories. It is more closely an amorphous solid. The result is the vision of icebergs floating in the oceans with the solid (ice) being less dense than the liquid.5 There is, indeed, a minimum density at 4 K. The effect of this unique property is for a volume of water to freeze from the top rather than from the bottom. Ice rises because its density is lower than water, giving a layer of ice at the top and water at close to freezing at the bottom. Living things in the water can, therefore, survive very cold weather because there will always be...

Liaoning Today

One-third of Liaoning Province is forested, most of which is in the eastern mountainous area. The rest of the Province is flat with fertile soils and rivers. It is a major source of minerals, such as oil and coal. The climate is monsoonal, with a hot, wet summer and a cold winter.

Back to deep space

But before rekindling too much optimism we need to have another look at these extraterrestrial organic compounds. Rather surprisingly, it is now becoming increasingly clear that at least some of what we regard as the building blocks of life were probably synthesized long before the Solar System itself formed. They are products of an interstellar environment far removed from anything we could envisage as remotely habitable. Here the processes of organic synthesis take place in conditions of extreme cold, a 'hard' vacuum that is bathed in radiation. The evidence of this dramatic shift in location - from a warm cradle in the early Solar System to interstellar wilderness - comes from a surprising discovery concerning some of the extraterrestrial amino acids. Like many organic molecules, most amino acids are asymmetrical. This means that they can adopt one of two forms, each the mirror image of the other. Our two hands, left and right, are a more familiar example. The technical name for...

Iso Orbit

Although the physical size of ISO is large (5.3 x 3.6 x 2.8 m), the telescope itself is relatively small with a primary mirror diameter of only 0.6 m (Figure 7.24). Most of the volume was filled up with liquid helium, which cooled the entire optical system to a temperature of 4K, reducing the noise of the detectors to their minimum theoretical values and allowing the measurement of images and spectra of extremely cold objects over the spectral range of 2.3 m to 240 m (41-4,300 cm-1). ISO was originally planned to be operational for 20 months, but eventually the working life was stretched to more than 28 months ISO operated until May 1998. ISO had four main instruments which will now be reviewed.

Thermal Tests

Rookie astronaut Mike Coats, who was sitting in Mission Control monitoring these tests, called the Shuttle's thermal behaviour ''the banana effect'' during orbital flight, the entire vehicle was bending like a banana, as its 'hot side' expanded and its 'cold side' contracted. During a practice opening and closure of the payload bay doors under extremely cold conditions, problems arose after one period in the belly-to-Sun attitude. A 'closed' indication on one of the doors was not achieved, prompting Coats to advise the astronauts to reverse their attitude and warm up Columbia's topside instead of her belly.

The doomsday

Within 45 minutes of the impact, a vapour-rich plume of debris would envelop the Earth. There would be enough dust - consisting of roughly equal parts of materials from the asteroid and the Earth's crust - to cause darkness around the world. Scientists have estimated that the Chicxulub impact would have injected 50,000 cubic kilometres of dust in the atmosphere, which settled to form a layer averaging 3 millimetres thick. Without sunlight, photosynthesis would stop. Food chains everywhere would collapse. The darkness would also produce extremely cold temperatures. Scientists call this condition 'impact winter'.

Ancient climates

The positions of the continents affected ancient climates in more dramatic ways. At times when there was no land at the poles, climates seem to have been rather uniform worldwide. The reasoning is that land at the poles is covered with snow and ice in winter. The white colour of the ice reflects sunlight, and makes the land surface even colder, so the ice survives through the polar summer, and in fact grows progressively. The process does not begin if there is only salt water near the poles. This was the case during the Mesozoic, and it seems that the temperature difference from the equator to the poles was much less than it is today. This meant that dinosaurs were free to wander over a wide band of latitudes, and they seemingly did, because both Arctic and Antarctic dinosaurs have been found. Increasingly through the Cenozoic, and today, climatic bands developed, and most plants and animals are much more restricted in the zones they can occupy.

Space and Time

What do the words space and time mean to you Perhaps you picture space as the blackness between the stars as you turn your gaze toward the sky on a cold winter's night. Or maybe you see the void between earth and moon sailed by spacecraft clad in golden foil, bedecked with the stars and stripes, piloted into magnificent desolation by shaven-headed explorers with names like Buzz. Time may be the tick of your watch or the reddening of the leaves as the earth's yearly circuit of the sun tilts northern latitudes toward shade for the 5 billionth time. We all have an intuitive feel for space and time they are part of the fabric of our existence. We move through space on the surface of our blue world as time ticks by.

The koala fur trade

Koala Trappers

It appears that as the numbers of Australia's Aborigines decreased over the second half of the 19 th century, so the numbers of koalas rose. As a result of the bourgeoning pelt trade koala pelts began to be exported some time in the mid- to late 1870s.4 The density of koala fur made it a very effective insulator against the cold winters of Canada, the United States and Europe. It was not only thick, warm and durable, but it was also waterproof, making it ideal for the interior lining of coats.5 In the early 1930s, Fred Lewis, chief inspector of Fisheries and Sport, recalled that 'the fur is thick and warm, and, I am told,

Power the fuel cell

Apollo Oxygen Tank Exploding

The high-energy reaction that occurs when hydrogen and oxygen are burned in the combustion chamber of a rocket makes it greatly favoured by rocket engineers. In the Apollo fuel cell, most of this energy was expressed as electricity, but although it could reach efficiencies of 70 per cent, the reaction still yielded significant amounts of heat. Some of this was used to warm the extremely cold reactants before they entered the cell the rest was rejected through eight radiator panels around the upper circumference of the service module. An early version of the fuel cell flew on seven of

Day Monday June

The scientific work on 14 June included meteorological experiments, a study of atmospheric formations and snow and ice cover. The cosmonauts on Salyut and the unmanned Meteor satellite launched in October 1970 both recorded the cloud cover over the Volga River. The aim was to use the photographs taken by the cosmonauts to improve the interpretation of the TV pictures transmitted by the Meteor satellite. In addition, the cosmonauts studied atmospheric processes related to the formation of hurricanes and typhoons.

Human origins

The geographical relation between UV light and skin colour is explained by the protective effect of dark pigmentation, specifically pigmentation of the corneum, against skin cancer and disabling sunburn. Conversely, deep penetration of UV into the skin appeared to account for the prevalence of pale skins at high latitudes except where, as in some Arctic areas, clear skies and strong reflection from snow and ice expose the individual to high levels of UV.

Overview Of Overkill

Known to his friends as Hibby, he prepared a surprise for me when I gave my first extinction talk to the Museum and Department of Zoology at the University of Michigan soon after earning my Ph.D. Hibby believed that the fossil giant tortoises of Kansas, where he excavated spring deposits, could not have survived freezing temperatures in winter because their living representatives, Galapagos tortoises, died when exposed to cold weather. After I finished my review of the large animal extinctions, having showed how on a world scale they corresponded with human arrivals, and called for the lights, Hibby whispered to the projectionist to hold the lights while he slipped in a slide of his own. Up on the screen went a cartoon of a glacial winter in Kansas, complete with a giant tortoise decked out in a scarf, earmuffs, down jacket, and snow-shoes. The audience roared. Hibby won that round. Nevertheless, we cannot be certain that giant tortoises in North America did not have the physiological...