Glossary

Bilateria: organisms that display bilateral symmetry. DNA (deoxyribonucleic acid): double-stranded nucleic acid that can replicate itself. It determines the inherited structure of a cell's proteins.

Enzyme: organic catalyst that changes the rate of metabolism. Eukaryote: organism made up of one or more cells with a nucleus enclosed by a membrane and membrane-bounded organelles.

Gene sequences: strings of DNA or RNA, which contain genetic information.

Genetic code: sequence of triplets of molecules carried on chromosomes, which determines most of the physical characteristics of an organism, and is composed of DNA or RNA. Isotopes: elements with similar chemical properties but different numbers of neutrons.

Krebs' cycle: chemical cycle that completes the breakdown of glucose to carbon. It takes place in the eukaryotic mitochondria.

Metazoans: multicellular eukaryotes that rely on an external source of food.

Mitochondria: eukaryotic organelles that serve as the site for the operation of Krebs' cycle.

Molecular clock: method of comparing DNA sequences in order to establish the timing of evolutionary divergence. Organelle: one of several specialized structures found in eukaryotic cells, for example mitochondria and chloroplasts. Photosynthesis: biological process that converts light energy into chemical energy, which is stored in glucose or other organic compounds.

Plastids: eukaryotic plant organelles including chloroplasts. Prebilateralia: animals that display radial symmetry. Prokaryote: cell without a nucleus and membrane-bound organelles.

RNA (ribonucleic acid): a single-stranded, simpler alternative than DNA that also carries genetic information.

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Survival Basics

Survival Basics

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