Figure 8.12 Rates of nucleotide change in the NS gene that codes for "nonstructural" proteins based on 11 human influenza A virus samples isolated between 1933 and 1985. The number of years since isolation and DNA sequence divergence from an inferred common ancestor are positively correlated. The pattern of increasing substitutions as time since divergence increases is expected under the molecular clock hypothesis. The observed rate of substitution was approximately 1.9 x 10-3 substitutions per nucleotide site per year, a very high rate compared to most genes in eukaryotes. The line is a least-squares fit. Data from Buonagurio et al. (1986).

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