Contents

1 Introduction 1

2 Stratigraphy and Major Fossil Localities 5

2.1 Europe 5

2.2 Asia 7

2.3 North America 8

2.4 Central and South America 9

2.5 Africa 10

2.6 Australia, New Zealand, and Antarctica 10

3 Higher-Level Phylogeny of Extant Birds 13

4 Mesozoic Neornithes 19

5 Palaeognathous Birds 25

5.1 fLithornithidae 26

5.2 fPalaeotididae, fRemiornithidae, and fEleutherornithidae 28

5.2.1 fPalaeotididae 28

5.2.2 fRemiornithidae 29

5.2.3 fEleutherornithidae 30

5.3 fEremopezidae 31

5.4 Rheidae (Rheas) 32

5.5 Casuariidae (Emus and Cassowaries) 33

5.6 Putative Ratite from the Eocene of Antarctica 33

6 Galloanseres 35

6.1 Galliformes (Landfowl) 35

6.1.1 fGallinuloididae 36

6.1.2 fParaortygidae 40

6.1.3 fProcrax, fArchaealectrornis, and fPalaeonossax 41

6.1.4 fQuercymegapodiidae 41

6.1.5 Megapodiidae (Megapodes) 42

6.1.6 Phasianidae (Grouse, Quails, Pheasants, and Allies) 42

6.2 fGastornithidae 44

6.3 tDromornithidae 47

6.4 Anseriformes (Waterfowl) 48

6.4.1 Anhimidae (Screamers) 48

6.4.2 Anseranatidae (Magpie Geese) 49

6.4.3 fPresbyornithidae 51

6.4.4 Anatidae (Ducks, Geese, and Swans) 53

6.5 fPelagornithidae (Bony-Toothed Birds) 55

7 Aquatic and Semiaquatic Taxa 61

7.1 Fregatidae (Frigatebirds) and Suloidea

(Gannets, Boobies, Cormorants, and Anhingas) 61

7.1.1 fProtoplotidae 62

7.1.2 Fregatidae (Frigatebirds) 63

7.1.3 Sulidae (Gannets and Boobies) 64

7.1.4 Phalacrocoracidae (Cormorants)

and Anhingidae (Anhingas) 65

7.2 fPlotopteridae 67

7.3 Sphenisciformes (Penguins) 70

7.4 Gaviiformes (Loons) 75

7.5 Procellariiformes (Tubenoses) 76

7.6 Scopidae (Hamerkop), Balaenicipitidae (Shoebill), and Pelecanidae (Pelicans) 80

7.7 Ardeidae (Herons) 80

7.8 tXenerodiopidae 81

7.9 Threskiornithidae (Ibises) 81

7.10 Ciconiidae (Storks) 84

7.11 fProphaethontidae and Phaethontidae (Tropicbirds) 84

8 Charadriiformes (Shorebirds and Allies) 87

8.1 Lari (Gulls, Auks, and Allies) 88

8.2 Charadrii (Plovers and Allies) 89

8.3 Scolopaci (Sandpipers and Allies) 90

9 "Core-Gruiformes" (Rails, Cranes, and Allies) 93

9.1 tMesselornithidae and tWalbeckornis 93

9.2 Ralloidea (Finfoots and Rails) 96

9.3 Gruoidea (Trumpeters, Limpkins, and Cranes) 99

9.3.1 tParvigruidae 100

9.3.2 tGeranoididae 101

9.3.3 tEogruidae 102

9.3.4 Aramidae (Limpkins) and Gruidae (Cranes) 103

10 Phoenicopteriformes (Flamingos)

and Podicipediformes (Grebes) 105

11 Columbiformes (Doves and Sandgrouse), Cuculiformes

(Cuckoos), and Other Neoavian Taxa of Uncertain Affinities 111

11.1 Columbiformes (Doves and Sandgrouse) 111

11.2 Opisthocomiformes (Hoatzin) 112

11.3 fForatidae 112

11.4 Musophagiformes (Turacos) 113

11.5 Cuculiformes (Cuckoos) 113

11.6 tPumiliornis and tMorsoravis 114

11.7 tParvicuculidae 115

11.8 Otididae (Bustards), Eurypygidae (Sunbittern),

Rhynochetidae (Kagu), and Mesitornithidae (Mesites) 116

12 "Caprimulgiformes" and Apodiformes (Nightjars and Allies,

