Glossary

Adductor muscles: muscles that contract to close the valves.

Astrophic: curved hinge line.

Beak: point from which the valve starts to grow.

Brachidium: lophophore support.

Commissure: line along which the valves meet.

Delthyrium: triangular opening in the ventral valve.

Deltidial plates: plates that close the delthyrium.

Deltidium: single plate that closes the delthyrium.

Diductor muscles: muscles that contract to open the valves.

Dorsal (brachial) valve: valve to which the lophophore attaches.

Fold: elevated area in the anterior of the valve with a corresponding sulcus in the other valve. Foramen: opening for the pedicle.

Interarea: area between the beak and the hinge line. Lophophore: brachiopod feeding and respiratory mechanism. Mantle: body tissues that secrete the shell. Notothyrium: triangular opening in the dorsal valve. Pedicle: fleshy stalk used to attach the brachiopod to the substrate.

Spiralia: coiled brachidia, typical of Spirifer. Spondylium: muscle platform, typical of Pentamerus. Strophic: straight hinge line.

Sulcus: depression in the anterior of the valve with a corresponding fold in the other valve. Umbo: rounded area around the beak. Ventral (pedicle) valve: valve to which the pedicle attaches.

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