Contents

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Preface vii

Acknowledgments x

Introduction xi

^ 1 Alien Life: From Science Fiction to Mars Rocks 1

Alien Creatures: Science Fiction or Fact? 6

Giordano Bruno (1548-1600) 7

Percival Lowell and the Canals of Mars 9 Herbert George (H. G.) Wells and Invaders from Mars 12

Androids and Cyborgs 14

Other Influential Pre-Space Age Writers 16

The Space Age View of Mars 18

Martian Meteorites 21

^ 2 Life in the Universe 26

Anthropic Principle 27

How Old Is Planet Earth? 29

Principle of Mediocrity 34

Continuously Habitable Zone 36

Extremophiles 38

Panspermia 41

We Are Made of Stardust 43 Is Earth the Galaxy's Most Unusual and Lucky Planet? 49

Gaia Hypothesis 51

Extraterrestrial Catastrophe Theory 52

^ 3 Principles of Exobiology:

How Scientists Search for Alien Life 56

Amino Acid Extraterrestrial Life Chauvinisms

60 60

Spectral Classification of Stars 61

NASA's Viking Project 62 NASA's Approach to Reducing the Bioload of the Viking Landers 66

Deep Space Network (DSN) 70

NASA's Origins Program 75

Spitzer Space Telescope (SST) 78

Keck Interferometer 81

Interferometer 82

Large Binocular Telescope Interferometer 83

4 The Hunt for Life on Mars 85

Mars Pathfinder Mission 86

Mars Global Surveyor Mission 88

Mars Odyssey 2001 Mission 89

Mars Express Mission 90

Mars Exploration Rover (MER) 2003 Mission 91

Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter (MRO) 94

Smarter Robots to the Red Planet 96

Mars Sample Return Mission (MSRM) 101

First Human-Crewed Expedition to Mars 102

^ 5 Searching for Life Elsewhere in the Solar System 104

Europa 105

Some Interesting Facts about Europa 105

Titan 109

Some Interesting Facts about Titan 111

Huygens Spacecraft 115

Some Interesting Facts about Enceladus 117

Exploring Small Bodies in the Solar System 117

Extraterrestrial Contamination:

War of the Microbiological Worlds 121

Quarantine Protocols 122

Planetary Quarantine Program 123

Apollo Project Missions to the Moon 126 Apollo 11—The First Visit by Humans to Another World 128

Preventing Back Contamination 132

Genesis Solar Wind Sample Return Mission 134

Orbiting Quarantine Facility 136

Contamination Issues in Exploring Mars 137

Bioclean Room 138

Protecting Europa from Forward Contamination 140

^ 7 Habitable Worlds around Distant Stars 142

Transit (Planetary) 147

Infrared Astronomy 150

Summary of Extrasolar Planet Hunting Techniques 151

Space Interferometry Mission 152

Biosignatures of Living Worlds 154

^ 8 Search for Extraterrestrial Intelligence (SETI) 156

Discovery of the Pulsar 158

Radio Astronomy 162

Project Ozma 162

Water Hole 163

Green Bank Telescope 164

Project Cyclops 164

Drake Equation 166

Fermi Paradox—"Where Are They?" 171

Ancient Astronaut Theory 172

Laboratory Hypothesis 173 Some Speculations about the Nature of Extraterrestrial Civilizations 173

^ 9 Messages to the Stars: Arecibo Message,

Pioneer Plaques, Voyager Records 178

Arecibo Interstellar Message 178

Arecibo Observatory 179

What Do You Say to a Little Green Man? 184 Interstellar Journeys of the Pioneer 10 and 11 Spacecraft 186

Voyager Interstellar Mission (VIM) 191

10 Spreading Life Around:

Designing Interstellar Probes and Starships 196

Lunar Bases and Settlements 197

Mars Outpost and Surface Base Concepts 202

Planetary Engineering 204

Large Space Settlements—Hallmark of a SolarSystem Civilization 208 Androcells Everywhere! 210 Dyson Sphere 212 The Starship 214 Designing an Interstellar Probe 217 The Theory and Operation of Self-Replicating Systems 220 Extraterrestrial Impact of Self-Replicating Systems 225 Control of Self-Replicating Systems 229

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