Chapter

Fungi, Bacteria, and Lichens 71

Fungi 71

Earliest Fossil Fungi 73

Systematics of Fungi 77

Chytridiomycota 77

Zygomycota 82

Glomeromycota 84

Ascomycota 90

Basidiomycota 93

Other Fungal Remains 97

Fungal Life-History Strategies 98

Saprotrophism 98

Parasitism 99

Mutualism 103

Fungi-Animal Interactions 105

Geologic Activities of Fungi 107

Epiphyllous Fungi 108

Fungal Spores 111

Fungal-like Organisms 112

Peronosporomycetes (Oomycota) 112

Eubacteria and Archaea 112

Archaea 113

Eubacteria 113

Cyanobacteria 115

Lichens 117

CHAPTER 4 Algae 121

Chlorophyta (Green Algae) 123

Prasinophyceae 124

Chlorophyceae 126

Volvocales 126

Tetrasporales 126

Chlorococcales 127

Ulvophyceae 128

Dasycladales 128

Receptaculitida and Cyclocrinales 130

Caulerpales 130

Taxa Incertae Sedis 133

Charophyceae 133

Charales 134

Zygnematales 138

Euglenophyta 138

Dinophyta (Dinoflagellates) 139

Heterokontophyta 141

Bacillariophyceae (Diatoms) 141

Dictyochophyceae (Silicoflagellates) 142

Xanthophyceae (Yellow-Green Algae) 142

Phaeophyceae (Brown Algae) 143

Prymnesiophyta (Haptophytes) 144

Rhodophyta (Red Algae) 145

Solenoporaceans 146

Other Calcified Red Algae 149

Corallinales 149

Uncalcified Red Algae 150

Acritarcha (Acritarchs) 158

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