Acknowledgments

We are truly indebted to a large number of individuals and institutions who eagerly assisted us in the preparation of this book. This includes all of our colleagues both past and present, who readily contributed illustrations as well as the various professional journals, book publishers, and professional organizations that granted permission to use copyrighted material. We are also indebted to numerous colleagues who took the time to read chapters and sections of the book, and freely discussed their ideas so that we could produce a book that is as up-to-date as possible in a field covering as much information as does paleo-botany. These include:

J. D. Aitken • V. M. Albright • A. C. Allwood • K. L. Alvin • H. M. Anderson • J. M. Anderson • H. N. Andrews, Jr. • Anschutz Science Library staff, University of Kansas • A. Archangelsky • S. Archangelsky • S. R. Ash • K. R. Aulenback • L. Axe • B. J. Axsmith • N. R. Banerjee • H. P. Banks • F. Baron • D. Barr • M. Barthel • R. A. Baschnagel • J. F. Basinger • D. Bassi • P. W. Basson • L. H. Batenburg • R. W. Baxter • Bayerische Staatssammlung für Paläontologie und Geologie, Munich (BSPG) • S. C. Beadle • C. B. Beck • J. Bek • J. M. Benson • M. L. Berbee • S. Berger • M. E. C. Bernardes-de-Oliveria • C. M. Berry • J. Bogner • B. Bomfleur • P. M. Bonamo • M. N. Bose • H. Blütmann • S. D. Brack (Brack-Hanes) • D. F. Brauer • M. Brea • W. Brenner • D. W. Brett • D. E. G. Briggs •

H. K. Brooks • N. C. Brotzman • J. T. Brown • V. I. Burago • J. Burgess • N. D. Burgess • N. J. Butterfield •

R. Butzmann • L. Calvillo-Canadell • D. J. Cantrill • L. M. Carluccio • A. V. Carozzi • R. J. Carpenter • S. N. Césari • S. R. S. Cevallos-Ferriz • W. G. Chaloner • S. Chandra • D. S. Chaney • M. Chaphekar • R. L. Chapman • I. Chen • S. Chitaley • D. C. Christophel • M. A. Cichan • J. A. Clement-Westerhof • J. A. Clendening • G. T. Cole • M. Collinson • N. Combourieu • M. E. Cook • B. Cornet • P. R. Crane • W. L. Crepet • A. A. Cridland • W. N. Croft • Y. M. Crosbie • A. T. Cross • N. R. Cúneo • R. Daber • C. P. Daghlian • V. Daviero-Gomez •

E. Y. Dawson • A.-L. Decombeix • T. Delevoryas • G. del Fueyo • C. Delwiche • T. Denk • R. L. Dennis • Denver Museum of Nature • M. E. Dettmann • M. DeVore • C. Diéguez • D. L. Dil cher • R. M. Dillhoff • W. A. DiMichele • M. Dolezych • S. Doerenkamp • J. B. Doran • H. Dörfelt • N. Dotzler • J. A. Doyle • A. N. Drinnan • X.-M. Du • J. Dupéron • M. Dupéron-Laudoueneix • D. Edwards • D. S. Edwards • L. E. Edwards • D. A. Eggert •

D. L. Eggert • H. Eklund • W. E. El-Saadawy • G. Elliott • M. S. Engel • I. Ernstmeier • J. Erl • D. M. Erwin •

I. Escapa • W. R. Evitt • M. Fairon-Demaret • M. Feist • D. K. Ferguson • P. F. Fields • T. I. Fine • T. Fischer •

F. Fleming • G. L. Floyd • V K. Folkman • W. H. Forbes • C. B. Foster • J.-P. Frahm • F. Franzmeyer •

W. E. Friedman • E. M. Friis • W. L. Fry • G. Fuchs • J. Galtier • M. A. Gandolfo • Z. Gao • R. A. Gastaldo • C. T. Gee • P. G. Gensel • Geological Society of America • Geologische Bundesanstalt, Vienna (GBA) • E. A. George • P. Gerrienne • R. W. Gess • D. E. Giannasi • W. H. Gillespie • C. W. Good • I. Glasspool • K. D. Gordon-Gray • R. Gossmann • K. Goth • R. E. Gould • F. Gradstein • S. R. Gradstein • A. Graham • L. E. Graham • N. Grambast-Fessard • L. Grauvogel-Stamm • J. Gray • J. D. Grierson • R. Grolle • M. A. Haban • D. W. Haines • J. W. Hall • Hancock Museum • S.-G. Hao • T. M. Harris • C. M. Hartman • H. Hass • A. R. Hemsley • P. S. Herendeen •

E. J. Hermsen • G. R. Hernández-Castillo • G. Heumann • F. A. Hibbert • D. S. Hibbert • L. J. Hickey • A. Hill • R. S.Hill • S.A.Hill • N. Hiller • L. Hillis • J.M.Hilton • Hirmer Verlag GmbH, Munich • H. J. Hofmann •

