Figure acknowledgments

Figure 1.1: from Treatise on Invertebrate Paleontology, part O, Geol. Soc. Amer. and Univ. Kansas Press (Figure 159.6, O218); Crimes, T.P., Legg, I., Marcos, A. and Arboleya, M., 1977, in Crimes, T.P. and Harper, J.C. (eds) Trace Fossils 2, Seel House Press (Figure 10, p. 134). Figure 1.2: based on Williams, S.H., 1986, in Hughes, C.P. and Rickards, R.B. (eds) Palaeoecology and Biostratigraphy of Graptolites, Geological Society Special Publication 20 (Figure 1, pp. 166-7) and Barnes, C.R. and Williams, S.H., 1990, in Briggs, D.E.G. and Crowther, P.R. (eds) Palaeobiology: A Synthesis, Blackwell Scientific Publications (Figure 1, p. 479). Figure 1.5: redrawn from Fortey, R.A. and Cocks, L.R.M., 1986, Journal of the Geological Society, 143, 151-60. Figure 1.8: redrawn and modified from Seilacher, A., Reif, W.-E. and Westphal, F., 1985, Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society ofLondon, B11, 5-23.

Figure 2.2: redrawn from British Mesozoic Fossils, British Musuem (Natural History) (Plate 28(2)). Figure 2.3: modified and redrawn from Campbell, N.A., 1996, Biology, 4th edn (Figure 23-15, p. 476). Figure 2.4: modified and redrawn from Skeleton, P., 1993, Evolution: A Biological and Palaeontological Approach, Addison Wesley (Figure 11.1, p. 512).

Figure 3.1a, b: redrawn from Benton, M. and Harper, D., 1997, Basic Palaeontology, Addison Wesley Longman (Figure 5.10); Figure 3.1c, d: redrawn and simplified from McKinney, F.K., 1991, Exercises in Invertebrate Paleontology, Blackwell Scientific Publications (Figures 4.1, 4.2). Figure 3.2: redrawn and simplified from Prothero, D.R., 1998, Bringing Fossils to Life, W.C.B./McGraw-Hill USA (Figure 12.7). Figure 3.3: redrawn and simplified from Clarkson, E.N.K., 1998, Invertebrate Palaeontology and Evolution, Chapman and Hall (Figure 4.16a). Siphonia, Rhaphidonema: from Clarkson, E.N.K., 1998, Invertebrate Palaeontology and Evolution, Chapman and Hall (Figure 4.6a, d).

Figure 4.2: simplified from Clarkson, E.N.K., 1998, Invertebrate Palaeontology and Evolution, Chapman and Hall (Figure 5.20). Figure 4.3: redrawn from McKinney, F.K., 1991,

Exercises in Invertebrate Paleontology, Blackwell Scientific Publications (Figure 5.2d). Figure 4.4a: redrawn from McKinney, F.K., 1991, Exercises in Invertebrate Paleontology, Blackwell Scientific Publications (Figure 5.6); Figure 4.4b: redrawn from various sources. Figure 4.5: after McKinney, F.K., 1991, Exercises in Invertebrate Paleontology, Blackwell Scientific Publications (Figures 5.4, 5.6). Figure 4.6: redrawn and simplified from Prothero, D.R., 1998, Bringing Fossils to Life, W.C.B./McGraw-Hill USA (Figure 12.13). Figure 4.7: redrawn from British Palaeozoic Fossils, British Museum (Natural History) (Plate 3(7)). Figure 4.8: simplified from Clarkson, E.N.K., 1998, Invertebrate Palaeontology and Evolution, Chapman and Hall (Figure 5.7f). Figure 4.9: based on various sources. Favosites, Halysites: redrawn from British Palaeozoic Fossils, British Museum (Natural History) (Plate 15(1,3)). Palaeosmilia: redrawn from British Palaeozoic Fossils, British Museum (Natural History) (Plate 44(6)). Isastraea, Thecosmilia, Montlivaltia: redrawn from British Mesozoic Fossils, British Museum (Natural History) (Plate 3(2,4,6)). Lithostrotion, Dibunophyllum: redrawn from British Palaeozoic Fossils, British Museum (Natural History) (Plate 43(1,2)).

