Chapter

Introduction to Vascular Plant Morphology and Anatomy 201

Plant Organography 202

Cell Types 203

Parenchyma 203

Collenchyma 203

Sclerenchyma 203

Tracheary Elements 204

Tracheids 204

Vessel Elements 206

Sieve Elements 206

Plant Tissues and Primary Growth 207

Xylem Tissue 207

Phloem Tissue 207

Meristems 208

Epidermis 208

Cuticle 209

Stomata 209

Trichomes 210

Anatomy of Stems and Roots 210

Arrangement of Primary Tissues 210

Primary Xylem Maturation Patterns 212

Secondary Development 212

Vascular Cambium 212

Cork Cambium (Phellogen) 213

Secondary Xylem 214

Secondary Phloem 216

Stele Types 216 Primitive Vascular Plants (Vascular Cryptogams) 216

Seed Plants 219

Leaf Morphology and Anatomy 221

Leaf Anatomy 221

Leaf Evolution 222

Further Reading 222

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