4 Number of alleles per population distribution of the model which assumes an infinite number of populations. Another difference is that the fly populations showed more rapid accumulation of fixation and loss compared to the model predictions. Even though the fly populations were founded with eight males and eight females every generation, perhaps not all individuals contributed to reproduction, making the effective population size smaller than it seemed. We will explore why the populations might have behaved as though they were smaller than 16 individuals in the next section of the chapter.

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