Figure 5.1: courtesy of Simone Duerr, Liverpool John Moores University. Figure 5.2a, c: simplified and redrawn from Benton, M. and Harper, D., 1997, Basic Palaeontology, Addison Wesley Longman (Figure 6.34); Figure 5.2b: redrawn from McKinney, F.K., 1991, Exercises in Invertebrate Paleontology, Blackwell Scientific Publications (Figure 12.3). Figure 5.3: simplified from Clarkson, E.N.K., 1998, Invertebrate Palaeontology and Evolution, Chapman and Hall (Figure 6.7). Fenestella: redrawn from British Palaeozoic Fossils, British Museum (Natural History) (Plate 4(1)). Stomatopora: redrawn from Clarkson, E.N.K., 1998, Invertebrate Palaeontology and Evolution, Chapman and Hall (Figure 6.11d).

Figure 6.1a: redrawn and modified from Prothero, D.R., 1998, Bringing Fossils to Life, W.C.B./McGraw-Hill USA (Figure 13.2C, p. 228); Figure 6.1b: redrawn and modified from Clarkson, E.N.K., 1998, Invertebrate Palaeontology and Evolution, Chapman and Hall (Figure 7.1e, f, p. 159). Figure 6.2a: redrawn and modified from Clarkson, E.N.K., 1998, Invertebrate Palaeontology and Evolution, Chapman and Hall (Figure 7.1a, b, p. 159); Figure 6.2b: redrawn and modified from Clarkson, E.N.K., 1998, Invertebrate Palaeontology and Evolution, Chapman and Hall (Figure 7.5a, p. 165). Figure 6.3: redrawn from British Palaeozoic Fossils, British Museum (Natural History) (Plate 50(3)). Figure 6.4: based on Ziegler, A.M., Cocks, L.R.M. and Bambach, R.K., 1968, Lethaia, 1, 1-27. Lingula: redrawn from Black, R., 1979, The Elements of Palaeontology, Cambridge University Press (Figure 91a, p. 149). Megellania: redrawn from Clarkson, E.N.K., 1998, Invertebrate Palaeontology and Evolution, Chapman and Hall (Figure 7.1d, p. 159). Gigantoproductus: redrawn from British Palaeozoic Fossils, British Museum (Natural History) (Plate 47(6)). Pentamerus: redrawn from British Palaeozoic Fossils, British Museum (Natural History) (Plate 17(10)). Spirifer: redrawn from Black, R., 1979, The Elements of Palaeontology, Cambridge University Press (Figure 93a, d, p. 152). Prorichthofenia: redrawn from Black, R., 1979, The Elements of Palaeontology, Cambridge University Press (Figure 92j, p. 151). Tetrarynchia: redrawn from Black, R., 1979, The Elements of Palaeontology, Cambridge University Press (Figure 94a, b, p. 155). Colaptomena: redrawn from McKinney, F.K., 1991, Exercises in Invertebrate Palaeontology, Blackwell Scientific Publications (Figure 11.7, p. 160).

Figure 7.1: courtesy of Simone Duerr, Liverpool John Moores University. Figure 7.2: courtesy of H. Hess; redrawn from Hess, H., Ausich, W.I., Brett, C.E. and Simms, M.J., 1999, Fossil Crinoids, Cambridge University Press (Figure 90, p. 78). Figure 7.3: redrawn and modified from Clarkson, E.N.K., 1998, Invertebrate Palaeontology and Evolution, Chapman and Hall (Figure 9.34b, p. 265). Figure 7.4: redrawn and modified from Moore, J., 2001, Introduction to the Invertebrates, Cambridge University Press (Figure 17.4ei, p. 271). Figure 7.5: redrawn from McKinney, F.K., 1991, Exercises in Invertebrate Palaeontology, Blackwell Scientific Publications (Figure 13.1, p. 186). Figure 7.6: courtesy of Simone Duerr, Liverpool John Moores University. Figure 7.7: based on McKinney, F.K., 1991, Exercises in Invertebrate

Palaeontology, Blackwell Scientific Publications (Figure 13.6, p. 192). Figure 7.8: redrawn and modified from Moore, J., 2001, Introduction to the Invertebrates, Cambridge University Press (Figure 17.4eii, p. 271). Figure 7.9: based on various sources. All echinoderms redrawn from British Palaeozoic Fossils, British Museum (Natural History) (Plates 59(8,9), 60(3)); British Mesozoic Fossils, British Museum (Natural History) (Plates 42(1,2), 44(1), 45(2), 69(1), 70(3)).

