Mesozoic Pompeii

A., Braman, D. R Deino, A. L., 1993- The age of the dinosaur-bearing sediments at Tebch, Inner Mongolia, P. R. China. Canadian Journal of Earth Sciences, 30(10-11) 2101 2106. Jin, F., 1996. New advances in the late Mesozoic stratigraphie research of western Liaoning, China. Vertebrata PalAsiatica, 34(2> 102 122. (In Chinese, with English abstract) Niu, B.-g., He, Z.-j., Song, B Ren, J.-s 2003. SHRIMP Dating on the lava of the Zhangjiakou Formation and its...

Uaoning Photo Dajian Li CASFormation in Linyuan Liaoning Photo Dongxing Deng NIGP

MB 68 A nearly complete individual (ventral view, 16 mm long) of Liaoningogriphus quadriportitus from Sihetun locality (lower part of Yixian Formation) in Beipiao, Liaoning, showing thorax, abdomen and tail. (Photo Hai-chun Zhang N1GP) deposits of Las Hoyas, Spain are under description. A new spelaeogriphacean, Liaoningogriphus quadripartitus, was recently described by Shen, Taylor anil Schram (Figs. 6H 70) from the Yixian Formation in Sihetun, Jianshangou, and Huangbanjigou areas of Beipiao...

Fishes

A new Peipiaosteus from Fengning of Hebei, China. Vert brala PalAsialica, 21(4) 341 346, (In Chinese, with English abstract) Chang, M.-m., Chou, C.-c., 1977. On late Mesozoic fossil fishes from Zhejiang Province, China. Memoirs of Institute ofVtrtebrate Palaeontology and Paleoanthropology, Academia S nica, 12 1 59- (In Chinese, with English abstract) Cockered, T. D. A., 1925. The affinities of fish Lycopttra muldendorfft. Bulletin of tht American Museum qfNatural History,...

Is

Nestoria Pissovi

Bivalvia are a class of bivalved moilusks, also known as Pelecypoda and Lamellibranchiata in the literature. The bivalves are aquatic animals with a shell consisting of two matching lateral valves united by a dorsal horny ligament. The valves can be drawn together by a pair of adductor muscles (reduced to one in some) against the opening counter-force of the ligament. Today the bivalves are among the most common benthic invertebrates, especially on marine shelves, although there are many...

Huazhcmg Pan Xianggen

Gastropods (snails and slugs) are the most abundant, most diverse, and perhaps rhe best known of extant mollusks. They have approximately 37,500 living species, and represent some 80 percent of the living moilusks, only less than insects in number among all invertebrates. More than half of these snails and slugs are marine animals, and they are the only molluscan class to have spread both into freshwater and on land. Gastropods include three subclasses Prosobranchia, Opisthobranchia, and...

Mammals

Sinobaatar gen. nov. first multituberculate from the Jehol Biota of Liaoning, Northeast China. Chinese Science Bulletin English edition , 47 11 933-938. Hu, Y.-m., Wang, Y.-q., Li, C.-k., Luo, Z.-x., 1998. Morphology of dentition and forelimb of Zhanghnatherium. Vertebrata PalAsiat'm, 36 2 102 125. In Chinese, with English summary Hu, Y.-m., Wang, Y.-q., Luo, Z.-x., Li, C.-k., 1997. A new symmetrodont mammal from China and its implications for mammalian evolution....

Land Plants

Cao, Z.-y Wu, S.-q., Zhang, P.-a., LiJ.-r., 1998. Discovery of fossil monocotyledons from Yixian Formation, western Liaoning. Chinese Science Bulletin English edition . 43 3 230-233. Duan, S.-y., 1998. The oldest angiosperm a tricarpous female reproductive fossil from western Liaoning Province, NE China, Science in China Series D, English Friis, E. M., Cha loner, W. G., Grane, P. R. eds. , 1987. The Origins ofAngiospirms and Their Biological Consequences. Cambridge Cambridge University Press....

Qifei Wang Huinan Lu Jinglin Yang

The charophytes or stoneworts , a kind of'algae, grow in fresh or brackish waters including streams, ponds, lakes, lagoons, fjords and have a wide geographical distribution on all continents except Antarctica. Most of them live in the waters that are clear, transparent and rich in calcium, mostly with pH ranging from 7.0 to 8.0, e.g., alkaline, high-calcium lakes. Charophytes are present in running water only where movement is slight. They grow submerged in the water from shorewards to a depth...

Angiosperms

Evidence for the earliest stage of angiosperm pollen evolution A paleoequatorial section from Israel. In Taylor, D. W., Hickey, 1-. J. eds. , Flowering P uru Origin, Evolution and Phytogeny. New York Chapman amp Hall. 91-115. Cao, Z.-y., Wu, S.-q., Zhang. P.-a., Li, J.-r., 1998. Discovery of fossil monocotyledons from Yixian Formation, western Liaoning. Chinese Science Bulletin English edition , 43 3 230-233. Duan S.-y., 1998. The oldest angiosperm a tricarpous female...

