Chapter

The Move to the Land 179

Enigmatic Organisms 180

Nematophytes 180

Prototaxites 180

Nematothallus 183

Nematoplexus 183

Nematasketum diversiforme 183

Pachytheca 184

Spongiophytaceae 185

Spongiophyton 185

Orestovia 186

Other Enigmatic Organisms 186

Protosalvinia 186

Parka 188 Isolated Fragments: Clues to the Transition to Land? 189

Cuticle and Cuticle-Like Material 189

Spores and Spore Tetrads 189

Tubes 192

Land Plant Ancestors 193

The Transition to Land 194

Anchorage and Water Uptake 194

Structural Support and Water Transport 195

Protection Against Desiccation and Radiation 195

Gas Exchange 195

Reproduction on Land 196

Life History Biology 196

Homologous Theory 196

Antithetic Theory 196

Animals 198

A Fungal Partner 198

Conclusion 199

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