Archaeocyte: the basic cell types found in sponges from which all specialist cells develop.

Ascon: simplest grade of sponge organization - the animal composes a single cup with perforated walls. Choanocyte: specialist sponge cells with a long, active filament (flagellum) which can be used to move water through the body of the sponge and microvilli (brush-like sets of small filaments) to extract food from the water. Flagella: whip-like appendage on a cell, allowing it to move or to generate currents.

Leucon: the most complicated grade of sponge organization -a series of feeding chambers are linked by canals to a common paragaster.

Osculum: aperture of a paragaster.

Ostia: small pores in the sponge wall through which water enters the animal.

Paragaster: central chamber of a sponge. Spicule: the skeletal building block of a sponge, composed of silica, calcium carbonate, or a tough organic material, spon-gin. They are scattered with variable degrees of self-contact through the soft tissue of the sponge.

Sycon: intermediate grade of sponge organization - several feeding chambers open from a single paragaster.

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Survival Basics

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