Turtles

Vertebrate Paleontology and Evolution. New York W H Freeman and Company, 698pp. Endo, R_, Shikama, T., 1942. Mesozoic reptilian fauna in the Jehol mountainland, Manchoukuo. Bulletin of the National Central Museum of Manchoukuo, No. 3 1 20. Gaffney, E. S., 1996. Ifmque among vertebrates. Natural History, 105 lt 6 38 39- Ji, S.-a., 1995- Part 3. Reptiles. In Ren, D., Lu, L.-w, Guo, Z.-g., Ji, S.-a. eds. , Faunae and Stratigraphy of Jurassic-Crelaceous in Beijing and the...

Yuanqing Wang Yaoming Hit Chuankui Li

Primer Mam Fero

Mammalia is biologically the most differentiated group of vertebrates, consisting of all the living mammals, their common ancestor, and their extinct allies. Mammals have predominated the modern terrestrial ecosystems throughout the Cenozoic lira since some 65 million years Myr ago, which is thus often referred to as the Age of Mammals. However, the first two-thirds of mammalian history occurred in the preceding Mesozoic Era that extended from roughly 250 to about 65 Myr before present. After...

Yanbin Shen

Crayfish Pleopod

at 61 Recent crayfish I'rocanibarus clarkii. Dorsal view of a male Left . Ventral view of a male, showing the tubular form of pleopods 1 and 2 Middle , ventral view of female, showing the annulus ventralis and pleopods 1 5 Righti. Photo Shi-wei Zhao NIGP The highly sporadic fossil record of freshwater shrimps is improved by rhe discovery of abundant specimens ol astacids and spclaeogriphids from thejehol Group. The former are a large well-known crayfish Decapoda, Astacidea and the latter a new...

Wenben Li

Ephedripites

Spores and pollen are productive organs of plants. Pteridophytes and some of the more primitive plants, such as bryophytes, algae and fungi, produce spores by which new generation of plant is reproduced sexually or nonsexually. Seed plants spermarophytes , including gymno-sperms and angiosperms, produce pollen. Sperms of pollen male spores combine with ova of female ovule and develop into seeds. The reproduction of seed plants depends on germination of the seeds. The study of spores and pollen...

Palaeobatrachus Miocene

Amphibians double life in Greek are a class of primitive terrapods vertebrates with four limbs that spend at least part of their lives in water and part on land, although some are entirely aquatic or terrestrial. Amphibians provide a biological link between fishes and the true land-living vertebrates, as they are the first group of tetrapods that invaded the land some 370 million years ago. Living amphibians are classified in the Subclass Lissamphibia with their closely related ancestors in...

Contributors

Cretaceous Paleogeography Photos

Lu, Hui-nan Nanjing Institute of Geology and Palaeontology, Chinese Academy of Sciences No. 39, East Beijing Road, Nanjing 210008, China Pan, Hua-zhang Nanjing Institute of Geology and Palaeontology, Chinese Academy of Sciences No. 39, East Beijing Road, Nanjing 210008, China Shen, Yan-bin Nanjing Institute of Geology and Palaeontology, Chinese Academy of Sciences No. 39, East Beijing Road, Nanjing 210008, China Wang, Qi-fei Nanjing Institute of Geology and Palaeontology, Chinese Academy of...

Jiangyong Zhang Fan

Fishes are che most abundant fossils in the Jeliol Biota. They are counted tens of thousands. The scientific study on fossil fishes of Jehul Biota in western Liaoning started in the second half of the 19th century when Ii. E, Sau vage, a French anatomist, named the specimens from northern China as a new species, Prolebias davidi, of Cyprinodoncidae. Nearly hall a century later, Amadeus W. Grabau, an American paleontologist, described Lycoptcra jrihnlensis and L.jahokmis var. minor in his book...

Jim

Feathered Dinosaur Skeletons

129 Holotype of eholacerta furmosa, a Jehol lizard with well-preserved skin impressions, from a locality Yixian Formation in Pingquan, Hebei. Courtesy Shu-anJi PKU n 128 Holotype of Dalinghosaurus longidigitus, a long-tailed lizard, from Sihetun locality lower pari of Yixian Formation in Beipiao. Liaoning. Courtesy Shu-anJi PKU The Squamata lizards and snakes is the most successful group of modern reptiles. Squamates usually are slender animals with scutella covering their bodies. This group...

Charophytes

Hao, Y.-c., Ruan, P.-h., Zhou, X.-g., Song, Q.-s., Yang, G.-d., Cheng, S.-w., Wei, Z.-x 1983- Middle Jurassic-Tertiary deposits and Ostracod-Charophyte lossil assemblages of Xining and Minhe basins. Earth Science, Journal of Wuhan College of Geology, 23 1 210. In Chinese, with English abstract Lu, H,-n., Luo, Q.-x., 1990. Fossil Charophytes from the Tarim Basin, Xinjiang. Beijing Scientific and Technical Documents Publishing House. 26 lpp. In Chinese, with English abstract Lu, H.-n., Wang,...

