Applications of Hardy Weinberg

• Apply Hardy-Weinberg to estimate the frequency of an observed genotype in a forensic DNA typing case.

• The x2 test gauges whether observed and expected differ more than expected by chance.

• Assume Hardy-Weinberg to compare two genetic models.

In the previous two sections we established the Hardy-Weinberg expectations for genotype frequencies. In this section we will examine three ways that expected genotype frequencies are employed in practice. The goal of this section is to become familiar with realistic applications as well as hypothesis tests that compare observed and Hardy-Weinberg expected genotype frequencies. In this process we will also look at a specific method to account for sampling error (see Appendix).

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