Figure 1.2 Chromosomes and karyotypes. Human chromosome complement (karyotype) for a human female (using G-banding). Image provided by Dr Ros Hastings, UKNEQAS for Clinical Cytogenetics, Oxford. The karyotype can be shown in an ordered diagrammatic form as an ideogram with chromosome bands numbered according to position on the short (p) or long (q) arm of the chromosome. Where the arms are of equal length the chromosome is said to be metacentric, where unequal, submetacentric. For chromosomes 13, 14, 15, 21, and 22 the p arm is very short, and these chromosomes are said to be acrocentric. Ideogram of karyotype and details of chromosome 11 prepared with permission using screen shots from the Ensembl Genome Browser (http://Jul2008.archive.ensembl.org/Homo_sapiens/mapview?chr=11).

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