Haichim Zhang

Hexagenitidae of the order Ephemeroptera, is very important in che correlaci n of non-marine strata in East Asia, its nymphs, with abundant individuals, lived in the warm, shallow and stagnant waters near the shore, crawling on the bottom or swimming in the waters and preying on other aquatic insects. The adults lived on land and were short-lived and poor fliers. This mayfly is distinguished from other components of Hexageniridae by irs large size, and is a cecal branch in the evolution of rhis...

Aninialia

Phylum Mollusca Class Gastropoda Subclass Prosobranchia Pseudarinia yushugouensis Zhu, 1976 Family Valvatidac Muller. 1774 Amplovalvaia sp Family Hydrobidae Fischer, 1885 Reesidella sp. Family Micromelaniidae Brusina, 1874 Probaicalia gerassimovi Reis, 1910 Probaicalia vilimensis Martinson, 1949 Subclass Pulmonata Prychostylusphilipp Dunker. 1846 Ptychostylus harpaeformis Kochet Dunker. 1837 Zaptychius sp. Family Lymnueidae Broderip, 1839 Guiba sphaira Pan. 1983 Family Planorbidae Oeffroy, 1767...

Jim Liu Xiao Iin Wang

The Choristodera is a ciade of distinctive but poorly known aquatic reptiles. For more than one century, knowledge of this group was limited to two highly specialized genera Champsosaurta and Simoedosanrus from North America and Europe. Over the last two decades, additional nine genera have been referred to the Choristodera. Thus, we now have a better understanding of these animals. They had a temporal range spanning at least 190 million years from the Late Triassic to the late Oligocene and a...

Marcano S Solenodon

Fossil Bryophyte

Land plants constitute an important component of the Jehol Biota. They are recorded mainly from the Yixian Formation of West Liaoning, and represent almost all major groups of land plants known from the Mesozoic Era including free-sporing plants Bryophyta, Lycopsida, Sphenopsida, Filicopsida and seed plants Ginkgoales, Czekanowskiales, Coniferales, Bennettitales, Gnetales and Angiospermae . This presentation is based mainly on the study of plant fossils from the Jianshangou Bed of the lower...

Dinosaurs Skeleton

Except for one taxon, Chunerpeton, which is referred to the Cryptobranchidae. Laccotriton subsolanus Fig. 109 is the first Mesozoic salamander reported from China. It is a small-sized metamorphosed salamander, represented by a large number of articulated skeletons from a small quarry in Fengshan Basin of northern Hebei Province. Laccotriton subsolanus is characterized by having 16 presacrals and unicapitate ribs with a broadened base most living salamanders have bicapitate ribs, except for...

Else Marie Friis

Underwater Plant Fossils

Angiosperms flowering plants are ecologically dominant in most terrestrial vegetation today, accounting for the bulk of the primary productivity on land. They constitute the most species-rich group of land plants that ever existed, with an overwhelming morphological diversity of flowers and growth forms ranging from the tiniest duckweed to the tallest trees. They also occur in most ecosystems on land from deserts to coastal swamps and even have representatives living in the oceans. Despite...

Xitaizi locality lower part of Yixian Formation in Ningcheng Chifeng Inner Mongolia

Archaefructus Sinensis

The most notable among these localities are Sihetun, Jianshangou, Zhangjiagou, Huangbanjigou, Hengdaozi, Libalanggou, Heitizigou, etc. Fossil-bearing beds comparable to the Jianshangou Bed are also found in other basins of western Liaoning, northern Hebei and southeastern Inner Mongolia, including Shangyuan Bed in Beipiao, and Zhuanchengzi Beds in Yixian County. The Jianshangou Bed represents 2 3 sedimentary cycles of coastal lake, shallow lake, semi-deep lake to deep lake. The sediments...

Therizinosaurus

Oldest Bird Fossil

1163 The phylogenetic positions of the Jehol non-avian theropods in red among the related groups. 1164 Skull of the holotype of Psittacosaurui meileyingensis estimated body length I 2 m from Meileyingzi locality Jiufotang Formation , Chaoyang. liaoning. Psittacosaurs are a group of herbivorous dinosaur living in the Harly Cretaceous of Asia and a distant relative of Triceratops. 1165 Complete skull of a juvenile Uaoceratops yanzigouensis total body length less than Im . a small primitive...

Meizhen Cao Ycinxia

Ostracods are tiny crustaceans of the phyium Arthropoda. They are important microfossils and useful in geological prospecting. The most conspicuous feature of these animals is the bearing of a bivalved carapace in which the soft body is enclosed Fig. 46 . The two valves are not symmetrical, and are constituted by calcareous layer and chitinous coating. The left valve is normally somewhat larger and overlapping the right one. The exterior surface of valves may be ornamented or smooth. The...