two alleles (Table 2.4). First we need to estimate the frequency of the M allele, using the notation that the estimated frequency of M is p and the frequency of N is q. Note that the "hat" superscripts indicate that these are allele-frequency estimates (see Chapter 1). The total number of alleles is 2N given a sample of N diploid individuals. We can then count up all of the alleles of one type to estimate the frequency of that allele.

2 x Frequency(MM) + frequency(MN)


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