Adductor muscles: muscles that contract to close the valves.

Astrophic: curved hinge line.

Beak: point from which the valve starts to grow.

Brachidium: lophophore support.

Commissure: line along which the valves meet.

Delthyrium: triangular opening in the ventral valve.

Deltidial plates: plates that close the delthyrium.

Deltidium: single plate that closes the delthyrium.

Diductor muscles: muscles that contract to open the valves.

Dorsal (brachial) valve: valve to which the lophophore attaches.

Fold: elevated area in the anterior of the valve with a corresponding sulcus in the other valve. Foramen: opening for the pedicle.

Interarea: area between the beak and the hinge line. Lophophore: brachiopod feeding and respiratory mechanism. Mantle: body tissues that secrete the shell. Notothyrium: triangular opening in the dorsal valve. Pedicle: fleshy stalk used to attach the brachiopod to the substrate.

Spiralia: coiled brachidia, typical of Spirifer. Spondylium: muscle platform, typical of Pentamerus. Strophic: straight hinge line.

Sulcus: depression in the anterior of the valve with a corresponding fold in the other valve. Umbo: rounded area around the beak. Ventral (pedicle) valve: valve to which the pedicle attaches.

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Survival Basics

Survival Basics

This is common knowledge that disaster is everywhere. Its in the streets, its inside your campuses, and it can even be found inside your home. The question is not whether we are safe because no one is really THAT secure anymore but whether we can do something to lessen the odds of ever becoming a victim.

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