J. C. Holmes • W. B. K. Holmes • H. J. Hoops • R. C. Hope • C. A. Hopping • D. G. Horton • C. L. Hotton • J. Hsü • F. M. Hueber • A.Iglesias • I. A. Ignatiev • W. I. Illman • InterlibraryLoanstaff,UniversityofKansas • International Commission on Stratigraphy • L. C. Ivany • B. F. Jacobs • H. Jähnichen • G. Janssen • J. A. Janssens • H.-B. Jansson • S. Jardiné • E. A. Jarzembowski • D. M. Jarzen • J. R. Jennings • A. J. Jeram • K. R. Johnson • M. E. Johnson • D. S. Jones • J. H. Jones • W. W. Jung • M. J. Kaever • E. Karasev • E. E. Karrfalt • A. E. Kasper •

K.-P. Kelber • P. Kenrick • E. M. Kern • H. Kerp • P. F. Kidwai • B.-K. Kim • T. Kimura • M. Kirchner •

B. L. Kirkland • S. Kiyokawa • S. D. Klavins • M. J. Knaus • A. H. Knoll • A. S. Konopka • E. B. Koppelhus •

W. L. Kovach • V A. Krassilov • J. Kukalova-Peck • J. KvaCek • Z. KvaCek • C. C. Labandeira • Laboratory of Palaeobotany and Palynology, Utrecht University (LPPU) • W. S. Lacey • W. H. Lang • C. A. LaPasha •

I. S. Latimer, Jr. • J.-P. Laveine • R. L. Leary • S. Leclercq • G. A. Leisman • K. U. Leistikow • B. A. LePage •

U. Leppig • C.-S. Li • H.-L. Li • J. H. Lipps • R. J. Litwin • Ludwig-Maximilians-Universität München •

S. T. LoDuca • A. G. Long Collection • C. V Looy • T. A. Lott • D. R. Lowe • B. Lugardon • B. Lundblad • S. D. Lys •

H. K. Maheshwari • S. H. Mamay • S. R. Manchester • S. B. Manum • G. Mapes • F. Marsh • D. M. Martill •

L.C.Matten • J. D. Mauseth • MaxKadeCenterforGerman-AmericanStudies,UniversityofKansas • H. Mayr •

A. M. McClain • E. E. Mclver • S. McLoughlin • C. A. McRoberts • J. Mehl • K. Meister • S. V Meyen •

H. W. Meyer • B. Meyer-Berthaud • J. E. Mickle • M. A. Millay • C. E. Miller • C. N. Miller, Jr. • J. M. Miller •

B. A. R. Mohr • M. Montenari • E. D. Morey • J. Morgan • J. E. Morris • Museum für Naturkunde, Berlin (MNB) • Narodni Muzeum (National Museum), Prague • N. S. Nagalingum • K. K. Namboodiri • E. M. V Nambudiri • Naturhistorisches Museum Schloss Bertholdsburg Schleusingen (NMS) • Naturhistorisches Museum, Vienna (NHM) • Naturhistoriska Riksmuseet, Stockholm (NRM) • S. V. Naugolnykh • D. D. Nautiyal • M. E. Nelson • K. J. Niklas • E. Nisbet • H. Nishida • M. Nishida • M. H. Nitecki • K. C. Nixon • H. N0hr-Hansen • R. Noll • M. Nose •

L. L. Oestry • T. Ohana • Oklahoma Geological Survey • G. Oleschinski • J. M. Osborn • A. D. Pan • D. D. Pant •

B. C. Parker • L. R. Parker • K. Parris • M. Parrish • C. S. Pearsall • K. R. Pedersen • K. Perch-Nielsen •

C. P. Person • J. Peters • B. Petriella • H. W. Pfefferkorn • H. Pflug • R. N. Pheifer • T. L. Phillips • C. J. Phipps • K. B. Pigg • G. Playford • D. T. Pocknall • S. A. J. Pocock • G. O. Poinar • D. Pons • R. J. Poort • R. W. Portell • C. Pott • F. W. Potter • N. W. Radforth • C. G. K. Ramanujam • P. H. Raven • C. B. Read • J. D. Reed •

M. A. Reihman • D. Remy • R. Remy • W. Remy • G. J. Retallack • R. Riding • E. Rieber • J. F. Rigby • M. O. Rischbieter • C. R. Robison • D. M. Rohr • E. J. Romero • R. Rössler • G. W. Rothwell • N. P. Rowe •

A. C. Rozefelds • P. E. Ryberg • C. Rydin • B. Sahni • F. Schaarschmidt • J. T. Schabilion • S. E. Scheckler • R. Schmid • A. Schmidt • S. Schneider • J. W. Schopf • J. M. Schramke • R. E. Schultes • S. Schultka •

