Massmi Sistemi Del Mondo tolemaico e copernicano

Troponendo indeterminatamentc le ragiorn Tihfifiche, t NaturaS tanto per tuna, quanto per l'altra parte.


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The title page of the Dialogue, published in Florence in 1632. "Advancing without conclusion the philosophical and natural arguments, equally for the one part as for the other" (the text above the seal with the fishes). (© akg-images)

Sister Maria Celeste, Galileo's daughter. Her religious name was probably chosen by her to reflect Galileo's work: Celeste means "heavenly". (© Welcome Library, London)

This was the heroic 19th century depiction of the collaboration between the aged Galileo and Vincenzio Viviani, his last disciple. (Tito Lessi). (© Photographic Archive, Institute and Museum of the History of Science - Florence)

Galileo's compass. (© Photographic Archive, Institute and Museum of the History of Science - Florence)

Galileo before the Inquisition. A coloured lithograph of 1865, from the drawing by Albert Chereau. (© akg-images)

Ptolemy's notion of the world from a copperplate engraving circa 1500. The ring of fire is not the Sun, but indicates the earthly elements' place below the Moon. (© akg-images)

Padua - Galileo's observation tower. (© akg-images)

Venice, a busy seafaring city. In the background is the Campanile (Rudolf von Alt). (© akg-images)

The Florence of the Medicis. Copperplate engraving from around 1490 (Francesco Rosselli). (© akg-images)

"Nor Further to Hold, Teach, or Defend It in Any Way Whatsoever" 161

no matter what. His friends in Rome realised that Galileo's hesitation might be used as yet another indictment against him - a sort of "contempt of court" - and urged him to try to begin the journey.

There is no doubt that Galileo did his best to get out of going. But his illness was real enough. In one final attempt he summoned three doctors and got them to write a certificate. This was too much for Urban who stated that: "His Holiness and the Sacred Congregation cannot and absolutely must not tolerate subterfuges of this sort."89

This was followed by the definitive order: if Galileo would not come voluntarily, he would be brought to Rome in chains.

On 15 January the old man sat down to write his will. It was brief, he bequeathed most of his goods to his son Vincenzio. After that he was ready for his final journey to Rome.

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