Figures 8.1, 8.2: courtesy of Sam Stubbs, Neal Immega. Figure 8.3: based on various sources. Figure 8.4: based on various sources. All trilobites redrawn from British Palaeozoic Fossils, British Museum (Natural History).

Figure 9.1: redrawn and modified from Moore, J., 2001, Introduction to the Invertebrates, Cambridge University Press (Figure 10.1a, p. 132). Figure 9.2: based on various sources. Figure 9.4a, b: redrawn and modified from Prothero, D.R., 1998, Bringing Fossils to Life, W.C.B./McGraw-Hill USA (Figure 15.11F, G, p. 288); Figure 9.4c: redrawn and modified from Moore, J., 2001, Introduction to the Invertebrates, Cambridge University Press (Figure 11.1d, p. 153). Table 9.3: based on various sources. Figure 9.5: based on Clarkson, E.N.K., 1998, Invertebrate Palaeontology and Evolution, Chapman and Hall (Figure 8.11, p. 211). Figures 9.6, 9.7: redrawn and modified from Stanley, S.M., 1968, Journal of Paleontology, 42, 214-29 (Figures 6 and 4, respectively). Figure 9.8: redrawn and modified from Moore, J., 2001, Introduction to the Invertebrates, Cambridge University Press (Figure 11.4a, p. 160). Figure 9.9: redrawn from Doyle, P., 1996, Understanding Fossils, Wiley and Sons (Figure 9.12, p. 172). Figure 9.10: redrawn and modified from Boss, K.J., 1982, in Parker, S.P. (ed.) Synopsis and Classification of Living Organisms, McGraw-Hill (p. 968). Figure 9.11: redrawn and modified from Clarkson, E.N.K., 1998, Invertebrate Palaeontology and Evolution, Chapman and Hall (Figure 8.21a, p. 231). Figure 9.12: redrawn and modified from Clarkson, E.N.K., 1998, Invertebrate Palaeontology and Evolution, Chapman and Hall (Figure 8.24c, p. 239). Figure 9.13: redrawn from Callomon, J.H., 1963, Transactions of the Leicester Literary and Philosophical Society, 57, 21-6. Figure 9.14: redrawn from Clarkson, E.N.K., 1998, Invertebrate Palaeontology and Evolution, Chapman and Hall (Figure 8.30, p. 29); Treatise on Invertebrate Paleontology, part L, Geol. Soc. Amer. and Univ. Kansas Press. Figure 9.15: redrawn and modified from Benton, M. and Harper, D. 1997, Basic Palaeontology, Addison Wesley Longman (Figure 8.31a, p. 188). Figure 9.16: redrawn and modified from Prothero, D.R., 1998, Bringing Fossils to Life, W.C.B./McGraw-Hill USA (Figure 15.27, p. 304); Batt, R.J., 1989, Palaios, 4, 32-42. Figure 9.17: redrawn and modified from Brusca, R.C. and Brusca, G.J., 1990, Invertebrates, Sinauer Associates (Figure 13G, p. 712). Figure 9.18: redrawn from Clarkson, E.N.K., 1998, Invertebrate Palaeontology and Evolution, Chapman and Hall (Figure 8.32a-c, p. 253). Mya: redrawn from British Caenozoic Fossils, British Museum (Natural History) (Plate 38(11)). Ensis: redrawn from Clarkson, E.N.K., 1998, Invertebrate Palaeontology and Evolution, Chapman and Hall (Figure 8.11m, p. 211). Teredo: redrawn and modified from Black, R.M., 1970, The Elements of Palaeontology, Cambridge University Press (Figure 21b, p. 44). Radiolites: redrawn from Clarkson, E.N.K., 1998, Invertebrate Palaeontology and Evolution, Chapman and Hall (Figure 8.13j). Turritella, Planorbis, Hygromia: redrawn from British Caenozoic Fossils, British Museum (Natural History) (Plates 39(5), 41(15), 42(2)). Buccinum: redrawn and modified from Clarkson, E.N.K., 1998, Invertebrate Palaeontology and Evolution, Chapman and Hall (Figure 8.17b, p. 222). Patella: redrawn and modified from Black, R.M., 1970, The Elements of Palaeontology, Cambridge University Press (Figure 35a, p. 64). Ammonites: redrawn from British Mesozoic Fossils, British Museum (Natural History) (Plates 30(2), 32(1,2), 37(4), 66(2)); British Palaeozoic Fossils, British Museum (Natural History) (Plate 58(6)). Neohibolites: redrawn from British Mesozoic Fossils, British Museum (Natural History) (Plate 67(4)).

