For an intriguing account of the role of chance in everyday affairs, see:
Mlodinow L. 2008. The Drunkard's Walk: How Randomness Rules Our Lives. Pantheon Books, New York, NY.
For more mathematical detail on Markov chains and the diffusion equation, see:
Ewens WJ. 2004. Mathematical Population Genetics. I. Theoretical Introduction, 2nd edn. Springer-Verlag, New York.
To learn more about the diffusion equation, its assumptions, and how processes such as mutation, migration, and natural selection can be combined with genetic drift, consult:
Roughgarden J. 1996. Theory of Population Genetics and Evolutionary Ecology: an Introduction. Prentice Hall, Upper Saddle River, NJ. Rice SH. 2004. Evolutionary Theory: Mathematical and Conceptual Foundations. Sinauer Associates, Sunder-land, MA.
For further information on methods used to estimate the effective population size, see:
Caballero A. 1994. Developments in the prediction of effective population size. Heredity 73: 657-79.
More extensive background on coalescence theory along with many examples and a comprehensive list of references can be found in:
Hein J, Schierup MH, and Wiuf C. 2005. Gene Genealogies, Variation and Evolution. Oxford University Press, New York.
For a discussion of the coalescent effective population size, see:
Sjödin P, Kaj I, Krone S, Lascoux M, and Nordborg M. 2005. On the meaning and existence of an effective population size. Genetics 169: 1061-70.
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