R. M. Schuster • H.-J. Schweitzer • U. Schweitzer • A. C. Scott • R. A. Scott • S. Sekido • P. A. Selden • A. Selmeier •

B. S. Serlin • T. Servais • R. L. Seymour • G. L. Shadle • B. D. Sharma • W. A. Shear • M. A. Sherwood-Pike •

C. H. Shute • M. A. Siders • J. Silander • A. D. Simper • Z. Simunek • C. A. Sincock • R. S. Singh • J. E. Skog •

J. J. Skvarla • C. J. Smiley • M. L. So • I. Sobbe • S. K. Srivastava • G. D. Stanley • P. Steemans • W. E. Stein, Jr. •

H. Steur • W. N. Stewart • B. M. Stidd • R. A. Stockey • W. C. Stowe • M. Streel • C. A. E. Strömberg •

P. Strother • S. P. Stubblefield • T. F. Stuessy • O. P. Suthar • K. Sugitani • K. R. Surange • N. P. Swanson •

H. A. J. M. Swinkels • R. E. Taggart • T. Tanai • W. R. Tanner • D. W. Taylor • G. H. Taylor • J. W. Taylor •

W. A. Taylor • G. F. Thayn • B. A. Thomas • J. R. Thomasson • L. Tidwell • W. D. Tidwell • A. M. Torres •

J. M. Trappe • A. Traverse • N. Trewin • M. L. Trivett • G. R. Upchurch • H. W. J. van Amerom • M. van Campo •

R. W. J. M. Van der Ham • D. E. Van Dijk • J. H. A. Van Konijnenburg-Van Cittert • G. Vasanthy • M. Vecoli •

J. C. Vega • R. Verwer • Alexander von Humboldt-Stiftung • L. Voronova • C. Vozenin-Serra • C. A. Wagner •

R. H. Wagner • D.-M. Wang • H.-S. Wang • L. Wang • X. L. Wang • Y. Wang • Z.-Q. Wang • J. V Ward •

S. Warner • J. Watson • J. A. Webb • C. H. Wellman • R. Werneburg • W. Werner • F. Westall • E. A. Wheeler •

D. C. White • J. F. White, Jr. • M. E. White • R. Wicander • D. C. Wight • P. Wilf • L. R. Wilson • R. B. Winston • J.A.Wolfe • V P. Wright • S.Xiao • Z. L. Xu • A.Yabe • X.Yao • Z.Yao • Z.-Q.Yao • J.R.Young •

Y. D. Zakharov • R. J. Zakrzewski • S.-Q. Zan • M. S. Zavada • Z. Zhang • Z. Zhou • J.-N. Zhu, if we has missed someone we are deeply apologetic.

We are especially indebted to Rudolph Serbet and Andrew Schwendemann for their invaluable help and assistance in photographing specimens, adding bar scales to images, and in general overseeing the myriad tasks associated with preparing the illustrations in a volume of this size. Without their attention to detail this volume could not have been completed. Christian Pott and Hans Kerp skillfully took and graciously provided, a number of digital images from paleobotanical collections in Europe, some of which have not been published earlier. Jeannie Houts deserves special mention for her assistance in all phases of the preparation of this book. Her ability to deal simultaneously with the three of us was a challenge that she met with diligence, skill, and efficiency, and which now requires a new definition for the word "patience."

We are indebted to Frank Baron and the Max Kade Center for German-American Studies at the University of Kansas for making accommodations available when MK visited Lawrence to work on the book, and to Judith Erl, Munich, who displayed special skill and patience in ferreting out literature for the bibliography. Thanks also to J. William Schopf for his assistance with many questions on Precambrian life.

We are appreciative of the extraordinary help we received from Pat Gonzalez, Developmental Editor, and Andy Richford, Senior Acquisition Editor, both of Academic Press, for their unusual patience and assistance in bringing this volume to fruition; and to Mani Prabakaran and his staff at Macmillan Publishing Solutions for their attention to detail throughout the editing process. To the many individuals who participated in this enterprise that we never directly interacted with - we sincerely thank you for your professional expertise and assistance along the way. We could not have completed the book without your

We gratefully acknowledge the National Science Foundation and Alexander von Humboldt- Stiftung for financial assistance that has supported our research programs. This support has provided assistance in many ways that has allowed us to continue our research and scholarly activities and interests, and to actively participate in the discoveries that make the discipline of paleobotany so exciting. To our families, friends, colleagues, and institutions where we are employed—we can never truly express how very much we appreciate your support and patience during the preparation of this book. You all have made sacrifices of untold proportion and exhibited extraordinary patience as we have worked on. This book would not have been completed without your understanding and friendship.

There are many individuals who have influenced our careers or have made it possible for us to participate in this writing exercise. They have been there to teach and critique, to support and challenge, and to question and inspire—and their support and enthusiasm has never wavered. George W. Burns, Bill Crepet, Fred Daniels, Chuck Daghlian, Ted Delevoryas, David Dilcher, Don Eggert, Ray Evert, Hans Kerp, Serge Mamay, Mike Millay, Elisabeth Peveling, Richard Popham, Winfried Remy, Gar Rothwell, Ruth Stockey, and Bill Stewart deserve special mention. Finally, we thank T. Cartel for friendship and support during our careers.

As every chapter begins with a quotation, we will end with this famous one from Isaac Newton: "If [we] have seen farther it is by standing on the shoulders of giants."

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