Swifts, and Hummingbirds) 119

12.1 tFluvioviridavidae 119

12.2 Steatornithidae (Oilbirds) 124

12.3 Podargidae (Frogmouths) 124

12.4 tProtocypselomorphus 125

12.5 tArchaeotrogonidae 126

12.6 Nyctibiidae (Potoos) and Caprimulgidae (Nightjars) 128

12.6.1 Nyctibiidae 128

12.6.2 Caprimulgidae 128

12.7 Aegothelidae (Owlet-Nightjars) and Apodiformes

(Swifts and Hummingbirds) 129

12.7.1 tEocypselidae 130

12.7.2 tAegialornithidae 132

12.7.3 Hemiprocnidae (Tree Swifts)

and Apodidae (True Swifts) 133

12.7.4 Trochilidae (Hummingbirds) 135

13 Cariamae (Seriemas and Allies) 139

13.1 tPhorusrhacidae 139

13.2 tIdiornithidae and tElaphrocnemus 142

13.3 tBathornithidae 146

13.4 tAmeghinornithidae 148

13.5 tSalmilidae 150

13.6 tGradiornis 152

14 "Falconiformes" (Diurnal Birds of Prey) 153

14.1 Falconidae (Falcons) 153

14.2 tMasillaraptor 155

14.3 tTeratornithidae and Cathartidae (New Word Vultures) 156

14.4 fHorusornithidae 158

14.5 Sagittariidae (Secretary Birds), Pandionidae (Ospreys), and Accipitridae (Hawks and Allies) 158

14.5.1 Sagittariidae 158

14.5.2 Accipitridae and Pandionidae 159

15 Strigiformes (Owls) 163

15.1 tBerruornis and tSophiornithidae 163

15.2 tProtostrigidae 164

15.3 tOgygoptyngidae 165

15.4 tNecrobyinae, tPalaeoglaucidae, and tSelenornithinae 166

16 Arboreal Birds 169

16.1 Leptosomidae (Courols) 169

16.2 Coliiformes (Mousebirds) 171

16.2.1 tSandcoleidae 172

16.2.2 Coliidae 172

16.3 Psittaciformes (Parrots) 177

16.3.1 tPsittacopes and Allies 177

16.3.2 tQuercypsittidae 179

16.3.3 tHalcyornithidae ("Pseudasturidae") 180

16.3.4 tMesselasturidae 183

16.4 tZygodactylidae and Passeriformes (Passerines) 184

16.4.1 tZygodactylidae 185

16.4.2 Passeriformes 189

16.5 Trogoniformes (Trogons) 191

16.6 Bucerotes (Hornbills, Hoopoes, and Woodhoopoes) 191

16.7 Coraciidae/Brachypteraciidae (Rollers and Ground Rollers) 194

16.7.1 tPrimobucconidae 195

16.7.2 tEocoraciidae and tGeranopteridae 195

16.8 Alcediniformes (Bee-Eaters, Kingfishers, Todies, and Motmots) 197

16.9 Piciformes (Jacamars, Puffbirds, Woodpeckers, and Allies) 199

16.9.1 tSylphornithidae 200

16.9.2 Pici 201

16.10 tGracilitarsidae 201

16.11 tCladornithidae 203

17 Paleogene Avifaunas: Synopsis of General Aspects 205

17.1 Continental Avifaunas of the Northern Hemisphere 205

17.1.1 Biogeography 205

17.1.2 Climatic Cooling and Avifaunal Turnovers 208

17.2 Continental Avifaunas of the Southern Hemisphere 209

17.2.1 Biogeography 209

17.2.2 Extant Southern Hemisphere "Endemics"

in the Paleogene of the Northern Hemisphere 213

17.3 Ecological Interactions 214

17.3.1 Mammalian Evolution and Terrestrial Avifaunas 214

17.3.2 The Impact of Passerines on the Diversity of Paleogene Avian Insectivores 216

17.3.3 Marine Avifaunas 217

Appendix 221

References 227

Index 255

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