Figure 10.1: based on various sources.

Figures 11.1, 11.2, 11.5, 11.8, 11.10, 11.12: original diagrams, with cartoons of skeletons redrawn from a variety of sources, most commonly from Benton, M., 1997, Vertebrate

Palaeontology, Chapman and Hall. Figure 11.3: simplified from Benton, M., 1997, Vertebrate Palaeontology, Chapman and Hall (Figure 9.6d). Figure 11.4: redrawn from Benton, M. 1990, Vertebrate Palaeontology, Chapman and Hall (Figure 3.1a, b, p. 47). Figure 11.7: redrawn Hylonomous. Figures in Table 11.1: redrawn from Black, R., 1979, The Elements of Palaeontology, Cambridge University Press (Figure 188). Figure 11.11: redrawn from hominin phylogeny, Home of Nature's Holism, http://www.ecotao.com/holism/index.htm. Figure 11.13: redrawn from Prothero, D.R., 1998, Bringing Fossils to Life, W.C.B./McGraw-Hill USA (Figure 17.46).

Figure 12.1: redrawn and modified from Benton, M. and Harper, D., 1997, Basic Palaeontology, Addison Wesley Longman (Figure 10.8, p. 232). Figure 12.3: redrawn from Andrews, H.N. Jr., 1960, Palaeobotanist, 7, 85-9. Figure 12.4: courtesy of D. Edwards; redrawn from Edwards, D., 1970, Palaeontology, 13, 150-5. Figure 12.5: redrawn from Edwards, D.S., 1980, Reviews of Paleobotany and Palynology, 29, 177-88. Figure 12.6: redrawn from Andrews, H.N. and Kasper, A.E., 1970, Maine State Geological Survey Bulletin, 23, 3-16 (Figure 6). Figure 12.7: redrawn and modified from Eggert, D.A., 1974, American Journal of Botany, 61, 405-13. Figure 12.8: based on various sources. Figure 12.9a: redrawn and modified from Bold, H.C., Alexopoulos, C.J. and Delevoryas, T., 1987, Morphology of Plants and Fungi, Harper International Edition (Figure 25-16, p. 613); Figure 12.9b: redrawn from Stewart, W.N. and Delevoryas, T., 1956, Botanical Review, 22, 45-80 (Figure 9). Figure 12.10: redrawn from Andrews, H.N., 1961, Studies in Paleobotany, Wiley and Sons (Figure 11-1). Figure 12.11: redrawn from Delevoryas, T., 1971, Proceedings of the North American PaleontologicalConvention, 1, 1660-74. Figure 12.12: redrawn and modified from Bold, H.C., Alexopoulos, C.J. and Delevoryas, T., 1987, Morphology of Plants and Fungi, Harper International Edition (Figure 24-2, p. 584). Figure 12.13: redrawn from Crane, P.R. and Lidgard, S., 1989, Science, 246, 675-8. Figure 12.14: courtesy of G. Sun et al.; redrawn from Sun, G., Ji, Q., Dilcher, D.L., Zheng, S., Nixon, K.C. and Wang, X., 2002, Science, 296, 899-904 (Figure 3). All fossil plants: redrawn from British Palaeozoic Fossils, British Museum (Natural History) (Plates 38(1,2,3,5), 39(2,4,5), 40(3)).

Figure 13.1a, b: redrawn from Lipps, J.H., 1993, FossilProkaryotes and Protists, Blackwell Scientific Publications (Figure 6.2G, I, p. 79); Figure 13.1c: redrawn from Wall, D., 1962, Geological Magazine, 99, 353-62. Figure 13.2: courtesy of Nick Butterfield, University of Cambridge. Figure 13.3: redrawn and modified from Brasier, M.D., 1980, Microfossils, Chapman and Hall (Figure 4.2d, p. 23); Wall, D. and Dale, B., 1968, Micropalaeontology, 14, 265-304. Figure 13.4a: redrawn from Lipps, J.H., 1993, Fossil Prokaryotes and Protists, Blackwell Scientific Publications (Figure 11.3B, p. 171). Figure 13.6: based on various sources. Figure 13.7: modified and redrawn from various sources. Figure 13.8: courtesy of Taniel Danelian, Université Lille. Figure 13.9: based on various sources. Figure 13.10: redrawn from Brasier, M.D., 1980, Microfossils, Chapman and Hall (Figure 14.1a). Figure 13.11: courtesy of Dave Sieveter, University of Leicester. Figure 13.12: based on various sources. Figure 13.13: redrawn from Brasier, M.D., 1980, Microfossils, Chapman and Hall (Figure 14.10b, p. 134). Figure 13.14a-c: based on Brasier, M.D., 1980, Microfossils, Chapman and Hall (Figure 16.5-16.7, pp. 157-8); Figure 13.14d: redrawn from McKinney, F.K., 1991, Exercises in Invertebrate Palaeontology, Blackwell Scientific Publications (Figure 16.2a, p. 242). Figure 13.15: redrawn and modified from Briggs, D.E.G., Clarkson, E.N.K. and Smith, M.P., 1983, Lethaia, 16, 1-14 (Figure 2). Figure 13.16: redrawn from Goudie, A., 1982, Environmental Change, Oxford University Press (Figure 2.7A, p. 51). Hystrichosphaeridium: redrawn from Brasier, M.D., 1980, Microfossils, Chapman and Hall (Figure 4.3g, p. 26); Tschudy, R.H. and Scott, R.A. (eds), 1969, Aspects of Palynology, Wiley-Interscience, New York. Coscinodiscus: redrawn from Lipps, J.H., 1993, Fossil Prokaryotes and Protists, Blackwell Scientific Publications (Figure 10.5B, p. 159). Bathropyramis: redrawn from Brasier, M.D., 1980, Microfossils, Chapman and Hall (Figure 12.7c, p. 87). Globigerina, Bolivina: redrawn from Prothero, D.R., 1998, Bringing Fossils to Life, W.C.B./McGraw-Hill USA

(Figure 11.7, p. 194). Elphidium: redrawn from Lipps, J.H., 1993, Fossil Prokaryotes and Protists, Blackwell Scientific Publications (Figure 12.16, p. 219). Beyrichia: redrawn from Brasier, M.D., 1980, Microfossils, Chapman and Hall (Figure 14.10c, p. 134). Cypridina: redrawn from McKinney, F.K., 1991, Exercises in Invertebrate Palaeontology, Blackwell Scientific Publications (Figure 6.7, p. 87). Emiliana: redrawn from Lipps, J.H., 1993, Fossil Prokaryotes and Protists, Blackwell Scientific Publications (Figure 11.15, p. 181). Cypris: redrawn from Brasier, M.D., 1980, Microfossils, Chapman and Hall (Figure 14.7, p. 129). Bythocertina: redrawn from Brasier, M.D., 1980, Microfossils, Chapman and Hall (Figure 14.18c, p. 141). Quercus: redrawn from Oakley, K., 1969, Frameworks for Dating Fossil Man, 3rd edn, Weidenfeld and Nicolson (Figure 16b, p. 72).

Figure 14.1: based on Frey, R.W., Pemberton, S.G. and Saunders, T.D.A., 1984, Bulletin of Canadian Petroleum Geology, 33, 72-115 (Figure 7). Figure 14.2: based on Frey, R.W., Pemberton, S.G. and Saunders, T.D.A., 1990, JournalofPaleontology, 64(1), 155-8 (Figure 1); Brenchley, P.R. and Harper, D.A.T., 1998, Palaeoecology: Ecosystems, Environments and Evolution, Chapman and Hall (Figure 5.6, p. 155). Figure 14.3: redrawn from University of Sheffield, Sorby Geology Group, http://www.sorbygeology.group.shef.ac.uk/DIN0C01/ dinocal1.html.

Figure 15.1b: redrawn and simplified from Benton, M. and Harper, D., 1997, Basic Palaeontology, Addison Wesley Longman (Figure 4.4). Figure 15.4: courtesy of Nick But-terfield, University of Cambridge. Figure 15.5: redrawn and modified from Benton, M. and Harper, D., 1997, Basic Palaeontology, Addison Wesley Longman (Figure 4.7). Figure 15.6: based on various sources.

Figures 16.2, 16.4: redrawn and modified from various sources. Figure 16.6: redrawn from evolution.berkeley.edu/evosite/evo101/VIIB1dM. Figure 16.7: redrawn from Barton, N.H., Briggs, D.E.G., Eisen, J.A., Goldstein, D.B. and Patel, N.H., 2007, Evolution, Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory Press (Figure 10.67).

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